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B. F. KELLGY. AHttuciui 


VOL. n. NO. 1. 





The Artist Penman. 


trtisl peiimun. Has the full force of 

this italicised woid ivached oui- thoughts, 

as we eucounter it again and again, on 

the familiar face of oar JoURNAii ? We 

are ajjt to fliur over the little adjective, 

and liuger jipon^^tlie moie^ pretentious 

mmn, wlilch soiue of us h'iive so ofteu ap- 

peiided to our own c-irefiilly tlourished 

aud elaborately designed uames. We 

would not, I fear, lie very indignant if Mr. 

Ames should change the title of his 

paper and cull it merely the Penman's 

Journal. We should miss the elegaut ad- 
jective very little, and if our attention 

were especially dii-ected to its mission, 1 

thiuk we would say, "Oh, it's a very small 

matter, which doesn't concern me in the 

least. ' What's in a name, auy way V " 
But stop a moment. Put your hand 

over tlie great uouu "Penmau," aud luok 

at its companion. Picture to yourself all 

the beautiful and good things which your 
memory aud your fflstbetic 
couuect with the word "artist." Sumi 
. up all those vague and general, but i beautiful, conceptions, which I I ^fteu questioned why, 
defy any cultivated man to evade when 
he takes this word thoughtfully upon his 
lips. Then uncover the bidden uoun, aud 
while you detract not out iota from its sig- 
nificance, connect with it the ideoa which 
you have gained from the study of its 
adjective. Does oot the richness of mean- 
ing in that beautiful title " Artist Penmau" 
come almost exclusively from the vei-y 
word which you would have ignored ? Mr. 
Ames, it seems to me, in u diplomatic 
sense, executed one of his exqiusite pen- 
strokes, iu the stroke of policy which led 
him to call hia new publication the Pen- 
man's .■Utr Joubnal, instead of "Journal 
of Penmanship," or some other modifica- 
tion of the title. There is a. dignity, 
a richness, a completeness in the words 
which attract one's appreciative faculties 
at the outset. The inspired conHoiousness of 
the soul craves just such recognition. 
Every person of ordinary ability is a genius 
io embryo. He has the same longings, the 
same emotions, the same spiritualized per- 
ceptions which make the man a poet, a 
a painter, a musician, a philosopher, a 
statesman. The only difference between 
him aud the idols of the world'a wonder 

and adoration, lies in his inability to ex- 
press those emotions of soul by which he 
is akin to all humanity. Many a noble 
spirit has tortured itself into imbecility by 
vain endeavors to extract from its inmost 
depths the glories and the asjiiratious 
there concealed. Genius is simi-ly the 
faculty of espression. If it were other- 
wise, aud the souls of men bad no share in 
its inspirations, how very soou would the 
loftiest kings of art go beggared to their 
graves. What response would there be to 
the magic of art ? Ouly those few ungels 
among men could sympathize with one 
another, and even they, if there were uu 
affinity of genius, could extend their appre- 
ciation ouly to works which were kindred 
th their own. 

Genius is a pulse-beat of the universal 
human btart, and whatever is beautiful, 
aud good, and true, finds grateful recogni- 
tion and acceptance there. 

In a previous article I have attempted to 
show the true dignity and loftiuess of the 
penman's art. In this sketch I shall try 
to present some of the beautiful aud almost 
e'-:o*'oi:. '. i^fluoDoe* which it possesses and 

'. Mr. Wade's writing 
sightly but illegible to 

nbling into 

l!' J were asked to define ar 
word, I sliouid call it hmynony. 
tion of genius ever escaped cru 
forgotten dust that did not ha 
■tfi parts. No technicality can restrict art. 
It is unbounded. A Praxiteles iu snow 
or butter may be as artistic as a Praxi- 
teles in marble. The semblance of a timid 
favor may be as perfect and unapproach- 
ably beautiful as that of the grandest 
Grecian god. Art finds its expression as 
fully aud completely in penmanship, as it 
does maoulptuie. If art is Uarmouy, what 
can be more harmonious than the flowing 
symmetry of a calligraphical style ? The 
eye must ever sparkle over such marvels 
of grace and skdl as emanate from the pens 
masters to-day. I have 
tb all its beauty 
aud popularity, penmanship has not taken 
a higher rank among the fine arts. I trust 
that I shall not be obliged to wait long for 
my reply. Even now it is gaining upon 
the good will of men. Instead of classing 
it altogether among the good old practic- 
alities of forefather days, the age is be- 
gmning to conceive a muie exalted respect 
aud a truer admiration for this infant art. 
May it increase in character aud reputa- 
tion, as the years wax riper, until the 
Artist Penman shall become one of our 
demi-gods, aud stand among the laureled 

Senator Wade's Pemuanship. 

The late ex-Senator Benjamin F. Wade, 
of Ohio, resided iu Jefferson, the county 
seat of Ashtabula County, and was con- 
temporaneous with P. R. Spencer. Mr. 
Wade was a penmau of a type quite dif- 
ferent from Mr. Spencer, as the foUowing 
story, related of the former by the latter, 
will illustrate. 

Judge Riifus P. Kiiuney, now of Cleve- 
land, was for several years associated with 
Mr. Wade in the practice of law. Mr. 

o » I -ui , , bringing with him his two young so 

Ranney wrote legibly and neaUy. on which addressing Mr. S. said: "Sincela 

be prided himsel 
was not only ui 
such a degree as t 

time and auuoyance in attempting to read 
it. Judge R.. having one day lost his 
patience over a particularly bad lot of 
Wade's manuscript, called that gentleman 
to account and severely censured him for 
the trouble be caused. 

Wade received the reprimand with due 
meekness, and then said to Judge Ban- 
ney, "If you will set me a copy I will see 
if I can't mend my hand." Accordingly 
Ranney wrote a copy and Wade seated 
himself to his task. After a time Ranney 
came around to see how Wade was getting 
along. Casting hia critical eye over Wade's 
work he said that if Wade would write 
like that they could rend it well enough. 
Looking down the page he saw that Wade 
bad departed from the matter of the copy, 
aud at ouctf said to him that he luid mis- 
spelled Iialf his words. Said Wade in re- 
ply, "That is what comes of writing 
legibly— \et me write my own way aud I 
cpell as well as anybody." 

Mr. Wade's early education was obtained, 
so far as books were concerned, by study- 
ing nights by the hght of a large open 
fire iu a log cabin, after a hard day's toil 
iu clearing away the heavy forests of 
Northern Ohio, of which he was one of the 
pioneers. This was also true of P R 

The early circumstances and surround- 
ings of these two men were much the 
eame, but they were widely diflferent in 
texture and organization. 

Mr. Wade was distinguished for rigid 
strength and force of character, coupled 
with great honesty of puipuse that often 
took rough forms of expression. 

Mr. Spencer was moulded- more ex- 
quisitely and of finer material. His nature 
was keenly susceptible to the impressions 
and inspirations o£ the beautiful which 
he drank iu among the forests, along the 
streams aud by the shores of Lake Erie 
from boyhood up. Hia physical organiza- 
tion combined dehcaey and strength with 
the finest ond most graceful action; he 
would have made a splendid athlete. He 
could throw a smooth thin oval stone out 
over the watera of Lake Erie an incredible 
distance, giving to its Hue of motion 
through the air curves of marvelous grace. 
Doubtless Mr. Spencer's achievements 
iu the art of writing were due as much to 
bis physical organization as to hia mental 

Mr. Wade had an appreciation of the 
beautiful in writing, though unable to 
produce it. 

He would fiequently drop into Mr. 
Spencer's office and seating himself by bis 
side spend some time iu admiring the 
writing which Mr. S. would produce. 

Mr. Wade was left-handed, but used bis 
right hand for writing, which may account 
partly for his bad penmanship. 

Mr. Wade was somewhat noted for diy 
humor. It cropped out 
hen he walked into Mr. Speui 

busy lo instruct these young gentlemen in 
penmanship myself, I will ask you to do 
me the favor to take them in charge." 

On another occasion, Mr. Wade speak- 
ing seriously of the education of hia sons 
aud of his own lack of early educational 
advantages, said that he had sufi'ered so 
much on account of his bad handwriting 
that he intended that his sons should 
learn to write if they learned nothing 

Mr. Spencer gave little attention to the 
ornamental branches of penmanship, but 
occasionally flourished an eagle, swan, pen, 
or something of that kind. 

Mr. Wade took a droll fancy for some 
of these flourishes, carried them to hia 
office, and after a whUe brought back a 
quantity of his own ornamental work in 
exchange." Needless to say that "they 
were fearfully aud wonderfully made." 
Mr. Wade's artistic productions adorned 
the walls for some time and afforded much 

Blunders in Learning to Write. 

There is no greater error committed by 
teachers of penmanship than carelessnesa 
in selecting writing materials. That the 
eflorta of many a bard-working teacher 
have proved futile and worse than a failure 
by an oversight iu this, the basis and foun- 
dation of a good hand-writing, is a palpable 
fact iu the observation of every teacher of 
penmanship of any experience. That 
tbeir efforts should be paralyzed in many 
cases through lack of experience is excusa- 
ble ; but what shall we say of the teacher 
who ignores materials altogether and pro- 
claioia to the world with an arrogant swag- 
ger that he can write well with any pen and 
any paper, and can teach his pupils to do 
the eame in twelve short lessons with his 
system, which he says is as much ahead of 
the Spencerian, or any other standard sys- 
tem, as day is ahead of night. Now, ex- 
perience has (aught us that whatever waa 
worth doing at all is worth doing well. 
Were a builder to tell us that poor mate- 
rials were as good as the best, we would 
consider him an arrant humbug, if not a 
knave, and would be very careful how we 
employed him to construct anything iu 
that line. And upon the same principle 
ought we not to look with suspicion upon 
any impostor who claims to accomplish im- 
possibilities in this all important branch of 

Skilful Penmanship Practically Applied 
to Business. 
By the introduction of the various photo- 
graphic methods of rL-production of pea- 
drawings, the skilful pen artist has gained a 
widely extended field of labor. His ch-awiags 
are at cnce transferred, by photo-engraving, 
to rebef plateu for common printing, or to 
stone for hthography. Amoog the most noted 
and successful workers in this hue is D. T. 
Ames, artist penman, 205 Broadway. We have 
seen mauy things roproduced from his pen 
work that were surprising exhibitions of accu- 
racy aud good taste, among which are letter 
and bill headings, businetia certificates, checks, 
drafts, <&c.,manyuf which latter actually rival, 
in accuracy and elegance, steel eugravings, 
while being upon rehef plates their advantage 
for couvenience and cont of printing is very 
great,— .^77ic-n«ift Maclaniat. 


'lie SCt;i>PTOR BOY. 

bmod atiod ttia aciilptor boj. 

In bwvan'a own Uabt Uia stn] 
B« bid ttagbt tbat ftagvl v 

Some "Saggestive" Snggestions. 

I regret tlmt I am D<)t oble to preeent 
the article I ilesigned for this number, 
other presHiDg duliea having Heparated me 
from the material inctispensable to its pro- 

Id itfl placo I propose to make some 
suggestion! brought to my mind bj the pe- 
rusal of variouB artlclca in tlie Joubnal. 

In commoQ with other», the reading of 
these articles has brought to miud poiDts 
not discusned or not thought of by the 
writer. For instauce, the article in the 
February number '* Hinta to the Teacher 
of Writing," which, I preflunie, sug- 
gentcd th<! one in thu March JodrnaI', 
"Traveling Penmen," has brought to 
my notrco some things I think may he 
worth mentioning for the benefit of ^.he 
younger members of the profession. 

From the tenor of both articles it might 
be inferred that the "Traveling Penman" 
having concluded his lessons, with credit 
to himself and profit to liis patrons, was 

" Tg fold up hU tent like ttao Arabs, 
And at sllonttr ileal avit-y,- 

never again to reappear in the immediate 
neighborhood, depending on his " good 
clothes, pleasing manner, and liberal ad- 
vertising" for his success on his first and 
only visit. 

While a suitable dress, pleasing manner 
and liberal method of advertimug are all 
aids to success, we do not quite accept 
thoir potency, or agree that they are any 
more indicative of true merit then of ras- 
cality. A case in point comes from an 
Eastern paper. 

" He was n gi^ntlemanly appearinrf man, 
who, by his smooth speech (ind pleitsiii'/ 
vianner, succeeded in organisiuK quite a 
oreditable writing school. Obtaining 
from papils advanced pay, opening ac- 
counts with several printing establish- 
meuta, he suddenly disappeared from the 
city, apparently forgetting alike to keep 
his ooutracttt with liin pupils and to pay 
bis rout and advertising bills. " 

It seems to me tliat if a certain number 
of towns and cities were revisited, from 
time to time, so that a really good teacher 
might estAblisli himself as an man 
ns well as good teacher, iudi'pendent of 
the giiod clothes and liberal advertising. 
not only could much more efTective work 
be done, but traveling teachers of writing 
could establish themselves on a much 
more satisfactory basis. 

I think now that as Commercial Colleges 
of good repute aro established at all busi- 
ness centers, to which are drawn young 
men from the surrounding country, villa- 
ges, Hud smaller cities, it would be a wise 
policy for them to encourage such travel- 
ing peumen us they may have confidence 
in to visit periodically such villages and 
cities once, twice or three times a yeor, ac- 
cording to the size of the place and interest 
tiken. giving a series of lessons each visit. 
The advantages are, that many persons 
would send their children did they know 
the instruction commenced could be con- 
tinned. The teacher feels his future suc- 
oeea will depeud on present efforts ; soon 
be becomes ideutifled with the people. 
and his visits are looked forward to with 
pleasure by the children ; instead of 
floating over the great sea of humanity ua 
ft waif whom nobody owns and for whom 
nobody cares, he is soou looked up to with 
respect and confidence, both in his profes- 
Biou and as a man, and this fact alone 

There 8 

each other g 

may carry hit 

gives him better thonghtfi of himself and 
an iucreasfd watchfutne^ mt to lose the 
good will of those that have given him 
their support. The Commercial College is 
benefitted, because )iit< iustructions will 
develop some latent talent that wilt not be 
satisfied with the limited amount of com- 
mercial instractioD likely lo be gained in a 
writing class. 

This brings me to another point sug- 
gested by Articles in the Jodhnal in rela- 
tion to a National Business College Con- 
vention, which, I judge, is to include all 
teachers of book-keeping and writing in 
good repute. 

8 to be a luck of cohesion, 
d a proper appreciation of 
long i)erKou8 of these classes, 
drifts aliout as wind or tide 
I. A convention at any given 
Id not bringtogefhera tithe of the 
d file of the profession, nevt-rtbe- 
less I endorse all that bos been said in fa- 
vor of it, because, if held yearly at differ- 
ent points in time,a large number could be 
brought within its influence. In con- 
nection with this convention I would like 
to suggest another Ihiug which it seems 
might reacli and interest every penman in 
the land. In my position as a "traveler" I 
am eligible, and am u member of the 
" Commercial Traveler's Association," 
which baa brought about for commen-ial 
travelers just what I should like to see 
done for traveling penmen. The Com- 
mercial Traveler'sAssociatinn numbers now 
some two thousand, five hundred mem- 
Its object, briefly stated, besides a source 
of more general acquaintance and mutual 
protection, is hfe insurance. Two dollars 
is collected of each member as an advance 
assessment, and at the death of any mem- 
ber ao assessment of two dollars is ordered 
as an advance assessment for the next 
death, 80 that nearly SJ,000 is now real- 
ized by the families of deceased members. 
To organize such a society, and keep it 
running with such u scattered membership, 
is not OS difficult as might at first appear. 
I would make the dues so small as not to 
tai too severely the most slender income. 
There have been within the circle of the 
acquaintance of most of us, mem- 
bjrs of the profession who have gone to 
their last rest wrapped in the mantle of 
poverty, not from any fault of tbeir own 
that reflects upon their habits or their 
honesty, to whose families a few hundred 
dollars would be little less than a god- 

I do not think that the probable objec- 
tion that such an organization would go to 
pieces after a few assessments any objec- 
tion if true ; for it is a kind of lottery in 
which all fcould afford to draw blanks and 
cherieh the memory of those who drew 
cash prizes without envy. If five hundred 
could be found willing to pay $1 each 
at each death, or one thousand to pay 
50 cents each it would give 8500 to 
the family of the deceased member. 
This would not be much to the very few 
millionaires in the profession, but to the 
bulk of the membership it would be a 
most welcome contribution. I write these 
suggestions for the consideration of the 
readers of the Journal. The success and 
great amount of good accomplished by an 
organization such as I have outlined above 
has induced me to suggest the formation 
of one for the benefit of teachers of book- 
keeping and writinp. 

The fact that there is already estattliahed 
on a good foundation a paper (The Pen- 
men's Art Journal) that could be the organ 
of communication between the society and 
its members is another point towards its 
cou.summation. And still another reason 
is that nearly all professions are forming 
similar societies from which the itinerant 
teacher of writing or book-keeping is ex- 

Since then as there is no society or or- 
ganization for mutual aid or protection we 
can enter as a class, let us form one of our 

In the foregoing articles Mr. Shattuck 
touches upon two subjects, which, for a 
long time, have been near to our heart.viz. : 
a penman's convention and a mutual ben- 
efit, life insurance, assnciation. 

We hope to see, and shall spare no effort 
npon our part, to have both become ac- 
complished facts at the earliest practical 
date. It was our purjjose to enlarge upon 
those subjects in the present number, but 
so many leugthy communications concern- 
ing the proposed convention have been re- 
ceived that we are necessarily abridged for 
the present. — Ed. 

Business College Conventloh. 

Great Western Business College, | 
Omaha, March 20, 1878. f 
Prof. D. r. Ames : 

Dear Sir— I notice a very able and en- 
thusiastic communication from the pen of 
" L. L. Sprague" in reference to a pen- 
man's " Convention." I am also favorable 
to this project, and am confident that it 
would result in much good to the profes- 
sion in general and its members in particu- 
lar, Fraternization has proved beneficial 
to the minister, the physician, the artisan 
and laborer, and, I believe, would prove 
alike profitable to the pen artist. These 
associations will have a tendency to dimin- 
ish egotism, selfishness and jealousy, while 
they will increase sympathy and liberality. 
It will cause us to labor for the good of all, 
and feel how insignificant one is, isolated 
from his fellows. 

Penmen in gi'ueral are credited with 
being egotistic and jealous, which I beUeve 
to be true to a certain extent. This ia all 
wrong, and would in a great degree be 
overcome by coalition and fraternization. 

Penmen and Business College professors 
seem to harbor the fallacious idea that 
those engaged in the same work are natu- 
ral enemies, and tbat, in order to thrive, a 
constant warfare must be carried on by 
way of berating ability, vilifying character, 
and criticising work. 

There should be no conflict between 
peumen, nor between business colleges ; 
the laud is broad enough, and there is a 
good demand for able penmen and suc- 
cessful teachers. We are apt not to feel 
spiteful if a similar institution should start 
within a few hundred miles, nor feel ag- 
grieved if during our State Fair some othei' 
institution should come to compete for 
premiums. We ought to be a little greedy 
and stake out a large territory, and feel 
that our rights are encroached upon if a 
competitor comes within its bounds. 

" Fair and legitimate opposition is the 
life of trade," whether in teaching or else- 
where. Our business requires argument 
and illustration to convince the people that 
we are teaching the branches that are 
most useful. Not long since a well-known 
and efficient penman requested of me an 
endorsement of his ability and character. 
I sent him an unprejudiced and honest 
testimonial, setting forth what I knew to 
be the truth. This so surprised the recipi- 
ent that he wrote an acknowledgment, 
stating "that my endorsement was so 
warm and free from jealousy, that he must 
say T had departed from the general rule, 
for penmen were so jealous of each other 
that such a manifestation of brotherly feel- 
ing was indeed a surprise." 

I had long felt that this was so, but was 
loth to proclaim it, for fear it might be a 
misconception, but when the same idea 
was expressed as a fact by an old veteran 
it surely must have some foundation. 

Now I claiiu that a convention will do 
away with these petty jealousies and ill- 
feelings, when it is found that "Unity is 
strength," and that we are all dependent 
npon each other. Every teacher has a way 
peculiar to himself to explain and illus- 
trate an idea, and perhaps original. It is 
not expected that all will be strikingly 
original in all the various branches taught 
in the commercial school. 

Originality generally arises from a thor- 
ough knowledge acquired by deep research 
and long experience. In teaching we often 

find that we can improve upon the 
methods of an author. We are not original 
on all subjects, but may be ou some one. 
The convention will be a make-up of a di- 
versified originality, which will there be 
veutilated, and the country at large will 
reap the reward. Each member will go 
home and tell his class about bow A. did 
this and C. did that, and you know il is au- 
thentic for it was endorsed by the couven- 

We muot evidently become dissatisfied 
with a principle before seeking to improve 
it, and in the course of an improvement we 
are sometimes led to the discovery of an 
entirely new idea which cannot be made 
to ai>similate with the old ; we then find 
that we shall have to abandon the project 
or become an author. The progress uf 
civilization is marked by these little epi- 
sodes in the hv^s of iudividuals, and tiie 
world's history is a record of tht) facts. The 
arts and sciences owe tueir development to 
them, and the natural dispositiou of man- 
kind to pry into tlie secrets of nature and 
unfold her principles and laws. 

I only apprehend one difficulty in cairy- 
ing out this project, and that is the neces- 
sary expense. The place of meeting will 
have agreat deal to do in lightening or in- 
creasing said expense. We are all cogni- 
zant of one fact, viz., that the majority of 
those engaged in the business are not mil- 
lionaires : in fact have to study more or 
less economy, and deny themselves many 
pleasures and luxuries. As yet the conven- 
tion could not be considered in any other 
light than a luxury — at least not a neces- 
sity. Distance and expense will be a great 
objection. One of the grand objects in 
view in choosing the place will be to ac- 
commodate as many as possible, and in 
order to do that we must choose the center 
of some established boundary. The Pacific 
slope cannot be reckoned within this cir- 
cuit. In glancing at the map, and know- 
ing those States which contain many pen- 
men, we find Iowa ou the west, New York 
(au approximation) on the east, Wisconsin 
on the north, and Louisiana on the south. 
The most accesjible centre of this radius 
would be either Cincinnati, Ohio, or 
Frankfort, Kentucky. This would also ac- 
commodate our neighbor in the "Domin- 
ion." I am fearful we will all be so selfish 
and exactiug as to want it at our own 
doors, in which case it would destroy the 
possibility of ever convening. This is no 
new theory, but was talked of when Cono- 
ver published the " Western Fenman" at 
Coldwater, Michigan, but we now have the 
Art Journal which reaches all the princi- 
pal penmen of the country to champion 
our cause and have access to its columns 
to talk the matter up with one another, 
and if we do not succeed I have over esti- 
mated the energy and practicability of the 

In regard to the temporary organization ■ 
we can proceed as if in au assembly, by 
nominating some one for president. Sec, 
through the columns of the Jodiujal. After 
the officers are elected it will be in order 
to settle the place of meeting. The time 
of course to suit all would be July or Au- 

Some one must make a bold strike for 
liberty, and perhaps die ignomiuiously as a 
martyr. 1 hereby put in nomination the 
name of S. S. Packard, of New York, for 
temporary president, and Daniel T. Ames 
for secretary of the contemplated Pen- 
man's Convention. AU who are in favor of 
this choice will make it known through the 
columns of the Journal, or to expedite 
matters, to me personally by letter. I de- 
sire that every penmen and Business Col- 
lege professor shall express his approval or 
disapproval of my course and choice of 

" Procrastination is the thief of time." 
Wake up, gentlemen, from yonr "Rip 
Van Winkle" nap ; it is time for action. 
Some would say, "be not loo hasty, give 
us time to think." I say act on impulse, 
first impressions are most lasting. One of 
the characteristics of Napoleon was im* 


puUe ; on this depended his saccess. 
Hoping that penmen, &c., will feel inter- 
ested in this matter, and resort to imme- 
diate action, 

I am, very respectfnlly, 

Oeorob R, Rathdun. 
Omaha, March 18. 1878. 

Colorado Academy and Business | 
OOLLSOK, Denver, Col., J- 

MarcU 16, 1878. ) 
Prof, D. T. Ames: 

The articles by Professors Packard nod 
Spragae, together with the editorial com- 
ments in the December aud March num- 
bers of tlie Art Journal, udvocatiuR a 
Business College Convention, have enlist- 
gd my attention, and the movement should, 
I believe, enlist the hearty co-operntion of 
every progressive aud broad minded teach- 
er of book-keeping and penmanship in 

I for one am cordially in favor of the 
idea, and will gladly render full share of 
pecuniary assiutauce for orgaoiziug and 
holding suoh a convention, and what ap- 
pears to me to be mostly wanted for per- 
fectiug the arrangements is earnest co-op- 
oratioD, backed by funds, to meet the 
usual expenses of such undertakings. 
In order to secure these two essential re- 
quirements I desire to offer the following 
suggestions, which, althoagh they may not 
be thought to be at all expedient, will 
perhaps bring out further comment and 
discussion : 

First, I would suggest that a circular 
letter be issued calling for a convention 
setting forth its objects, and the same sent 
to every teacher of book-keeping and pen- 
manship in the United States, whose name 
could be secured ; and second, that there 
Bliould be enclosed with the call a blank, 
tu be tilled up by the recipient, and which 
would be an agreement to attend the con- 
vention either in person or by proxy, aud 
also to contribute the eum of, say ten dol- 
lars, tor meeting ihe current expenses of 
holding the convention. 

In regard to the place of holding the 
conveution I would suggest that it be 
taken to the city which would offer the 
most liberal inducements, and in this con- 
nection I will add that should Denver, 
Colorado, be deemed a suitable point, I 
will propose to furnish a hall as fine as is 
found in almost any city, with seating ca- 
pacity for nine hundred free for as many 
days aud nights as may be wanted, aud, in 
addition thereto, will contribute the sum 
of one hundred dollars towards defraying 
the current expenses ; and further, I will 
see that delegates to the couveution shall 
have low excursion rates offered them. 

I might offer some argument in favor of 
Denver, but the proposition is not made 
with that object, and I would say with 
Professor Sprague, let the place be any- 
where, but, above all, let us have the con- 
In furtherance of what has been already 
said, aud to put the matter in a more sub- 
stantial form, I will propose to be one o\ 
ten who shall become personally responsi- 
ble for the cost of organizing or calling 
such a convention through printing and 
distributing the necessary documents pro- 
viding snch cost does not oxct-ed one hun- 
dred dollara, aud will nominate Prof. D. 
T. Ames as organizer, with power to issue 
a call and to make the best arrangements 
possible as to time and place for holding 
the Convention. 

All of which is cheerfully submitted for 
the consideration and criticism of the craft 
by, Yours most respectfully, 

SeXjDen R. Hopkins. 

Editor of Penman's Art Journal.- 

Sir — You havt- been kind enough to ask 
for the opinion of ihose who favor the hold- 
ing of a Penmen's aud Commercial Teach- 
ers' Convention. Since my brief suggestion 
on this subject in the February number of 
your paper, I have received a number of I 

personal communications asking my views 
and I have responded as I have bad the 
leisure, and I have been no less delighted 
than astonished to know how deep a hold 
the idea is taking of the very persons who 
are best fitted to make of such a meeting a 
real success. No doubt you are over- 
whelmed with communications on the sub- 
ject, and I have httle hope that yon will 
find space for the few hints which are 
herein submitted. 

In the first place, I am sure there has 
never been a time in the history of com- 
mercial education when a convention of 
the workers was more needed; never a 
lime when good results were so sure to flow 
from a comparison of views and methods- 
What is much needed by the individual 
teachers of our specialty is a personal ac- 
quaintance with each other, and such a 
knowledge of the ideas and processes iu 
vogue as can be gained only by actual con- 
tact one with the other. Of all people in 
the world teachers are most apt to work in 
worn grooves, nnd to grow narrow, exclu- 
sive, bigoted, and self-sufScient. And the 
reason is obvious, confined as they are to 
set, unvarying duties, holding communion 
only with books and the adolescent minds 
of those whose function it is to receive 
much and give little in return, the teacher, 
whether he would or not, becomes a sort 
of treadmill worker, and after a while gets 
into ruts that grow deeper and deeper as 
he becomes more earnest in his labors. 
Except in larger institutions employing 
corps of teachers, there is little or no op- 
portunity of knowing what others do, and 
the teacher is thrown, as it were, upon his 
inner consciousness for the spur to devel- 
opment, and in this regard no class of 

proper persons appointed to prepare theses 
and practical methods for the considera- 
tion of the body. This, of course, would 
involve a large amount of labor for some- 
body, and if it is to be done, not a mo- 
ment should be lost. The time or place of 
holding the convention should be settled 
without delay, and the proper committees 
set at work. As to the time and place, I may 
have my preferences, but I don't feel like 
urging them against any one's better con- 
victions. If the majority should prefer New 
York as the place, and the month of Au- 
gust as the time, I could not find one word 
to say against it. and if any other conclu- 
sion should prevail, I most gladly acqui- 
esce. I will only say that so far as room 
and incidental expenses are concerned, I 
should be most happy to relieve the con- 
vention if it is decided to be held in this 
city. There are also more potent argu- 
ments which I could present, but they will 
doubtless present themselves to all who in- 
cline to the enterprise. 

My main wish in the matter is that the 
convention will be held sometohere, and 
that I may have the happiness of being 

In order to crystalize the matter I pro- 
pose that Mr. Ames should at once prepare 
a circular covering such points as may 
seem to him likely to elicit the wishes of 
teachers, giving to each the privilege of 
voting upon the important questions in- 
volved : 

1. As to place and time of meeting, 

2. As to the order of exercises, 

3. As to the preliminary working com- 
mittees, and within a reasonable time let 
him embody the sentiment in a circular 
which shall be conclusive as to the call 

*— ^^S^o 


schools have suffered so much 
schools proper. These drawbacks to pro- 
gress in the right direction would be over- 
come by a freeand full intercommunication 
between the real workers. There have 
been conventions of more or less note, and 
more or lets achievement of good by the 
owners and managers of business colleges ; 
but the fault with all such comings toge- 
ther has been the tendency to discuss the 
financial phase of the subject, or the best 
means of bringing the enterprises to favor- 
able public notice. I don't say that no 
other subjects have been discussed, and I 
am free to say that through these conven- 
tions 1 vast amount of good has been accom- 
plished iu the way of education proper. 
But what is wanted now is not a convention 
of schools, but of teachers. We who are m 
the harness want to know just what others 
are doing in the way of imparting instruc- 
tion, leaving wholly out of view the process 
of " running colleges." This, in my opin- 
on should be the impetus and key-note of 
the convention. 

Teachers of penmanship, for example, 
should take with them their own best work 
if they choose, but more especially 
the work of the students whom they have 
tattghi, and the ideas which the work of 
teaching has wrought out in their brains. 
Whoever has valuable gifts of work or 
thought let him come and lay it upon the 
altar, that all may profit thereby. So of 
other branches of study— buok-keeping, 
arithmetic, commercial law, &c. Let us 
know the hust that is being done in this 
country to advance our important specialty. 

A convention, to cover these points, 
should continue, if possible, two weeks, and 
the time should be religiously devoted to 
the consideration of the best methods of 
teachiiui. But in order that it should have 
character audcohesiveuess the work should 
be carefully laid out in advance, and the 

I Yours truly, 

S. S. Packard. 

Bryant and Stratton School, j 
Boston, March 20, 1878. \ 
D. T. Ames, Esq. : 

Deab S1R--I notice in the last two num- 
bers of the JoURN.\L various propositions 
for a convention of teachers of penman- 
ship and book-keeping. Why should not 
such a convention be had during the com- 

of the project, and of the time and the 
place, that can and will attend, notify you 
of the fact and giv<?i their views on the sub- 
ject, not later than May 15, and that on 
the success of the affair being assured in 
point of numbers, you issue circulars 
of instruction to those who are going to 
attend, and they will be on hand all pre- 
pared for the fray, I know, 
Yours truly, 

Henby 0. Wright, 

J. B. Cundiff, Soule's Commercial Col- 
lege, New Orleans, C. E. Cady, of Cady, 
Willson & Walworth's Business College, 
New York, H. Russell of Joliet, 111., Busi- 
ness College, and many others have ex- 
pressed themselves as strongly in favor of 
the movement. A Penman's conventimiis 
now a fixed fad, \t only remains to deter- 
mine upon the time, place, and the details, 
for its consummation. In order to present 
the matter to the fraternity, in a tangible, 
ond practical form and to enable each 
member to have a fair and equal voice in 
deciding upon the preliminaries we pro- 
pose the following 


Let each person who deems himself 
eligible (from being either a teacher or 
author of writing or book-keeping) and 
who desires to take part in such conven- 
tion, at once, on the receipt of the present 
number of the Joitrnal, answer briefly by 
card or letter, addressed to the Journal, 
each of the following questions, viz : 

1. Will you attend the convention ? 

2. Where do you desire it to be held? 

3. When ? 

4. Name committee oa preliminaries, 
and order of exercises. 

Answers to the 
above questions, 
will determine fair- 
ly and impartially 
the place, time and 
plan for holding 
the convention, 
and aprosimately, 
the number that 
will attend, the re 
will be announced 
of the next number 

suit f which 
through the C( 


? I . 


uld like to 

enough of it, and I, for t 
see together the working men in our pro- 
fession. There must be among them some 
very e^oA looking chaps, as I am sure 
there ar" many deserving workers. 

Suppose you aud Packard, who repre- 
sent the great metropolis, call a meeting in 
New York during July or August. I think 
you would get plenty of responses. 


Wright's Business College, I 
Brooklyn. (E.D.), March 25, 1878. ( 
D. T. Ames, Esq. 

Dear Sir : — I am in favor of the pro- 
posed convention of business college 
teachers and penmen. Let us convene 
by all means ; I am anxious to see what 
kind of a menagerie we would make. I 
propose New York City the place, and 
Monday, August 5 the time. I name 
New York because I think the greater 
number wor.ld like to visit the Metroplis 
to make purcliases, to visit its sea-side 
r-^sorts, and to have a good time in general, 
besides it would not cost me much to 
attend. I also propose, sir, to make the 
thing a certainty, that you issue a sufficient 
number of circulars of invitation inviting 
those interested to meet in convention in 
your city, .Monday August 5, that the ex- 
pense of advertising, &c. be borne by the 
convention pro rata— that all those in favor 

of the Journal. Immediate, definite and 
authorized action can then be taken to 
carry into effect the wishes of the ma- 
jority, as thus expressed. 

We especially urge that there be no delay 
"n responding. We take it for granted, that 
wherever the convention may be held, part- 
ies will be found sufficiently interested to 
furnish, free of charge, a hall appropriate 
aud convenient for the meetings. Several 
such offers have been already made. We 
trust we shall be pardoned if we improve 
tlie present opportunity to give our an- 
swer, to the above questions with reasons 
therefor. 1. We will attend the con- 
vention at any time or place, favored by a 
majority, be it in San Francisco, Chicago, 
Portland, or elsewhere. While many rea- 
sons may be urged in favor of otiierplacea, 
it is our honest conviction, that New York 
will be found in many important respects 
the most favorable point for h<)lding the 
first meeting. It is most central for the 
Eastern and Middle states. Many, even 
most, teachers from the West and South de- 
sire to and do visit the metropohsfor busi- 
ness or pleasure during their vacation, such 
can take in the convention without increas- 
ing expense or loss of time. Prof. Packard 
offers the use of his large and splendid 
halls free. None more eligible or commod- 
ious can be found iu the country. Prof. 
WriKht names M.mdaj, August 5. as the 
time for the meeting, which seems to us, 
more favorable than June or any earlier 
period, as named by others. We would 
then name Packard's Hall as the place and 
Aug. 5, aa the time, most favorable for 
holding the first Penmen's convention, 
aud Prof. S. S. Packard and C. E, Oadv. 
of New York, H. C. Wright and C. 
Claghomof Brooklyn, aa o committee of 


uly fr( 

i led to i: 



edged ability, but from their adjai 
cation, and hence cmivenience, for prompt 
and efficient action. Under their direction 
o convention at New York could not fail 
of being a grand success. Those in favor 
say I, those to contrary, well! — let some- 
body else put that. 


PoblUbed Monthlj at «I.OO t 

doiDg macli to remo 
ceit. and to create i 
brotlierly feeling. 

jealoasj ant] con- 
more mataal and 

1 OolafBO t1« 00 taS OO' 10.1 OO' tl20 ( 


Wllllnmm k Pocknrd'n 
of AmnH* Oompcndlu 
olRbtooD mibBcrlbor* 
of WllllntDB k Pnrkar 

-operation ti corrMponrtoDle ai 

■KOD nendlnK ttarlr own and 
rlbcM, iDclonIng W. we will ma 
.no yror, »nd forward by «lar 
Bcopy of either of the follow! 
>r wltlcb are among tbo flnoet ej 
1 evrr piibllahed, viz.: 

! 38x40 Inoboa, retails for t^, 
« wo will forward a copy ol 
ilde. retails for f3.S0. 
a and $12, we will send a copy 
of Ornamental Penmanablp, 
o»n.l In Rllt will bo aent for 
(1 «18, price f 

I »I3, \ 

will t 

i6blp. I 

I dealgncd for The Prnman'h 
■ .TonBiTAL aboiild hereafter be addreaacd to the 
•a of pnbtlcatlnn, 305 Broadway, New York, 
be JoDBKAt will b«roafter be laaued promptly or. 
flral of Meh month. Matter deal gnrd forluaer- 

ould 1 



What is the Verdict? 

With the preseut number tlie Jodrnal 
ontera upon tlio second yearof ita existence. 
Its i-eoord for a yonr is made nnd is before 
its friends and putrouB. They are the 
Jun/ and now have the ca-ts. Their verdict 
will bo rendered in the giving or witbhohl- 
ing of their patronage, in the renewal of 
tlieir own and inducing otber siibacriptions. 
What shall it be, for or against ? Tbroiigb 
tbe oracles of Uurle Samnel's mail hags 
we already perceive many propitious omens, 
renewals, clubs (ominous, nt least, of lively 
timas). and compliments come ponriug in 
from all quarters. Although the subscrip- 
tion list has surpassed in numbers our ex- 
pectations, and is undoubtedly beyond 
that ever attamed by any othftr penman's 
paper, yet there are many, oven thousniids, 
who ought and would, with slight pergonal 
influence, become subscribers. Will not 
our friends please bear this in mind aud 
act acL'ordingly. If patrons have found 
the JopRNAL worth the price of ita sub- 
Roription during the pnst year, we can, with 
confidence, assure them that it will be 
d -iibly 80 for tbe year to come. We be- 
Uwo that there is no live teacher or ad- 
mirer of writing who, having received and 
read each number of the .TorRSAL. does not 
foel. not one, but many dolhirs richer in 
ideas, if not cash, than he otherwise would. 
It h)U) helped to bring the profession into 
greater harmony of thought and action. 

Character in Hand Writing. 

Several articles having appeared in tbe 
JoCTiNAi/ tonching thia subject, we thonubt 
proper to present onr views in that direc- 
tion. Upon thie, aa upon most other Rub- 
j'ectfl, there is a great diversity of opinion. 
We have known person.s who professed to 
be able to delineate tbe entire physical and 
mental characteristics of persuna by ex- 
amining their band writing, even to tel- 
ling their stature, complexion, tempei 
ment, color of eye.t and hair, whetl 
spare or corpulent, &c., &c., being equally 
discriminating regarding peculiar mental 
traita of character. This wc regard aa an 
absurd aud ridiculous extreme. 

Others confine their claims to judging 
of the mental characteristics of the writer, 
but even tt'is appears to us to be preca- 
rious nnd doubtful, and certainly is this 
the case of the large mass of persons, aucli 
aa school-children, aud persons who have 
not by any extendfd prat tice, acquired an 
liabitual and distinctive bund writing. 
From the writing of such persons nothing 
can be told regarding their cliaracter. In- 
deed, there is no charncter in it. If not 
so they would be liable to most sudden 
and radical transformalions of character. 
We have often observed instances where 
the writing of all of a numerous class of 
pupils, under the tuition of a sitilful in- 
inatructor, has changed from week to week, 
and almost from day to doy, so radically 
aa to be scarcely recognized, eveu by an 
expert, as being that of I he same persons. 
Again, let any lady or gentleman, who 
bus been in a position requiring very little 
or no practice in writing, be suddenly 
placed in one requiring rapid aud constant 
practice, how soon there will be a ver 
marked change in the entire appearand 
and character of their writing. And th. 
cuaiige will be modified not alone by the 
rapidity and extent of practice, but by 
the particular requirements for jieatoess 
and style of their rehpective positions. 
The policy clerk in an iusurance office or 
accountant whose pay and standing are 
rated quite as much by the style as speed 
in execution, will, ultimately, writ^ quite 
a diflferent and more accomplished hand 
than will the lawyer's clerk, whose stand- 
ing and compensation are quite indtpeud- 
ent of his style of writing. 

In the writing of adults, who have 
hands established by long practice, we 
find habitual and marked peculiarities, 
which may, and undoubtedly do, indicate, 
more or less, the character of the writer, 
and then, we doubt if it does, to so 
great an exteut, as is often eliiimed, for 
even ^uch persons write difl' rently under 
different modes and circnmstAncea, olteu 
indicating more a temporary condition of 
mind and exercise, than any peimaueut 
trait of character. 

Penmen's Convention. 

We invite the special attention of per- 
Eons interested in this matter to the nu- 
merons letters, together with the editorial 
I'omm'Dt'i, and suggestions upon another 
page, and solicit an early response to the 

Gaskell's Complete Compendium. 

We are indebted to the authur for a 
copy of this interesting and valualde work. 
It consists of fifteen copy slips, a large 
ornamental sheet, and a hand-book (or 
instruction. The .Mips are systemntically 
arranged, skilfully written, hud well adapt- 
ed to aid the learner in acquiring a good 
hand-writing either with or witliout the 
aid of a teacher. Published by G. A. 
Gaskell, Manchester. N. H. 

An Antograph Colnmn. 

We lesire to publish the autographs of 
as many prominent professional penmen 
as we can procure — and in order to lighten 
the expense of doing so, we propose to those 
who have good cuts to forward, by mail, 
duplicates to be used for that purpose. 
For those who have no cuts we will, on re- 
ceipt of autograph, have the same engrav- 
ed in the best manner possible and insert 
the same in the Jodrnal, and forward to 
tlipm a duplicate on their paying the sum 
of S1.50. The cuts furnished, to be ac- 
cepted, must not exceed aj inches in 
length, or the width of one colnmn in 
space in the Journal. 

Onr Rates for Advertising. 
It will be observed by reference to i 
terms for adverlising that the rates hi 
been advanced from ten to fifteen ce 
per line of eight words for a single int 
tiou, and proportionately for a longer pe- 
riod. Couaidering the present large circu 
lation of the Journal the advanced rates 
are very low. No advertisement will be 
serted for less than forty-five cents, payable 
in advance. 

Penmen's Supplies. 

We invite attention to our list of supphes, 
published in another column. We are 
prepared to fninfsh promptly, and at rea- 
sonable cost, all articles needed by pen- 
men. By ordering from us they will be 
sure of receiving articles of good quality, 
and especially India ink, of which much 
that is m\A is utterly worthless. 

Eead our Premium List. 
The premiums which we offer are alone 
worth all the money we ask from a sub- 
scriber for the Journal, while, to every 
person interest, d in, or who is an admirer 
of fine peiimansliip, the Journal will re- 
pay many times the price of its subscription. 

Penmen, and Olhers 

Throughout the country, are requested to 
forward for insertion in the Journal, items 
and thoughts of interest and value to its 
renders, and the profes.oion. 


We are disappointed, as undoubtedly 
our readers will be, in not being able to 
have the promised specimen letter from 
Professor Henry C. Spencer ready for the 
present number. Hope to give it in the 
next issue. 

Specimen Copies. 

We have printed a large number of ex- 
tra copies of the present number of the 
Journal, to be used as .specimen copies. 
To persons who are endeavoring to secure 
clubs, or have acquaintances who would 
probably be interested, we will mail extra 
copies on application. 

The Journal as a Premium. 

We will mail the Journal free for one 

year to any person sending us the names ol 

three subscribera and S3, and also send 

the Williams' specimen as a epecial pre- 

to all. 


Fine Works of Art. 
e have received from George Stinson 
&. Co.. Portland, Me., a series of splendid 
engravings aud chromos, entitled "Life's 
Morning." " Empty Sleeve," " C^ila Lilly" 

"Floral" Tbe designs are j whi 
striking, tbe engraving and printing su- i iug 
perb, and constitute pictures which wiU be \ Ohi 
highly priaed by all lovers of fine pic- | tim 
tures. 1 nip, 

o to press we receive a long 
and interesting rommunication relating to 
the convention from J. C. McCleuahan, 
Worthington, Ohio. He earnestly com- 
mends tbe convention, and makes a liberal 
ofl'er to furnish free, commodiooa rooms 
which he is now preparing for the open- 
' a business college, in Columbus, 
We regret to say that want of both 
d space forbids giving his commu- 
1 in full. 

A. F. K. Burwick. 111. Mr. "Wiesehahn's 
raffle came off according to announcement, 
on February 22. 

A. C. T.. Quinnimmmt, W. Va. Your wri- 
ting is gracefiU and easy; it lacks most in uni- 
formity. To question No. '2. we answer no. 

in an article under that head in another col- 

E. A. G.. Galvia, 111. "The Writing Teach- 
er" is no longer published. It was for many 
vears conduct«d by Prof. H. W. Ellsworth, of 
New York. 

A. D. B., Berlin, O. You have the basis for 
a good handwriting, letters are well foi-med, 
proportionate and well spaced. The primary 
fault is in its size. Write at least one-third 

lie proper proportii 
letters, and greater c 
upon which you i 
your writing. 

F. M. J.. Lenox, Iowa, Your writing is 
very creditable for one having no greater ad- 
vantages and practice. Your principal fault 
is the great disproportion between the capi- 
tals and small tetters. 

R. O. H., Philomoth. Oregon. Your writ- 
ing in many rpspects is good, but it lacks 
symmetry and uuiformity in spacing and 
height of iettcrs. Lessons in flourishing 
help to give facility and grace of movement, 
and in that respect is an aid to plain writing. 
We would advise you to practice for a while, 
carefully, after the copies of some standard 
system before teaching. 




have been forwarded for notice in the Jour- 
nal as their own. This is not only a gross 
fraud, but an imposition upon the Journal 
and its readers. We hereby give notice that 
hereafter on the receipt of satisfactory evi- 

) shall fully expose the 

leveral speci- 

dence of such fraud \ 

same through the columns of the"^ Journal. 

A. C. Smith, Burg-Hill, Ohio, incloses an 
eleyant specimen of plain writing. 

W. C. Fisher, North Lyndboro. incloses 
some very creditabl" card specimens. 

W. A. Chess, Brownsville, Mich. , incloses 
several specimens of cards written in an off- 
hand, easy style. 

E. L. Burnett. Ehnira. N. Y., sends two 
very handsomely flourished bird-s also a card 
design represented on the 7th page. 

M. M. Desmond DHvenport. Iowa, incloses 
several attractive Kpecimeus of cards flour 
isbed \vith colored inks. 

J. McBride, Chillicothe, 0.. writes an ele- 
gant letter in which be sends s 
ens of superb card writing. 
Stephen Howland, Cleveland, O.. incloses 
ral shpsof writing, which, for facility and 
o ,Ti ™«..„ „^. h&ve rarely seen 

W. L. Dean. Wyoming Commercial College, 
Kingston. Pa., has forwarded several desiras 
for flourishing, which are abke elegant in de- 
d masterly in execution. 

V. Hamilton, Poughkeepsie, N Y 
leof the niost elegantly \vritten let'- 
have received, in which he incloses 
Beveral card specimens which are models of 
taste and excellence. 

A W Dakm, Tully, N. Y.. .ends a well, 
written letter, m which he incloses a very 
creditable specimen of flourishing and draW- 
IS^.i.?; '."""''"'' ""^sllMt. considering 
that he is but seventeen years ot age, and hai 
not bad the aid ot a profession.,1 teacher. 

Mrs. C. A. Alhs Cook, Proprietor o( Alh's 
Commercial College, Eockford. Ill , forwards 
a package containing nine photographs im- 
pen.1 size, made from her pen.drawings and 

tT.7^c"sWn ,Y '5'^'™"' " ^'i^ d^grc' of ar- 
tistic skill m the design aud esecution of the 
"riginals, and fully mstain the enviable rcpu- 

itd by that lady, for execu- 

1 long E 
ng pen work of superior exceUiu. 
ook graduated from P. R, SpcDce 


F. A. Smith, penman, at 

rsity, KocheBt«r, N. Y., 

ritten letter eome supe 

and flourished cardu. 

the BofliDesf 
incloses in a 
•ior Fpecimei 



T. R. Williams, Penman at the Iowa City 
Oommercial College sendfi a letter written in 
elegaot stj-le. In grace, symmetry, and the 
correctneSB in forms of the letters, it is rarely 
exeeUed- He also incloses a very Bkilfiilly 
executed piece of flourishing. 

F. W. 
street. St. 

graphic medley of eight specimens of his pen- 
drawingn. The scenes represented are ■'Trial 
of Queen Catharine ," " Peterthe Great saved 
by his mother;" "Cromwell refusing the 
Crown of England;" "Cleopatra before Julius 
CtDsar;" "Joan of Arc in Prison;" "Last 
moments of Marj- Queen of Scotg ;" "Plot to 
poison Emperor Frederic II. frustrated by his 
daughter ;" '* Hudson receiving his com- 
mission from the Dutch East India Co," No 
one who has not seen Mr. Wiesehahn's pen 
drawing can begin to imagine the marvelous 
skill br- 1ms displayed in the execution of 
thus. vHi;. II,. .i)q>cnr faultless in spirit, 
acm . I I .[i, and dehcacy of exe- 


B. E. Kerr is teaching olasqes at Amador 
City, Cal. 

.r. p. Holcomb. Mallet Creek, O., is one of 
our live penmen. Hie letters are models in 
easy, graceful, and rapid business writing. 

The Daily Reginter, of Rockford, HI., gives 
a well-merited and complimentary notice of 
penmanship executed by H. C. Clark, who 
has recently become a partner in Mrs. Allis 
Cook's Commercial College at that pli 

R. J. Mrtgee. an accomplished penman and 
teacher, and one of the proprietors of the 
Toledo (O. ) Business College, hos recently 
entered into a life partnership with Miss Mag- 
gie Turner, of Wheeling, W. Va. Long live 
the/rm ; may it grow in pronperity. 

Horace Russ"U, 

Perfumed iok is now used for senti- 
mental notes. 

Soulouqne, formerly Emperor of Hayti, 
could not write his own name. 

The reason why figures can't lie is. that 
they are either running and moanfing np, 
or are in a standing account. 

It is said that just before Alpbouso 
took to himself a queen, one of his court- 
iers wanted to make Alph-a-bet that he 
waa A-B-Ccher of her heart. 

Miss Mary Anning discovered, in the 
lias limestone of Lyme Regis, a pen and 
ink which must have been embedded in 
the solid rock, ages before the advent of 
man upon the earth, and yet tliey were 
both in an excellent state of preservation 
and were proven to be the property of 
Loligo — a distant relative of the present 

A skilful penman of the 16th century 
presented to Queen Elizabeth a bit of 
paper of the size of a finger nail, on which 
be bad written the Ten Commandments, 
tlie Creed and the Lord's Prayer, together 
with the name and the date of presenta- 

The brave Abbe, confined in the Castle 
d'lf, an ancient fortress on an island in 
the harbor of Marseilles, wrote a book, 
with his own blood for ink, a pen made 

is reached when at the finale the pen 
catches in the paper and spatters the fair 

Two young Frenchmen, twin brothers, 
iu 1870, made the discovery uf a rich 
violet ink, but i^ere prevented bringing it 
into market from lack of funds. Many 
days they str-iggled with poverty, and 
one dark, bleak Saturday night, peuoilesa 
and friendless they were compelled to 
divulge the secret of its manufacture, as 
an offer of five francs was made them. 
This enabled them to start for the goal 
of prosperity, and in little more than two 
years they retired from business worth 
upwards of half a million dollars. 

The style of invitation cards is one of 
extreme simplicity. Monograms are dis- 
carded ; ouly plain script is fashionable. 
And this is true of visitiug cards. 

In Eogland the better the position of the 
people the more simple their cards. No 
coronet or crest ever appears on the cards 
of the nobility, gentlemen or ladies. A 
gentleman, entitled to the prefix of Right 
Honorable, or Honorable, never has it on 
his card. A glazed card is only fit for a 
care? without the r. 

In this country the population of a town 
can be determined by the style of cards 
In the large cities the plain- 
est kind of plain writing upon a plain 
white card is required. In towns of 1,000 

business man requires is legibility anrf ra- 
piditt/, and to these it is not undesirable 
to add bea'ily when it detracts nothmg 
from the other two. 

The simplest forms, too, — tbosti that are 
made most easily, — are the best and 
the handsomest. The tendency among 
the beet writers now-a-days is to make all 
the forms as simple as possible.aud waste 
no time on flourishes, or graceliues , in a 
busiuess hand writing. 

I am glad to see in the copy books evi- 
dence of a decided change in that respect, 
the letters being much more simple than 
formerly, and there is more system in their 
arrangement. The next few years will 
probably work still gieater changes iu the 
style of to-day. a. a. g. 

Practical Lessons in Writing. 

In the present lesson we complete the 
analysis of all the letters in the alphabet. 
In lesson No. 6 we shall consider some of 
the otiifr essentials to good writing, such 
as spacing, slope, bight, connections, 
movements, positions, &c., &c. In sub- 
sequent lessons we shall present some 
practical bints, with examples for practice 
in flourishing and ornamental and artistic 

attorney, and fm 
Attorney for New Yorl 

niar)'2(> to MisK Josf| 
of Judge Hilton, the I 
ministrator cf tb'. -t. 
Stewart & Co i i,. - 
the splendid ifsi.i 
deuce opposite tl.. [. i> . 
sentedto the vonni- cnn 


. Mr> 


- .-. T. Ste 
presented a verj' fine set of silverware. Among 
the guestj were Samuel J. Tildcn, Gov. Rice, 
of Massachusetts, and numerous others. Mr. 
Russell is a brother of Prof. Russell, bo well 
known to the readers of the Journal. 

Prof. H. P. Smith enters the employment of 
Messrs. Ivison. Blnkeman, Taylor 4 Co., as 
General Agent for White's Art Studies, which 
were noticed in our last number. Professor 
Smith was formerly connected with the firm 
of Potter, Ainsworth & Co., as Agent for 
Bartholomew's Drawing and P. D. and S. 
Copy-books. More recently he has been em- 
ployed in the pubHc schools of this city as 
teacher of drawing, and is the President of 
the Drawing Teachers' Association. We con- 
gratulate Messrs. Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor A 
Co. in seeuring.a gentleman of so much expe- 
rience and large acquaintance to represent 
their series of Dmwmg Books, and Professor 
Smith in connecting himself with so ener- 
getic, liberal, and honorable a firm as that of 
IWson, Blakeman, Taylor & Co. is known to 

We are rc- 
h we are imable 
to answer. He, or any one else who knows 
will confer a favor by furnishing the desired 

Teachers of Penmanship. 
You should learn to teach drawing. Your 
chances for obtaining lucrative situations 
will be doubled thereby. Teachers of 
Penmanship make the best teachers of 
iJrawing ; fhey learn to draw rapidly. See 
advertisement, Industrial Art Education, 
and send for circular. 

Every penman and admirer of fine 
penmanship wants the Joornal. If you 
know of any such who does not take it, 
tell them about it or send us their names 
and address, that we may mail them speci- 

The illustration upon this page was floar- 
ished by Jackson Cagle, penman at Moore's 
Business College, Atlanta, Ga. 

nd by the light 
shreds of cloth 

of a piece of iron hoop, i 
of a lamp made out of 
soaked iu grease obtained from his food. 

In a New Jersey Court, evidence of 
inebriety was deduced from the hand- 
writing of the defendant in tb»» ca..e, on 
the ground that all men are eiuier drunk, 
or sober, and that tlie said defendant 
when sober, could never have written his 
name plain enough to be deciphered by 
auy chirographical rule whatever. 

31,000 reward to the penman who 
never beard the remark, 'Your writing 
is beautiful, veiy beautiful, btit, the best I 
ever saw was a piece done by Zerubbabel 
Gumption"— and this to you, who had 
his scrawls aud knew him to be a 
pretentious idiot ! 

The latest French toy is a minature pen- 

an the face of which is of a material 
permitting the greatest mobiUty of its 
features. The machinery, although quite 
-^-uple. produces, when wound up, a 
movemeot of the hand ou paper previous- 
ly adjusted, like that of a tyro in penman- 
ship ; and the face expresses the varied 
emotions of agony, of joy and self-adora- 
tion, so appropriate to tho occasion. But 
the ohmoi of ludiorousnesa of expression 

or 2,000 inhabitants cards faintly tinted, 
and ornamental capitals, or flourished 
desigus, written or printed in black ink ; 
and 1" townships where there are from 
three downward to (he sqnare mile, pro- 
fuse ornamentation in fancy colors with 
gold and silver, written or printed upon 
strongly tinted cards. 

Business Writing. 

Our frieud Hinmau inquires in th*. last 
issue of the Jouhnal, " Who will study 
the wants of the community, and supply a 
style that, when formed iu school, will not 
break up and desert one when rapid bus- 
iness writing is required ? " j 

I believe that some few of our teachers 
are doiug this very thing, and doing it 
well. I also think that with many of us 
our ' ' exact " writing as shown iu our copy- 
lines, &c., interferes greatly witlj the stu- 
dent's progress, so far at least as rapidity 
goes. When we become "independent" 
enough, as he expresses it, to give our pu- 
pils for copies such writing as has been 
done easily and rapidly, even if the work 
be faulty in form, it will not be long be- 
fore the pupil will acquire the ueces^a.y 
to produce writiag of that 
Let it be understood that what the 

Fifth Principle, or Capital 0. 
Hight, 3 spaces. 'Width, 2 
Distance between two 
eiuiitiating point, 
J space above base. Ciirvfs upon the right 
and left equal. Count 1. 2, 1. 

1 »/0 ^ combines Prins. 3, 2, 3, S. 

VK) ^"" hight, 3 spaces. Hight of 

u-^- base, 2space8 ; width of same, \\ 

spaces. Length and width of top, J the 
length and width of base. Between left 
curves in base oval ^ space. Small loop at 
right angles to main slant. Count 1, 2, 3, 
4, 5, 6, 1. 

[ ^-^^ B combines Prins. 3, 2, 3, 2, 

I /[ J 3. 2, 3. Full bight, 3 spaces. 
''^l y Full width, 2 spaces. Point of 
beginumg, 1\ spaces, and of termina- 
tion, \ space above base. Between left 
curves at half-higbt, J space. Hight of 
small loop, ) space. Count 1, 2, 3, \. 

I /Ot' C combines Prins. 3, 2, 3, 2. 

jC^ Pull hight, 3 spaces. Hight 
' — '^ — of beginning point, 2J spaces. 
Width of large loop and Bpaces to its 
right aud left, each ) space. Lower end 
of loop, \ space above base. Count 1, 2 


Xcomhines Prins. 6, 3, 

Pull liigbt. 3 spaces. Wjcltli 

1^1_^ rerersedoviil, I 1 Hpacci. Di 


tauce bftweeD parte at top. 1) epaoea ; at 
hoBc, 1) npnccs. Point nf contact of mnio 
piirtii, Ij HpiicftH above base. Couut 1, 2, 

FTctrabioea PrinR. 6. 2. 3, 3. 
KuH higbt, 3 spncea. Higbt of 
final curve nbnat 2 spacer. Re- 
vei-aed oval iw in X Distance between 
main parta at top and base, each 1} spncps. 
OoiiDtl, 2, 3. 4,1. 

^ \ - Q combiues Prins. 6, 3, 2. 

I fy Full hight, 3 spaces. Hight 
L-L-O-^ " of final curve, 1 space. Main 
widtli It npncefl. Length of small loop, 1 
space ; width of same, i space. Prom be- 
ginning point of letter to left end of small 
loop, 1 space. Oouut 1, 2, 1. 

Z combines Prina. 6, 3, 2. 4, 
Extends 3 spaces above and 2 
spncp-H below base line. Re- 

vereed ovul as in Xand W. 

Sninller loop ovossing \ apace above base. 
Crossing of larger loop is upon base-liiip 
and 1 space to riglit of hmaller loop. 
Width of loop below the base line, i Rpace. 
full. OouDt 1, 2, 8, 4, 1. 
r^-j — - V combines Prins. 6, 2, 3. 
Yy/^' F"^' liiglit. 3 opaccs. Widtli of 
1 f/ rovercted oval, li spaces. Re- 

versed oval as ill Xto completion of upper 
third of riglit side ; thence descends a 
straight line, touching base \ space to 
right of befiiuniug of letter, and uniting in 
short turn with final curve, which ends 2 
spaces above base. Count 1, 2, 1. 
|— j-j — tZcomlnnes Prins. 6, 2, 1, 2. 
yy/' Full higbt, 3 spaces. Hight of 
[ O^/^ right half, 2 spaces, and of 
liuul curve, 1 space. Reversed oval as in 
V . Distance between main ports, X space. 
Cimnt 1, 2, 3, 4. 1. 

K combines Prins. 6.2, 1, 4. 
Extends 3 spaces above and 2 
lu-low base line. Formed like 
P to second turn of hitter at 
hasp. Thence it finishes with the inverted 
loop. Widtli of iiivert-ed loop \ space, full. 
Couut, 1,2,3, 4,1. 

I gtapber or engraver. The amatuer pen- 
' man can see what, by diligence and per- 
severuuce, may be acquired. 

Heinrigs' "Miisterblaitter derhocheren 
KalliKraphic " was the only book of orna- 
mental penmanship, that gave me a notion 
as to what constitutes beautiful, elal^orate 
designs ; but it is too expensive and 
unwieldly. Such n work as Ames' com- 
pendium is just what I would have been 
glad to get twenty-five years ago, T 
should be in the bauds of every penman. 
Very respectfully jours, 

M. Herold. 


holding of a penmau's couvuntiou. We 
regret that want of space prevents our 
giving this and many other commuuiea- 
tions iu full. " He suys there are hun- 
dred of teachers who differ greatly in 
teaching book-keeping 
[ind by having a ood- 
ne wnnld derive great 
1 it would tell. to the 

CiNotNKATi, March 25, 1878. 
Eeditor Penman's Art JournaL 
Deak Sib ;— Dnring the past thirty years 
I collected hundreds of works on penman- 
ship, from France, Italy, Spain, Holland, 
Germany and England. Many of these 
were liirge folios. 

During the last few years my interest in 
8Uoh works has considerably abated, hav- 
ing nearly exausted the subject. However, 
when a new work appears it is quite 
natural that I should have a desire to get 
il, or at least the curiosity to see it. So 
it was with Ames' compendium. 

On looking through the book my inter- 
est in the subject was again revived, and I 
was, more especiidly interested iu the work 
aiaoe it was from the pen artist, and none of 
its merits oould be attributed to the litho- 


March 25, 1878. j 
Prof.D. T. Ames: 

Dbab Sir — I have had charge of the 
Penmanship Department of this College 
since last fall; we have a firat-class school, 
and are meeting with grand success. 

Enclosed pleased find money order for 
twelve dollars, and the list of subscribers 
(twelve) for your .\rt Joornal, for which send me your Premium, " Ames' 
Compendium of Plain and Ornamental 

T am a warm friend of your JouRNAii ; 
hope t may largely increase its circulation. 
Yours respectfully, 


Business Untversftv, RooHESTcn. N.Y. ( 
March 25, 1878. ( 
Prof. Ames : 

Enclosed please find P. O. order for $24 
and the names and addresses of twenty- 
four subscribers. Please send the *' Com- 
pendium" and " Guide" as premiums. 

I will send more names in a few days. 
"Compendium," S7.50; " Guide," 32.50. 
Hastily yours, 

K. R. Smith, 

Held's Business Cou,EaE, l 

SanFrancisco, Cai-.. March, 26. 1878 ( 
Prof. D. T. Ames : 

Dear Sir— Inclosed please find 310, for 
which please send the Joubnai, as per list 
of names inclosed. 

Tour friend, 

A. B. Catp. 

fThe above are only a few specimens of 
the cloud of "Missels" being hurled at the 
Journal. Such treatment ! but — well we 
becoming accustomed to it. 

Business College Items. 

Prof. J. B. CumriO*, President of Soule's 
Commercial College. New Orleans, La., 
writes that over two hundred students are 
in regular attendance at that institution. 

The former pupils of the Bryant & 
Stratton Commercial School of Boston, 
announce a "grand reunion and recep 
tiou '* for the afternoon and evening of 
March 28. Wo are gkd to learn that this 
school is highly prosperous. 

H. C. Clark of AUia* Business College, 
Bookford, HI., writes an able and lengthv 

their opinions on 
and penmanship, 
vention, every 
benefit from it, ai 
wor1(l"niat we we: 

but wide 

ig the best and most 
advisable way to impart the branches of 
education which we represent. I believe 
that there is not n penman or a business 
college teacher in the land who would not 
be favorable to smli a gathering and con- 
sequently, I say this, have a National P. 
& B. C. Convention in June next. 

Ancient Cities. 

Nineveh was fifteen miles long, eight wide, 
and forty miles round, with a wall one Iniu- 
dred feet high, and thick eaoiigh for three 
chariots abreast. Babylon was fifty miles 
within the walls, which were seventy feet 
thick, and four hundred feet high, with one 
hrmdred brazen gates. The Temple of Diana, 
at Ephesiis, was four hundred and twentyfeet 
to the support of the roof. It was a hundred 
years in building. The largest of the Pyra- 
mids is four hundred and sixty-one feet high, 
and six hundred aud fifty-three on the sides; 
its base "cover eleven acres. The istoues are 
about thirty feet in length, and the layers are 
three hundred and eighty. It employed three 
hundred and thirty thousand men in building. 
The Labyrinth, in Egypt, ooutains three hun- 
dred chambers and two hundred and fifty 
halls. Thebrfi, in Egj-pt, presents ruins 
twenty-seven miles ruuud. Athens was twen- 
ty.five miles round, and contained three hun- 
dred antl fifty thousaudcitizens and four hun- 
dred thousand slaves. The Temple of Dcl- 
phos was so rich in donations that it was 
plundered of five hundred thousand dollars, 
aud Nero carried away from it two hundred 
statues. The walls of Rome were thirteen 
miles round. 


The following from the Elizabeth, (N. J.) 
Baitt/ Ilerald explains itself. Such things 


In this cotomo we shall insert, in each 
issue, a limited number of the autographs 
of prominent penmen and authorsw When 
cuts are furnished, they will be inserted 
free. If engraved by us, a charge of SI. 50 
will be made, which will include a dupli- 
cate cut to be sent by mail to the person 
repreaeuted. Cuts must not exceed 2( 
inches (or the width of one column) in 
length. Autographs furnished for us to 
engrave should bo either the exact size 
desired, viz. : 2i inches long, or just twice 
the length, viz.: 4| inches in length. 

Pres't of B. S. & Packard's Business Col- 
lege, 805 Broadway, New York, and author 
of several popular and standard works 
npon book-keeping and writing. 

is an accomplished penman and President 
of Soule's Commercial College, New Or- 
leans, La. 


College old 

erm of Dr. Lansley'a Business 
yesterday, and after the last 
ted, a very pleasant affair oc- 
curred. Mr. Harry L. Grant (nephew of Ex- 
President Grant), arose, and addressing the 
principal in a few well chosen remarks, said 
he had been selected by the students to pre- 
sent a slight testimonial of their respect for 
their preceptor, and, as a birthday memento 
he hoped it would be treasured in remem- 
brance of the young ladies and young gen- 
tlemen of the College; he then stepped 
ard and handed Dr. Lansley an ele- 
silver fruit basket, upon which was in- 
scribed : 

The recipient feelingly thanked the do- 
ors, and in the course of his remarks stated 
that it was the first time during his life that 
any such occurrence had taken place without 
his having had some idea of what was to hap- 

keep their own counsel and declared ht 

uld again listen to the theorv that ladies 

lid not keep a secret. The gift was highly 

prized, not alone for its intrinsic value, but 

that it was an evidence of the love existing 

between the college and its management. 

is a skilful and popular teacher of writing 
at Elmira, N. y/ 

is one of our most skilful and accomplish- 
ed teachers of writing. He is now teach- 
ing at Cliilecothe, O. 

Writes well aud is now teaching classes at 
Amador City, Cal. 

The alphabet given on this page is used 
for marking purposes and is adapted for 
being made either with a broad-nibbed pen 
or brush. 

We have received an extensive variety 
of superior gilt-edged and tinted blank 
cards from the New England Card Com- 
pany, Woonsocket, R. I. Their rates seem 
Read their advertisement and send 
for a circular. 

The Labor of Writing. 

rapid long-hand penman can write thirty 
s in a minute. To do this he must draw 
his quill through the spnce of one rod— six- 
ond one-half feet. In forty minutes his 
travels a furlong, and in five and one- 
third houifi one mile. We make, on an aver- 
age, sixteen curves or turns of the pen in 
writing each word. Writing thirty words a 
linute, we must make four hundred and 
ghty-eight to each second; in an hour, 
twenty-eight thousand eight hundred ; in a 
day of only five hours, one hundred and forty- 
four thousand; in a year of three hundred 
days, forty-three milhon two hundred thou- 
sand. The man who made one million strokes 
with a pen a month is not at all remarkable. 
Many men make four millions. Here we have 
'n the aggregate a mark three hundred miles 
long, to be traced on paper by each writer in 
a year. In making each letter of the ordinary 
alphabet, we must take from three lo seven 
stroke of the pen— on an average three and a 
half to four. (In rhonograpby. an expert 
can write one hundred and seventy to two 
huudi-ed words in a minute! Apply your 
multiphcation to this, aud see where your 
long-hand writer standa.) 


Prof. Packard's Address. 

Addresa of Prof. S. S. Packard. Delivered 
on the ocoasiou of tbe Nineteenth .Vimiverstiry 
of bin college, December 14, 1877, and pub- 
liflbed in the College TtU TaU, the sonti- 
ment« of which wc most heartily endorse. 
Studf/itu and Friends: 

It IK not the proviuce of Business Colleges, 
nor the pmctieo of those who conduct them, 
to inveigh against education of the broadest 
and severest kind Call it mental training, or 
development, or culture, or by whatever aug- 

hberai education; although, with 
of the world, we know that what goes 

9 BOmetii 
uite illiberal. "We do 
e of classical training, 
i> appalled by the gh< 



t underrate the val- 

callcd, neither are 

of the dead langiia- 

Ihink, after our 

may be a mitttflke 

n. thatthi 
in calling that a complete or lilit-nil education 
which, in its noble purpose of couser\-iug the 
history and idioms of slumbering ages, ig- 
nores the more pressing demands of the liv- 
ing, moving preseut. Or ' 

liberally . 
all the G; 

culling that person 
i;^li he muy have 

Mi. interest on a 

ilii' date of I'ay- 

uit iiirreut. Aad 

the classical schu.iira ..ho m-e prcs, 
well that in this charflcterization I nm not 
speaking of a rare specimen of tbo genua 
" educated man." 

But we have no fight against classical 
schools and colleges of the higher depart- 
mente of learning. We hnv(- no occasit.n to 
be censorious, and uo disposition to awaken 
unpleasant inquiries as to whothwr BusineBs 
(Jolieges arc- more faithful to their modi-sl pro- 
f.>ssi(»us than are the endowed seats of learu- 
iug to their more exalted claims. I recognize 
at the outset a fact that must be conceded in 
wlintevr vi«w we take of education in its or- 
diiiury sense, viz., that on the one side is the 
teacher, with his acquired knowledge, and 
liis methods and appliaoaes for impart- 
ing it, and on the utber (lie pujiil. wilh 
■his capacity for reeeivin^; ami iitaiuing it; 
and that quite as mmli il' i" niU mik.u the 
natural gifts, the aptitude aud jn r...i.,lMK-y of 
the latter as upon the ubititj nuU hdelity of 
the former, 

The duty of education, of self-culture, is 
t'jat may properly and safely be urged 

upon all, It is a duty from 

I- til.' 

1 thc-r. 
which the 

alty is Hurc uji.f '.itii-i .,iiinii_' Without regai-d 
to schooia ur iIj. jmlmt- nn.l.r which they 
work, the edurJitmn.'il i",inTs uf life, and the 
opportunities tor acquiriug us -iiA knowledge, 
which are ever thrust upon tli ■ wayfarer in 
this busy world, leave even the most destitute 
without a fair e.x.cuse for i^^norance. The 
processes of education are «'oa>tautly going 
on, aud uo member of society is allowed to 
plead ignorance in extenuation of the guilt of 
a broken law. 

But Uusiness Colleges are not wayside 
schools, that hide in the stray corners of the 
world to eiitiiip till' unwitry and do good by 
violence. Ah ihe juibla,' kimws them they are 
obtrusive iiud ug^ressivc institutions. They 
stand upon the great thorDUghfares of the na- 
tion, and rear Ihclr unblushing fronts in full 
view of the gaping world, They press their 
claims with pertinacity —sometimes with ques- 
tionable vehemence — upon a lethargic pulilic, 
and they succeed. Either through importu- 
nity, audacity, good luck, or downright deser- 
ving, they attract patronage and Live. The 
wares which they proclaim for sale find pur- 


would havt 

s thriv 
■luile, however, that suc- 
Lstitiites, alone, the right 
1 'h a stauihird, the devil 
, and Dr. Ciosby'ssocii- 
iiu of corner groceries 
3 another kind of liquid- 

I shall assume at once that Busmess CoUe- 
^v •. ■ >;-( in 1 |. . |.. 1- because they supply a 
(. 1 II.' sought for and patrou- 

I i I II of by those who know 

Hum I . -. Ml! In , inise they are the purvey- 
iiif, ut kutui ledge, and next, because 
they furnish what caimot be hud with equal 
facility else%vhere. If it be true that the com- 
tiiou schools, or, for that matter, the classical 
schools and colleges, give strength and force 
to the nerves and muscles of the arm, which 
is to do the world's beet work, it is equally 
true that the Busiuess Colleges and teebnictd 
Bcboois put into the hand the effective t-ools 
without which the nerves and muscles would 
exi»end their power for naught. The figure is 
uotiuapt, and yet it, is a little too closely 
dnnvn. It is Jiot true that schools of culture 
furnish strength and power alone, nor that 
technical schools furnish tools alone. 

It is the business of such uu institution as 
this to know in what direction the weakness 
lies, and as far as possible to siipply the de 

In the faithful discharge of this duty we 
claim the privilege to stand, not merely with 
those who sympathize with, and in a nega- 
tive way befriend culture, but with those who 
actually promote it. 

Horace Greeley, who was a friend of educa- 
^on, and especially of this kind of education, 
^ras often exercised by the fear that Business 
Colleges were mauuiactuhiig too many book. 

keepers and clerks. Having settled in his 
mind that the only proper thing for young 
men to do was to "go West and grow up with 
the country," he naturally feared that a 
"comer" in the clerk market would in some 
way obstruct that humane project ; and it 
was a great relief for hiro to be assured that a 
practical education, such as we were trying to 
" part, did not of necessity consign iu devo- 

i& to tbe business of keeping other people's 

Ilowever, we are not at all thin-skinned as 
to the charge of sending into tbe world too 
luauy good book-keepers. Our principal sor- 
is that we are not sending enough. In 
of the developments of tbe past few 
years, especially of the past few months, it 

that if an untrammeled vote of the 
depositors in our savings banks and the poUcy 
holders of our life insurance companies could 
be had upon this question, tbe verdict would 
sustain my opinion. I doubt even that if a 
bill should be presented to our coming State 
Legislature, providing that no person should 
serve as a trustee or director in a savings bank 
or life insurance company who could not pass 
an ordinary examination in a Business College, 
it could be honestly defeated. 

Suppose — if such a tlnn i- i||i.i-iiili - 
that the directors of tL. i i \ s ,v- 

ings Bank, the German > m^s 

Bank, and the thirty or imi;, kiiuii'.l in^iiiu- 
tions which have suffered tiie fiiic ii-ld in 
store by Mr. Bland for the national debt- 
suppose these gentlemen with fiduciary pro- 
clivities could have had in their early days a 
sound business education — so far, at least, as 
to be able to see the difference between a re- 
source and a loss, or between a liability and a 
gain. Or suppose that the associates of Mr. 
Cage, of Sing Sing — beg pardon--of tbe Se- 
curity Life £isurance Company, or those of 
Dr. Lambert, of the now unpopular -'Popu- 
lar." before taking their seats around the di- 
rectors' board of t'hese institutions, bad been 

The Pen Mightier than the Sword. 

At first thought this would hardly seem to 
be true. Is it possible that the swurd, the em- 
blem of might, the mark of rank and power, 
can be compared with theinsiguiflcant pen ? 
It was with the sword that Alexander sub- 
dued his countless millions and made him- 
Belf tbe conqueror of tlie world. With the 
sword Washington defended bis country 
from ber assailants, and thus created a na- 
tion. Sword in hand. Napoleon crossed the 
Alps, repulsed his invaders, made the 
monarchs of Eui'ope tremble for their 
crowns, and dazzled the world with his 
greatness and renown. Tu this potent force 
is attributed every triumph of human grand- 

Bni whht are tbe conquests of the pen T 
No triumphal processions, no trophies of 
victory, no spoils of battle are the heralds of 
its power. Its conquests are of tbe mind. 
They are more enduring, more beneficial 
and ennobling, than any achievement of the 
blood-staiued sword. The sword is the tool 
of avarice, ambition and barbarity, it is 
stained with the blood of the innocent and 
brave. It is wielded alike by the tyrant and 

I Who will deny that such minds as Homer, 
Virgil and Shakespeare, have not exerted a 
far greater and more lasting influence upon 

I the hearts and actions of mankind than any 
victory of the bword? Those master pieces 
of thought and diction, the plays of Shake- 
speare, the Ihad, and the ^iieid. will ever 
live fresh in our memory, a just tribute to 

Napoleon conquered Europe with bis le- 
gions, bat purchased bis notoriety with the 
life-blood of thousands of his countrymen. 
'TwBB but a day be held the sceptre. The 
conqueror of Europe was destined to be a 
prisoner atSt. Helena. There, an exile from 
his country, unhonored. forgotten and des- 
pised, was be, who, but yesterday, made 
Europe tremble at his name. Washington, 
by his arms, made an independent republic ; 

1. What is property V 

2. Of what does money consist? 

3. What items should appear upon the 
debit and what upon the credit side of cash 

4. Iu case an item of $40,000 shoiUd ap- 
pear among cash disbursements, is there any 
way of finding out what it means ? 

.■>. What is the value of a cheek drawn upon 
a hunk iu which the drawer has no deposit ? 

These are simple questions, as you see, and 
they do not imply a very high order of intel- 
lect or attainment in order to cope with them, 
but simple as they are, and important as they 
are, men of so-called education and culture 
are found who do not understand them, either 
in the abstract or the concrete. 

Possibly some of the young men who go 
out of this room to-night, can-ying with them 
the honors of this institution, may not know 
as much as they should about these and kin- 
dred subjects, but we do not fear that tbe ht- 
tle tbey have learned here will faU to serve 
them at the right time and iu tbe right way. 

And so, friends, we obtrude ourselves upon 
you once more in tbe regular order of our hv- 
ing. This coming together once a year to 
look into each other's eyes, and feel each oth- 
er's pulses, is an instinct of the common hu- 
manity which dictates and hmits our actions. 
We have, all of us, our separate paths and oiu- 
distinct personal duties in hfe, aud yet 
these paths often cross each other aud' these 
duties frequently bring our shoulders under 
the same wheel. Your presence here to-uiyht 
assures me that wo have a common interest in 
the work here brought into relief- You care 
but little for thesc'^eeble words I have tried 
to utter, except in so far as they may assure 
you t^atthe'purpose which dominates in the 
education of your sons and dangbters is a 
right purpose. The audible speeches which 
come from our hps have, at the best, a pass- 
ing charm for your ears, but the silent speech- 
es of the lives yet to be hved by these young 
men are fraught with a meaning which con 
find uo adequate expression in words. 

\Vhat has become of the Penman's If dp f 
We have seen but one copy in three months. 
We hope that it has not thus eariy shuffled 
off its "mortal coil, " but if not, and it still 
delights mortals with its monthly visits, why 
are we tbus overlooked iu ita rounds. 

yet, but for his wise councils, the wisdom 
of its legislators, this republic would never 
have risen to the rank of the first nations 
on the globe. It was the influence of tha 
pen which made it truly great. 

And to what cause can the ignorance and 
barbarism of the Middle Ages be traced ? To 
no other than the absence of literature and 
the ascendency of arms. Men exulted only 
in the pur.suit of arms, while science and 
literature was almost wholly extinguished. 
Were might of the sw6rd the only force act- 
ing upon mankind, this world would be a 
barbarous wilderness. It is the refining in- 
fluence of literature which advances a nation 
in culture, civilization and the arts. And it 
is that people alone, who cultivate and 
cherish the art of literature, who are des- 
tined to be the most prosperous, must civil- 
ized and intelligent. — 2'fie EasUrii Sitn- 

Judging by Appearances. 

When Maine was a district of Mas-sachu- 
setts, £zekiel Whitman was chosen to repre- 
sent the district in the Massachusetts Legis- 
lature. He was an eccntric man, aud one of 
the best lawyers of his time. He owned 
farm and did much work on his land, and 
when the time came for him to set ou 
Boston, his best suit of clothes was a su 
homespun. His wife objected to his going 
iu that garb, hut he did not care. 

"I Will get a nice suit made as soon as I 
reach Biisiou." he said, 

Keachiiit,' his destination \VhitmBn found 
rest at Doolittle's city tavern. Let it be under- 
stood that he was a gi-aduate of Harvard, and 

ed the piirlor of tbe house he found neveral 
ladies aud gentleman assembled, and he beard 
the following remark from one of them : 

"Ah, here comes a countryman of the 
real homespun genus. Here's fun." 

Wiitman stared at the company and then 

"Say, my friend are you from the coun- 
try':"' remai'ked one of the gentlemen. 

"Y'a-as,', answered Ezeikel, with a ludic- 
rous twist of the face. 

"And what do you think of our city?" 
asked one of the la^es. 

"It's a pooty thickly settled place anyhow. 
It's got a sweepin' eight of hou'n in it." 

"And a good many people, too.' 

"Ta-as, I should guess so." 

" Many people where you come from ? " 

"Waal, some." 

"Plenty of ladies, I suppose?" 

" Ya-as, a fair sprinklin'." 

"Audi dout doubt you are quite a beau 
among them," 

"Yaas, beaus 'em home, tew meetiu' and 
singing skewl." 

'• Perhaps the gentleman from the country 
will take a glass of wine." 

"Tbank'ee. Don't keer if I do." 

The wine was bought. 

"You must drink a toast," 

"Ogiteout! I eat toast; never heard of 
such a thing as drukin' it. But I can give 

The ladies clapped their hands ; but what 
was their surprise when the stranger, rising, 
spoke calmly and clearly as follows , 

• ' Ladies and gentlemen, permit me to wish 
you health and happiness, with every bles- 
sing earth can afford, and may you grow bet- 
ter and wiser in advancing years, bearing ever 
iu mind that outward appearances ai'e deceit- 
ful. You mistook inc. from my dress, to be 
a country booby, while I from Ibe same su- 
pei-ficial cause thprght you were ladies 
and gentlemen. The mistake has been mu- 

He had just finished when Caleb Strong, 
Governor of the State, entered and inquired 
for Whitman. 

•• Ah, here I am, Governor, glad to see 

Then turning to the dumfounded company, 
he said : 

" I wish you a very good evening." —Bur- 
h'tigU^n Ihupkeye. 

Josh Billings says ; " An editor is a male 
being whose bizneas it is to navigate a nuze- 
paper. He writes out editorials, grinds out 
poetry, inserts deaths and wedins, sorts out 
manuscripts, keeps a waste basket, blows up 
the printer, steals matter, fitesolherpeople's 
battles, sells his paper for a dollar and .'iO 
cents a year, takes white beans aud apple 
sass for pay when he can get it. raizes a 
large family, works Hi hours nut of 24, knows 
no Sunday, gits abused bi everybody, and 
onst in a while whipt bi somebody, lives 
poor, dies middle-aged and often broken- 
hearted, leaves no money, iz rewaitied for a 
life of toil (ivilh a short but free obituary 
notice in the nuzepapers. 

UpS-^^-t^^ij I'^i 1 ^• 

mptly OQ the 

What Everybody Wants. 

lauHhlp ever publin 

ids, 18 designa 
nANIEL T. « 

.—Rev. Edward EggU- 
letary of State, Waiihlug- 

Boaton Daily Post. 

wliellier llie art of petimuitublp, employed i 

Hon. Le Roy Morgan. ivtttwo of ttie Supreme 

PKNMAN, If you wish to buy the betit aud lutoBt 
styles iu Blank CARDS, send 3 cents for lurge 

Stimpson's U. S. Treasury Gold Pens. 

right'iu thetPowu 1 
AdaroBM STIMSON 4 CO.. PortU 


idustrial Art Education ! 

mm SCHOOL of mraG 


B^lnoltiK oD UONDAY, JULY 8, IttK. 







Accounts, with Arithmetical Problems, 



try, and un8urp»«ied as s test-book. Speoimen cop- 

S. S. PACKARD, PnbUsher. 


amptopack t- 





tlio Wyomlntj 

.~.^. ..^llau CaplUii. , lurvo ouuuiuor 

OombiDBtlon KxeroUes ; Two orlgtoal 

OkplUlH : UuoHet luilau CaplUU ; Tlirse 
Piuurlibod OombiDBtlon KxeroUes; Twc _.., 
•UDontalf-exoouUKl Dlrd DealgDs— the Inttcr 


\BU)NQ QUI Edgo 

'J'-A.M-A.rVU^UL^k^ » 


1 OR bALI 

N M H 




f" '#^'f^t^^^ 

Ev^ry Variety of Pen Work PrompUy Executed in the Most Perfect Manner. 
Alsf, Counsel given as Expert on Hand- Writing and Acconnts. 

DispuY^ CUTS Tor Advertising. 


For i>ip]oniiL8 nnd Sped 


laS and 140 I 



fjigliah, BrmieU, Thrm pli/. I 

Oil OUitlu; ete. 

CirjieLt, Velvet Ruft, Orumi Ototlm 
. -,'-^-^~y„^ the Old Place, 


Sh.ND F()|{ PRT -K r,r.ST. J. A. BENDALL 





I>A.-k ». r»A.Tl INT 


■trcot, Eliukn, ] 

rV J. N. UAltitlNQTON'S Plata aud Dastiy \ 
toil CAUD8. i>ul>' IT oeuU per di>x. Tliev i 
B aoou J U QOiuii-od, \. 

'ITISlTINa OAKDS written and sout by ui itl at 

fioutiabud. fl. Sauipto, U5 cK. B. K.'kkt-I.k'y 


.b 'co.!"\vJoij. 



(Colored Inks), Ejo- 

Top." J. N. V. HAKRINOT-.N, Peumau, Poimbkel-il. 

Forged, Disguised & Anonymous Writing 

• only Bank-tineaitd expert 

6 Broadway, Kew Vork. 

liny ungle, price $6. 

Bfliu™'. porm.ncnl, aud lowpplced. Sample, and 

2»0 P.-arl Street, New York. 

Flexible Store Cloth 


Silicate Black Diamond ! 

N. Y. Silicate Book Slate Co.. 

101 FOLIOS ST., cor. Ctian;li St.. N. r. ia-3t 

iiien. Send »1 for auupl« .at and ionfj c" cviirl 

Addrea., o. L. MDSSELMAN, 

inat Gem City Buaiueaa CoUege, Quincy, Dl. 


TRUE tt CO. 


1 required ; we wil 
ay ut lionio mad* 

irms free. Addresi 

erly bond— a htyle 
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card n picture, A moMt beautifuiry'floui 
. W. E. DENNl's, Wright's 

100 Se«"* S*^" ^^^«-»oo'"lor Square 

4 RTISTIC PENMANSHIP.— Your name beautlTi 

LMADARASZ, who ban no eqn&l as a rar.l wn.-- 
bUo%*.\^nu-iJ^1/;?^'=^ *"^' conceded eveo by' 


By ordering from ua, patrons can rely not only 
upon receiving a Buperior article, but upon doing eo 

*doth^'""''^°'^'*™ °' ° raamenral Penmanehip, 

fleatherandgiit.'.'.*'.;;;;.'.. '■;;;■■ 5 ™ 

r, bot-presfi, 16x20 

" 19x24 

'• 21x30 

'■ 26x40 

ilank Bristol Board C 

lSx24 " 20 3 ' 

21x30 " 25 3 ^ 

26x40 " eS 7 ( 

31x63 " 2 60 30 ( 

Payson, Dunton 6 
Sponge Hubberi'2 

ra for (tourlsliing . , 


aplilte Lead pfnd 

», very 

Btetn III' Fltfurlsbing 


in., very auperioi 
ip-book tliat will ail van vAth A. 
Ugbt every time you uae it ■ a r 
giring f uu deacripUoD with pricM for Mark t"*""^ 
Dajoh, t. Aanjs, 

ft « ^i^> 4^f 

Fublislied TMontHly, at SOS Broad-way, fox- SI .OO per Year, 

,iid ProprleioFi 

NEW YORK, MAY, 1878. 

VOL. II. NO. 2. 




205 Broadway, New Yorl 

dusine88 college, 

buookl'yn, e. d. 




Eminent Penmen of Olden Times. 

lu the Miiich number of the Journal, I 
gftve some account of one of the works of 
Edward Cocker (inadvertently printed 
Peter Cocker), his quaint instructions, and 
other matters mostly compiled from that 
bonk. Further investigations developed, I 
thought, sufficient material for another art- 
icle in regard to this remarkable man. I 
trust I shall have the indulgence of your 
readers in giving some further details of 


This ingenious and very industrious gen- 
tleman was not only celebrated for his 
skill aa a penman and engraver, but also 
for his mathematical knowledge; besides, 
he was something of a poet. Whether his 
ability as a penman and engraver, or his 
knowledge of figures gave him the greater 
celebrity I am not able to determine. 

His book called " England's Penman ; 
or, Cocker's New Copy Book," containing 
b11 the curious hands practised in England 
and surrounding nations, never the like 
published, as the impartial and judicious 
may determine," issaidtohave given riae 
to the old saying current in England, 
"According to Cocker." 

Lownde'a Bibliographer's Manual says 
Cocker is desei-vedly reckoned among the 
improvers of writing and arithmetic. Up- 
wards of sixty editions of hi.s arithmetic 
were published ; the fourth in 1682 ; the 
(ifty-second in 1748, showing it mast have 
been a work of great merit, otherwise it 
it could not for so long a period have held 
its place in pubUc esteem. A copy of the 
first edition sold in 1854, for eight pound3, 
five shillings (about $10). 

He does not seem to have derived his 
inspiration from the zeal or enthusiasm of 
any special instructor, judging from the 
following from Ins book, entitled 
FAm wRrriNo's stork house. 

"/*ir wTltlug to the life eiprcrt. 


lundry c, 

Massey says of him, " Ho waa certainly 
a great encoorager of various kinda of 
earning ; an indefatigable performer both 

with the pen and bruin, an ingenious artist 
in figures, and no contemptible proficient 
in the poetry he attempted to write." 

His writing, I allow, is far inferior to 
what we have from the hands of some of 
our late masters ; and there is not that 
freedom and liveliness in his pencilled 
knots and flourishes that there is in pieces 
done by a bold command of hand. But 
let us consider the time in which he lived, 
and what little imi)rovement then had 
been made in the modern way of penman- 
ship, and we may justly make allowance for 
the many defects that now appear in his 
books, and say with the poet," 

' Lottbo Impar 
Weigh well 


Knight says, in hia life of 'Williom 
Caxton, the first EugUsh printer, " The 
wealthier classes desired a species of em- 
bellishment more costly than wood-cuts, 
though in many cases not superior; copper- 
plate prints began to be introduced into 
printed works. Impressions of these prints 
were obtoined by a process totally difler- 
ent from the typographical art, so that 
they constituted illi every respect an addi- 
tional expense in the produtition of a book.' ' 
Sir John Harrington's translation of ' Or- 
lando Furioso," waa the first work in 
which copper plates were used. This waa 
printed in 1690." 

This statement may be true so far as 
relates to the ordinary printed book with 
illustrations scattered through it, but 
Cocker more than thirty years prior to 

His first work from the rolling press 
was published in London, in 1657, Then 
he was 26 years old, which gives the date 
of his birth as 1G31, and, as all his books 
were published in London, it is probable 
he was a native of the city or near vicinity. 

A list of his books, with their lengthy 
quaint titles in full, would no doubt be 
very interesting to many, butspace forbids 
anything more than their names in the 
most abbreviated form, which I have taken 
from the very valuable Cat-alogne of Works 
on Penmanship, Ancient and Modern, 
compiled by Prof. A. S. Manson, of Bos- 

1. Youths' Directione to Write Without 
a Teacher. London, 1G52. 

2. Plumae Triumphus, (on some edi- 
tions, The Pen's Triumph), 1657. 

(Said to be his first work from the roll- 
ing press.) 

3. Pen's Tranacendfcucie ; or, Fair Writ- 
ing's Labyrinth, 1657. 

(On the edition of 1660, ^air Writings 
Store House.) 

4. Art's Glory, or Penman's Treasury, 

(A photo-engraving of the title-page of 
,his book appeared in the March number 
of the Journal.) 

6. Penna Volens, or Young Men's Ac- 
complishment, 1661. 

6. England'^ Penman, or Cocker's New 
Copy Book, 1668. 

7. Magnum in Parvo, or the Pen's Per- 
fection, 1672. 

8. The Guide to Penmanship, 1674. 

18. Introduction to Writing. 

Massey mentions having seen the title 
of another work by Cocker, entitled 

(19.) The Pen's Experience. 

Certainly, with this array before them 
modern authors need not lack names for 
their productions. At this distant day it 
is no easy task to discover whether these 
works were wholly independent of each 
other, or whether the change of names did 
not in some respects correfcpond to the 
modern terms " Kevised " " Newly Re- 
vised " " Revised Edition Improved," 

As Cocker's death occurred iu 1677, in 
the 46th year of his age, it will readily be 
seen that with great talents he also exhi- 
bited great industry, which perhaps is only 
another name for genius. 

A very curious quadruple acrostic is in- 
serted on the last page of one of his books, 
signed H. P.. which for the singular rarity 
of it, I transcribe on this page as a moat 
fitting accompaniment of this aiticle. 

I liluh, thj 

1 thj 1 

.■elencel how glorl 

that date had published ^ his works on 
writing, in which the first and last pagea 
were letter-press, with the copper platei 
they described inserted in the middle of 
the booL This being true, it is not impro- 
bable that to Coetter belongs the farther 
credit of combining the work of the print- 
ing with that of the rolling press. 

Under various titles he published about 
twenty different works, mostly on the sub- 
ject of penmanship; Boine he engraved on 
copper, others on brass, and one, "Tiie 
Pen's Perfection," was^ngraved on silver 

Whether on account of any real or fan- 
cied sui)eriority in the metal for engrav- 
ing, or to raise pubUc curiosity, and thus 
increase its sale, does not appear. 

Cocker was blamed by his cotempora- 
ries for writing, engraving, and printing 
too much, thereby debasing the art, and 
bringing it into contempt ; but it is more 
than probable that for the hundred of cop- 
ies he produced from the rolling press of 
hia time, thousands, if not millions, are 
printed on the hthographic presses of to- 

9. The Young Clerk's Tutor, 1674. 

10. The Complete Writing Master, 1676. 

11. The London Writing Master, or 
Scholar's Guide, 1678. 

As near as can be ascertained Cocker 
died in 1677, and it is probable that this 
was a posthumous work in course of pre- 
partion at the time of his death. 

A large number of hia works were with- 
out the date of publication, and as several 
are given with dates subsequent to his 
death, I presume they were reprints 
or later editions of his books, and the 
date gives the date of reprint and not the 
date of the original publication. 

12. Morals or the Muses' Spring Gar- 
den, 1694. 

13. England's Perfect School Master 
for Spelhng, Writing, and Arithmetic, 

The following are without date — 

14. Multum in Parvo, or the Pen's Gal- 

16. The Young Lawyer's Writing-Mas- 

16. The Pen's Facility. 

17. The Country Schoel Master. 

Written Copies. 
As every successful teacher of penman- 
ship nap 'jopies from which his pupils 
practice, would it not be a subject well 
worth the discussion of some of our 
teachers, as to whether engraved or well 
written copies should be used? 

There is an advantage which written 
copies have over tliose engraved, for iu- 
stuuce : when the student sits down to* 
copy of real penicork, fresh from the pen, 
remembering the old adage, "Whatman 
had done man can do," he will have some 
hopes of success. But, you place en- 
graved copies before the student, which 
are so perfectly exact that he will doubt 
whether man could ever produce such 
correct forms with the pen, and in trying 
to imitate them he commences a task which 
he does not hope to accomplish, and soon 
gives up. 

I notice in the last issue of the Journal 
a communication on "business writing," 
in which the writer says : " I think that 
with many of us our 'exact' writing as 
shown in our copj-Iines, &c., interferes 
greatly with the students progress, so far 
at least as rapidity goes," 

It is impossible for pupils to learn to use 
the muscular movement when their copies 
are engraved or written with the finger 

A free movement is essential in engrav- 
ing a good handwriting, but is it not also 
essential that the copies from which your 
pupils practice be written in the same free 
that they are expected to use? 
A. W. R. 

Specimen Copies. 
We have printed a large number of ex- 
tra copies of the present numl)er of the 
Journal, to be used as specimen copies. 
To persons who are endeavoring to secure 
clubs, or have acquaintances who would 
probably be interested, we wiD mail eitra 
copies on application. 


Wiesehahn's Fen. 


meticians are alwaj^ in demand, just as j merrcial schools, or the commercial de- 
macli as good teachers, good doctore, good partment of some literary institution, 
lawyers, and skil/ul mechauics, "There I who have failed to become first-cla'S 

It gltdM like tLe tw%t 


Tb* awirt Uyiag Arraw, 

Is * Ia«g»rd la apefKl, 
1)7 hhpeu's rapid flow 

A Bosineu Education. 

A buHinoas educutioo is uo\^ 
if we are wealthy, it is impoeaible to man- 
age our biiRiDess to advantage without it. 
If we are dependent on oureelveB for sup- 
port, we cuu io no way find so pleasant 
and profitable emplnymout as by qualifying 
oiirsL'lvcH for buHiucas. The young man 
who goe^ forth into the world at the 
present day witli nothing more tlian a 
oloHsical or acicntific education is not 
prepared to scale the activity of the path 
that leadH to fame and fortune, but he 
must bo practically ed'tcated. 

Wo live in an age of steam and electri- 
city ; the magnetic wire is quivering from 
East to West across the ocean and ecu- 
tinents, while the tide of activity is cours- 
ing onward with corresponding velocity 
over the vast ocean of commerce, leaving 
to wealth and distinction all who are good 
pilota, and to poverty and oblivion all who 
do not understand the points of the com- 

The commercial interests of our country 
havoattiiiued to such immense proportions, 
and have so thoronghly monopolized the 
brain oud muscle of our people, that all 
departments of our lives are pervaded 
with bu8iuei%a ideas, customs and maxims ; 
and success depeuds largely and almost 
univei-sally on a thorough and practical 
knowledge of these. It is not enough that 
young men, about to enter upon a business 
career, should be equipped only with u 
Boieutitlc or classical knowledge, furnished 
by our excellent schools and colleges ; but 
indispeusible to the attaiumenla of the 
highest degree of success iu business afl'ars, 
is a knowledge of tbe science of accouuts, 
practical arithmetic, political economy, 
busincst) penmanship, and the sjstematic 
habits, usages, customs and practices of 
the busiueas world around ua. For waut 
of this business training which should 
have constituted a part of their education, 
thousands of those who go out from popu- 
lar literary institutions, with minds well 
Btored with scholastic lore, fail iu every- 
thing they undertake, and become bank- 
rupt iu pocket, and too frequently in 
morals ; whih' they become mere aimless 
floaters on the surface of society, virtually 
lost alike to themselves and to the world. 
There is, therefore, nothing iu which a 
young mau or woman can invest time, 
talent aud money, with a more reasonable 
hope of pi-otitable returns, than in a good 
pradicttl busiitess e<iuc<Uion. Such au edu- 
ootiou is permanent capital, ready to be 
made available iu all the vicissitudes of 
fortune, in all the business relation of hfe, 
opeuiug to us avenues to weidth, iuHueuce 
aud diatinctiou ; and seourea iis from the 
losses which the ignorant inevitably suffer. 

Wheu wo are ready for business life, 
business is ready for us. Many persona 
say " If I get a situation, I would go and 
prepare mjsolf." "The great secret of 
success in hfe is for a mau to be ready 
when the opportunity comes." Good ac- 
countant^ good penmen, aud expert arith- 

is always room up stairs," while down 
below is overcrowded with inferiority. I' 
by accident we should dislocate a limb, 
we sLould not wait till some one could 
study the science of surgery before we 
could have it properly dressed. So it is 
with a business man who wants a book- 
keeper. He does nut choose to wait until 
some one should prepare himaelf, but 
employs one a]rea<ly qualified. " Knowl- 
edge is, ever was, aud ever will be, poW' 
er." "There is no man" says Horace 
Greeley, " to whom a busine'-a education 
is not valuable," 

It is far more grinerally admitted now, 
throughout the civilized world, than at 
any preceeding period, that technical 
education is necessary in every pursuit in 
life. Teachers, doctors, lawyers, sailors, 
soldiers, engineers, clergymen, mechanics 
of all kinds, and agriculturist^, have their 
technical schools for training, and from 
them derive incalculable advantage. 

Technical education, when applied to 
the professious, manufactures, aud the 
mechanical arts, develope new powers of 
thought and labor, and new facilities for 
subsistance, personal comforts and enjoy- 
ments of every kind, when placed within 
the reach of the humble classes ; while at 
the same time, " apjiliances of art are to 
miLister to the demands of elegant taste, 
and a higher moral culture. 

Technical education, when applied to 
business and commerce, has been and ever 
will be, the means of greatly increasing 
the facilities for the more general diffusion 
of praclical knoicledije, to those engaged in 
the exchange of values, and is vastly in- 
fluential in harmonizing the conflicting 
interests of all civihzed nations. 

As a mental discipline, or a systematic 
training, or lu'&ctical benefit, there is no 
branch of study that combines these fea- 
tures to a greater degree than the science 
of acanints ; for while being better cal- 
culated to secure through mental dis- 
cipline, or induce systematic habits of 
thought, it is at the same time of great 
practical advantoge in every department 
of productive industry. "Xet in the face 
of all this, and the daily accumulation of 
corroborating facts there are among our 
old and respectable business men a few 
opponents of a business education. They 
allege that it is of little or no advanttige to 
a business man ; that they had no such 
education, and yet have been successful." 
These fallacious objections to a business 
education, will hold equally good against 
technical education in any other calling or 
profession. It is true that we have some 
men that are practical teachers, some emi- 
nent at the bar and in the pulpit, some 
scientific agriculturists, aud skilful me- 
chanics, as well as men in other fields of 
labor, who never enjoyed the advantages 
of a liberal education. 

Shall we therefore abolish all our lite- 
rary, medictd, and agricultural colleges, 
and seek for our business and professional 
men among the ignorant and uneducated ? 
If professional ignorance be a recom- 
mendation and a qualification iu our busi- 
ness men, why not also in our professors, 
lawyers, clergymen, and physicians ? 

The success aud eminence attained by 
those who were not educated in collegiate 
halls, was not the result of ignorance ; and 
had they been technically educated, they 
would have easily attjiiued a still higher 
degree of success. By enquiry the fact 
is reveided that many of our eminent, 
successful, so-called uneducated men of 
the world possessed a thorough education 
which they had acquii-ed by close appli- 
cation iu private study. 

Again, by another class, who are de- 
nominated "practically educated" busi- 
ness men, we are told that a practical 
busines^s eduoilion caunot be acquii-td in 
commercial colleges ; and iu support of 
t h is declaration they inform us that they 
know persons that kave attended corn- 

accountants, or business men ; hence, 
commercial science cannot be learned in 
any school. The fact that many have taken 
a commercial course and failed to become 
good business men, and first-class account 
acti, does not justify the illogical conclu- 
sion that all commercial schools and busi- 
ness colleges are worthless, or that business 
science cannot be practically taught in 
well conducted business colleges. 

The same may be said of the pupils who 
have attended all classes of schools. 

All students of literary schools do not 
become first-class scholars. All students 
of medicine do not become skilful physic- 
All students of law do not become good 
lawyers. All students of theelogy do not 
become eminent clergymen ; neither do 
alt students of normal schools become first- 
class teachers. Yet it would be unjust 
and illogical to assert indiscriminately that 
all such schools and colleges are utterly 
worthless, because of the non-success of 
many students who have attended them. 

The non-success of the students of these 
schools may be attributed to incompetent 
teachers, and the want of the requisite 
facilities for imparting instruction ; or the 
course of study was not thorough, nor 
sufficiently extended to qualify the student; 
or his natural capacity ma; have been de- 
ficient, or wholly unsuited to the coui-se 
of study which he pursued. Or he may 
have failed to give the proper attention to 
explanations and to study, to insure suc- 

"A good student is as necessary as a 
good teacher to insure success." 

Some or all of the foregoing causes, it 
is sad to say, prevail to some extent in all 
schoiils. Singly, or variously combined, 
90 per cent of all who fail to achieve satis- 
factory advancement and proficiency at 
any school, may be thus accounted for. 
Experience is not to be undervalued in 
any science or occupation in life. "It is 
^emphatically the highest branch of learn- 
ing. But fully to comprehend and utilize 
experience, we must have some prepara- 
tory instruction and some knowledge of 
the experience of those who have lived 
before, and contemporaneously with U8. 

If business colleges are worthless, they 
should not be allowed to exist ; and if 
they are of practical utility they should 
be encouraged and truthfully represented. 

An examination by competent business 
men must be made, in order to determine 
these questions. 

A large percentage of the failures among 
our business men is attributable to a lack 
of thorough, systematic business training, 
such as ih given iu a well conducted busi- 
ness college. For a demand of this train- 
ing, business colleges, like steamboats, 
railroads, telegraph lines, and many other 
new inventions and improvements are of 
recent origin ; 'and for their extensive 
growth, they are indebted to the neces- 
sities of a progressive age. 

The fact that business colleges are of 
modern origin is, in a certain sense, against 
them ; for they have no record dating far 
back, to give them prestige. 

Also, just how to make these institutions 
fill the want, felt by the public, has been 
a matter of experiment ; and they are, 
therefore, of necessity, more or less im- 

Besides, this, like all other enterprises 
in which competition is open, and money 
making a leading object, men have en- 
gaged iu conducting business colleges for 
the sole purpose of money-making, entire- 
ly, regardless of the true mission of schools 
of this kind. They have vied with each 
other for patronage to such an extent often 
as to become almost worthless as schools 
of practical instruction. Circulars contain- 
ing glittering promises to prepare young 
men, (no matter what their previous qua- 
lifications) to enter upon a life of brilUant 
success, have flooded the country at times. 

(s colleges, 
uds of young 
s " graduates," 

Some institutions have even promised 
to guarantee situations to all their grad- 
uates ; and thousands have flocked to 
these institutions, as moths to candles, 
only to get burned for their going. For- 
tunes have been ama&ied by such men, 
before the public have been awakened to 
the gigantic swindle. Such institutions 
have been a public nuisauce instead of a 
blessing. They have done ranch to create 
a general distrust of busi 
They have fleeced thousai 
men, and sent them < 
when they knew but little, if anything, 
more of what a business college should 
teach, on leaving, than when entering. 
But as frauds enter into almost every hu- 
man undertaking, the legitimate work of a 
business college is not to be judged by the 
results of fraudulent institutions. 

"Business colleges, under the manage- 
ment of fraudulent and unprincipled men, 
are not the only institutions of this kind 
that fail to do the legitimate work for 
which such institutions are intended. 

Many fad from au inadequate idea of 
the waut tbey are attempting to fill. 

This failure may arise from either of two 
reasons : 1. A lack of this knowledge on 
the part of the principals of such schools ; 
or 3. by the same lack iu the authors of 
the text-books they use. 

"If ft business college would do the 
greatest good for the greatest number of 
its students, the teacher and the text- 
books used, should aim to impart that kind 
of information that is most frequently 
brought into requisition by the mass of 

This fact has has not always been suf- 
ficiently apparent to authors of text-books, 
and to teachera in business colleges. 

Attempts have been made from time to 
time, with various degrees of success, to 
produce text-books for business colleges. 
None have embraced all excellencies, but 
some have come nearer than others to a 
correct method. 

The true object of business colleges is 
to impart that kind of knowledge that 
will prove of positive vtilue to every per- 
son possessing it ; no matter what his 
calling iu life may prove to be. To this 
end, and to nothing short of it, should 
every text-book contribute, aud every 
teacher in business colleges labor. In busi- 
uess colleges that are fulfilling their mis- 
sion, the pulpil, on leaving, knows not only 
how business is done in large, wholesale, 
commission and jobbing house.'*, but he is 
familiar with the methods of business aud 
forms of accounts in smaller houses. 

The real business school is practical, as 
well as theoretical 

The practice of buying and selUng can 
never be taught in a school of auy kind ; 
nothing bnt experience can teach that ; 
but the student may be made familiar 

th business forms of every description — 
the manner of making, and the use of 
promissary notes, checks, drafts, orders, 
receipts, bdls, accounts, statements, &c. &o. 

These, together with a good style of pen- 
manship, a knowledge of busmess letter- 
writing, commercial law and business cal- 
culations, are of practical value, and can- 
not be acquired half so readily in any 
other way, as in a well regulated business 

To attempt to acquire them in business 
by experience, would cost many embarrass- 
ments and mistakes of serious consequences. 

The foregoing facta and remarks have 
been presented with a view to diopel the 
uujuHt prejudice that exists in the minds 
of persons who were opposed to a tech- 
nical education ; and to induce a more 
careful investigation of the merits of busi- 
ness colleges generally, io order that a 
proper discrimination may be made be- 
tween good and worthless institutions of 
the same class, and for the interest of the 
rising generation, who must soon step on 
the stage of biisine-« l-fe ; au<l for the 
honor of our country, we trust that a 
thorough examination of the subject herein 
presented, will shortly be made. 


Traveling Teachers of Pemnaiuhip. 

As tbi8 seems to be a favorite theme for 
dtscaseion by several of the leadiug con- 
tributors of the various penmau's papers, 
perhaps a few words from one who served 
in the ranks for some time may not come 
entirely amies. The theories and methods 
of some who have never tried the realities 
more than to make aeveral attempta which 
have resulted for the most part in failure, 
remiude me of some of our renowned 
slratepists dnring the late nu pleasantness, 
who, after the battle had been fought aud 
lost, were always discovering some mira- 
culous pliin, which, had they been heard 
and heeded, would have resulted in a 
marvellous victory, nufortunately tliese 
plana came everlastingly too late. The 
forepart of the war developed an astouisli- 
iiig number of just such generals, but as 
time went on we found theories and 
methods giving way to practical and stub- 
born fact ; we found sober, modest men 
rising from the ranks to take the place of 
those whose ostentatious show of gold-lace 
fuse and feathers waa all that could com- 
mend them to public favor. In fact, we 
saw a tanner come from his humble occu- 
pation to assume command of one of the 
grandest armies ever marched in the field 
to lead it to victory. It may seem the 
hdiighth of absurdity to some to try to draw 
an analogy beti\ een the success of a general 
in the field and a teacher of penmanship, 
but we would do well to recollect what lias 
been said by onH of the greatest liviug 
authors, which is, that life in all its 
various phases is a battle-field of labor, 
and the teacher of penmanship in entering 
the field, which I helif ve is a pre-eminently 
useful calling, enters a field in which rose- 
colored downy beds of ease, and succes.s 
are as far apart a« the equator and the 
poles. Eternal vigilance, works, ability, 
tact, talent, aud "Never say die," is the 
price of true success. 

There are few callings or professions re- 
quiring gi-eater or more persistent effort 
for success and in which a greater per cent- 
age of these making the effort fail, than in 
the profession of the traveling writing 

But the great point in the d 
what is necessary to success. 
Hinman and Shattuck wrote two very 
good articles upon the subject some time 
ago. I find however that Prof. Hinman's 
ideas as regards teachers paying their at- 
tention exclusively to large towns and 
ignoring small ones altogether, rather con- 
trary to my own experience, although I 
have taufht for aeveral years in some of 
the largest towns of the east aud west, and 
many times I have had large classes in 
some remote scliool district or districts, 
clubbing together and securing a large 
class, my expenses while teaching such 
class would be very light compared with 
large towns. 

The ability to secure a school room is 
one of the greatest hindrances that travel- 
ing penmen have to encounter. There 
seems to be a lurking prejudice by the 
teachers of the pubUc schools everywhere 
agamst them which seems to wax stronger 
as time advances, and this is mainly for 
reasons expressed by Prof. Shattuck, on 
account of so many frauds in the profession, 
the remedy suggested by him is a good one. 
That there (ire some unmitigated scoundrels 
who make their living by securing money 
in advance from students and then dis- 
appear, without rendering any equivalent, 
has in some localities created a suspicion 
and distrust of traveling teachers, and the 
only remedy is for teachers to show them- 
selves competent and worthy of patronage, 
and collect their tuition near the close of 
their term. If he does his duty he will not 
lose mnoh of his pay. It should be borne 
in mind that it is much harder to get up a 
class in writing now than it was during the 
flush times that immediately succeeded 
the war, and of course ttiiUon, ic, has to 
be put at much lower figures. I am aware 
in advocating this reduction of prices will 

lay me open to attack from friend Hinman, 
but I shall sustain my position with what 
seems to me good argument and common 
sense. It is a well known fact that those 
who sustain our writing scbool«, and most 
other schools for that matter, come from 
the poor and middle classes, while the 
high-toned rich nabobs comprise but a very 
small part. 

I believe that nearly or fully ninety per 
cent, of our writing classes are composed 
of the sons and daughters of the poor and 
middle classes, except in rare cases. It 
is also a well known fact that fully as large 
a proportion of our successful business 
men, millionaires, &c., come from this very 
same class, I regard it then the very height 
of absurdity for a teacher to put the tuition 
BO very high in hard times like the present 
so that none but a few {pampered aristo- 
crats) can have the advantage of a course 
of lessons. I have tried both methods my- 
self, and have seen others do the same, and 
the universal verdict has been in favor of 
moderate tuition ; the prices of everything 
has declined within the post year or two, 
and why should a teacher be extravagant 
in hia demands more than any other person. 
I believe the price for a course of lessons 
as heretofore announced editorially in the 
Penman's Akt JotniNAL altogether reason- 
able, and I believe that a teacher would 
be more apt to succeed on those prices 
than on higher terms. As regards private 
lessons, why this is quite another matter 
for those that are rich and can afford to 

The teacher of penmanship who, by a 
long course of training, has learned the 
elements of letters, their combinations in 
letters and words and the various move- 
ments required in their formation, who 
rigidly adheres to certain essentially excel- 
lent and uuvariable forms, aud who im- 
parts a knowledge of the same to his 
pupils, may be likened to the eagle of the 
faille, while the teacher who ignores all 
rule, and relies wholly upon movement, 
exercise, and a general unrestrained imita- 
tion of a copy which, to correspond to his 
peculiar system, or boasted lack of system, 
must of necessity be imperfect and vari- 
able, and who from such course antici- 
pated greiiter practical results than by the 
former method of teaching, shall find his 
counterpart in the jackdaw of this same 
fable; aud as he is not content with the 
lamb of one approximately perfect style 
of Penmanship, must needs be, pounce 
upon the ram of free, unrestricted, incon- 
stant and consequently impractical pen- 
manship, and there becoming entangled in 
the wool of doubt and uncertainty (perhaps 
having some of the wool pulled over his 
eyes by uuscrupulous teachers who could 
not bear the drudgery of careful intelli- 
gent practice) he is captured by the shep- 
herd who is not a scribbler, or an "ink 
slinger" and with wings clipped he is 
taken home to the children and — the se- 
quel is seen in the fable. 

From a perusal of various articles which 
have from time to time appeared in the 

pay for a private courae of instruction. 1 
have often received fifty cents per person, 
and considered that my services quite as 
as beneficial, if not more so, than the music 
teacher, who received the same for an 
hour's instruction. 

Which 1 

" An eagle made a swoop from a high 
rock, and carried off a lamb. A jackdaw, 
who saw the exploit, thinking that he 
could do the like, bore down with all the 
force he could muster upon a ram, intend- 
ing to bear him off as a prize. But his 
claws becoming entangled in the wool, he 
made such a flntteriug in his efforts to es- 
cape, that the shepherd, seeing tbrougu 
the whole matter, came up and caught 
him, and having clipped his wings, carried 
him home to his children at nightfall. 
' What bird is this, father, that you have 
brought us?' exclaimed the children. 
'Why,' said he, * if you ask himself he 
will tell you that he is an eagle ; but if you 
will take my word for it, I know him to be 
but a jackdaw,' " 

The above fable, though originating in 
the fertile brain of .Esop nearly six cen- 
turies before the ChrLstian era, quite fully 
foreshadows and embodies conditions at 
present existing. 

JoniiNAL, and from conversation with seve- 
ral penmen of my acquaiutance, I learn 
that the idea, although not a growing one, 
yet prevails to a certain fortunately limited 
extent, that to acquire a good business 
hand-writing the pupil should be unlram- 
elled by rules, and after becoming familiar 
with movements should be left to " follow 
hia own sweet will" in order that his 
wi'ttiug shall be legible and rapidly exe- 
cuted, aud thus meet the demauds of the 

Now, I think it a fact conceded by all 
that legibility and rapidity are the two 
grand essentials of u business penman, but 
I am far from admitting that these results 
may be best attained by ignoring rules, or 
in any degree abating their force. 

If the pupil have before him an engraved 
letter, and. taught its exact proportions, 
and at first slowly, carefully and intelli- 
gently draw it, either with finger, muscu- 
lar, whole arm or combined movement, he 
shall by many repetitions attain to a men- 
tal conception of its form, and his pen will 
be moved in obedience to that mental con- 
ception, aud by constant repetition he will 
acquire the ability to write with ease, freed- 
om and exactness, and it is reasonable 
to believe, with much greater rapidity than 
would be the case were he to imitate a let- 
ter which to-day shall be made one way 

and to-morrow another way, vary it never 
BO slightly. 

Nor is this fact confined to penmanship a- 
lone. The artisan can execute his work much 
more rapidly if allowed to take his usual 
course. Go to the shoemaker and get a pair 
of shoes made to order, and although they 
may not appear better than those in stock, 
yet more time was required in their manu- 
facture. Order a coat from a tailor and 
when you can get it you may fiud not one 
stitch more upon the coat, nor any ap- 
pearance of additional time having been 
required, but when you pay for it you will 
think it made expressly for you. And thus 
you will find through all the list of manu- 
facturers, or the professions or whatever 
calling in which a man may engage that a 
lack of uniformity retards the execution of 
tlie work. 

Aud movement.i alone count as nothing 
without fixed principles of action to re- 
strain. A few years ago there waa not a little 
enthusiasm generated by the introduction 
of a series of movement exercises cast in 
metal and which were to be followed by a 
correspondiug movement in the groove 
thus made by pen, or wooden or metallic 
point held as a pen is held, but that 
enthusiasm soon met with a far deep- 
er depression than the grooves in the 
metal uutil now the fact of the existence 
of such machinery is hardly known. 

An adept may himself write with a con- 
siderable degree of abandon, but to per- 
mit a pupil to imitate such writing is the 
height of absurdity ; for experience teaches 
that the imitation is certain to be an exag- 
geration of the deformity in the original. 
To advise this freedom in the practice of a 
youth is like giving him permisaiou to in- 
dulge in Church lotteries, or gome other oc- 
casional departure from the path of moral 
rectitude— a few white lies, with now and 
then a discolored one that he may enjoy 
a little freedom, or that the moral barriers 
may not seem so rigid and, so to speak, 
"impractical." Ho can't be perfect, rea- 
son they, why try to be ? He can't reach 
the sun — why aim so high ? 

There is a " broad rood" of license in 
teoching i-enmanshp as well as in morality, 
aud there is also the "narrow way" of uni- 
formity, aud I prefer to be among those 
who " fiud it ." 

KiNGSViLLE, Ohio, April 1, 1878. 
Pro/. D. T. Ames: 

Dhae Sir — I have herein not only to ac- 
knowledge the receipt of your last number 
of The Penman's Art Jodrnal, but also 
several other numbers which should have 
been acknowledged before. 

Of these numbers I will not say which ia 
superior. 1 can imagine nothing more ele- 
gant or better than either in this line. They 
not only abound in choice articles that re- 
vive old memwies and lost/riends, but are 
rich in wholesome instruction, each num- 
ber being embellished by superb bits of 
art, not only redolent of progress, but 
warmed by the ever creative brain and 
cunning hand of genius and trained skill. 
I feel greatly obliged for these favors, and 
inclose a brief tribute to P. R. Speneer, 
which you will dispose of as you think 
best. Truly friendly to you, and >our en- 
terprises, and a well-wisher to yourself 
and co-workers always. 

I remain, truly yours, 

H. P. Cooper. 

PhUjADelphia, April 22, 1878. 
Prof. Ames : 

Deak Sir — The back numbers of the 
Journal have just arrived, audi am very 
glad that waa able to get them. 

I regard your paper as being far in ad- 
vance of any periodical which has yet been 
published on the subject of penmanship, 
and I sincerely wish you the pecuniary suc- 
cess which you so richly deserve. 


the publishers of the JIotiu OueU, Boston, 


iiblr ■! 91.00 per Vear. 


1 Oolama SIS 00 t3A 00 ffis oo' fiao 00 

llDcbdDllnM).!'. IW »30 BOO 10 0( 

8 linen. U woriU. i5 1 3S 3 2A 3 61 

AdvertUomenU for one uid tl)r«« month*, ptj^abli 
iQ ftdrance; /or sli moulbs and one fMr, jm^ahli 
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withbnid pltbcr tila mbacrlptton or b good word ; tini 

their active co-oiteratlon ■• correapondente knd ageute, 


To every HUbBcrlbor, until further notice, wo wU: 

•end k copy of the John D. WllUaou' moster-ptooe, 

To any pemon ecndluB tbefr own and anotboi 

to (bo lender, ft copy of cUber of the following piibli 

of ponmnnablp ever publlahod, vie. : 

The OentennUl Picture of Progreai. . .30x38 In. in slee 

The Marringfl Oert'lfloate 18x33 " " 

The Family Heciird 18x33 " ■' 

SBpedmeuRbPetaofEutrroBSlnK e 
Or lAO Beautlfnl Soroll Oorda, 18 d 


For twelve eubBorlbors and %12, wo will Houd a copy 
of Amea' OompODdlnm of Ornftmnntal Poninftnihip, 
price $S. The aame bound In glU will bo aont for 
elgbteen subitorlbora and |18, price $7.50. 

of \ 

All onm muni cation a dxRlgned for Thr Prnuan 
AUT JotTRNAi. should boroAftoT bo addrcHHi'd tntb 
otBce nf publication, 305 Broadway, Now York. 

Tbc JoDnixAi. will brrcofter bo laaued promptly o 
the Aral of each mouth. Matter designed for Intiei 

NEW YORK. MAY. 1878. 

The Jonrnal and its Success, 
Ovpr two hundred subscriptions and re- 
newnlH Imve been roeeived during the 
month of April, while hundreds of letters 
oomplimeutint; nnd encouragiuR the 
JouHNAL hii%'f been received. lu Tiew of 
the frreiit fluiineiul depression which has 
prevailed throughout the country during 
the past year, and the great dialnist re- 
garding the oontinuftiioe of the Journal 
Tvhich led mnuy, nt the outset, to withhold 
their Bubsoriptioiisand encouragement, the 
BucceHB of the Joubnal, hm been quite 

It is now not only firmly established, 
but numbers nrawng its thonsands of 
patrons, with very few exceptions, all the 
live, reputable teachers, and many pupils, 
of writing and bookkeepiug throughout the 
United SUitos and Canada, with quite a 
roBpectftble uumiier in foreign eouutries. 

Tho great benefit resulting to the profeB- 
aiou from such a periodical can hardly be 
over- i>sti mated. It is a medium through 
-which the strong and liberal minds of the 
profewion are able to present their 
thonglits and experiences for the aid and 
enrouragemeut of others less thought- 
ful and experienced, which also tends to 
eocournge modest merit and diminish con- 
ceit aud bigotry, oa each is measured with 
the other throngh the columns of tlie Jour- 
nal. As evidence of the degree of earnest- 
uess, ability, and success, with which we 
bavi' labori'd to render it desirable and 
profitable to ita patrons, we point to the 
Journal as oar best witesns; at the same 

time we assure its friends and patrons that 
no effort will be spared to render it in the 
future, in every way better than the past. 

Personal Identity in Hand- Writing. 

The frequent occurrence of cajies in 
oonrtsof jnstice and elsewhere, involving 
the geuuinenesfl of hand-writing, to deter- 
mine which, recourse is had to profeseion- 
al experts, has led to many and sharp con- 
troversies regarding the rehability and 
real value of such conclusions, as may 
be reached by experts from ihe examina- 
tion and comparison of hand writing. 

We are not amoug those who claim in- 
fallibility for the experts, neither do we 
believe with others who deny that there is 
any reliability to be placed in the opinion 
of a skilful expert regarding writing. 

The hand, with the pen, constitutes a 
machine for the mechanical executir>n of 
writing. The pupil while learning to write 
may be said to be learning to operate that 
machine. He at first operates it slowly with 
difficulty and hesitation, but gradually 
with practice and care its operations be- 
come more and more rapid, skilful and 
certain, until at length from the greatforce 
of habit its operations become almost auto- 
matic, and with only slight variations in 
forms and character, it jierfnrms all the 
operations of writing, independent of any 
conscious aid from the mind, which is 
wholly absorbed in the preparation of mat- 
ter being thus transcribed. The baud thus 
disciplined from long habit imparts to 
writing certain marked peculiar, and 
habitual characteristics which are fixed and 
arbitrary, being as independent of any 
mental operation or direct intention us is 
the peculiar gait or motion of the hands 
and arms while walking ; by these peculi- 
arities the writing is us easily and certainly 
identified, as is the writer of the same by 
his figure, physiognomy, voice, and other 
peculiar personal characteristics. 

This force of habit imparts not only a pe- 
culiar general appearance to writing, but to 
the several letters, peculiar forma, makes 
peculiar shades, turns, connections, spaces, 
and combinations, has a certain method in 
beginning and endiug words, crossing the 
t'B, dotting the i's, Ac, &c. These pecu- 
liarities being habitual, independent of the 
will, and entirely unobserved by the writer, 
cannot suddenly and at pleasure be 
sufficiently concealed or avoided to escape 
identity any more than the writer himself 
could avoid personal identity by change in 
dress, tone of voice, .tc, although he 
might thus deceive some persons unfamiliar 
with Lis peraoual appearance among his 
more intimate associates such eflbrts would 
be too thin; he would not only be recog- 
nized but subjected to ridicule. 

To understand and be able, by analysis 
of haudwriting to point out those peculiar 
habitual characteristics, and to draw the 
correct inference therefrom is the office of 

As one may very easily make a general 
disguise of his person so as to deceive un- 
familiar persons, but with difficulty his 
more intimate associates, so a writer may 
easily bo change the general appearance of 
his writing as to deceive the casual ob- 
server, and atill retain almost every habit- 
ual characteristic, which will be at once ap- 
parent to the eye of an expert, the use of 
a widely difl'oreut pen, a variation from the 
usual speed in writing, a chauge from the 
customary slope instantly makes an entire 
change in the general appearance of writ- 
ing — these are changes which any writer 
with a little thought can introduce and 
maintain in his writing at pleasure, but he 
cannot consider at once and avoid all the 
multitudinous peculiarities in the forma- 
tion of letters and their combinations in 
writing, which are the outgrowth of long 
habit, aud which the hand now instinct- 
ively (and to the mind unconsciously) re- 
peats : such peculiarities cannot be avoided 
orrej)eated at pleasure, but will inevitably 
i-emaiu witnesses as rehable for the identity 
of hand writing, as is physiognomy for the 
identification of the writer. 

The Penman's Convention. 

The attention of all persons interested 
as teaciiers or authors of writing and book, 
keeping, is earnestly invited to the com- 
munications ond report relating to thejpro- 
posed Penman's Convention, on another 
page of the Jofrnal. We can but urge 
upon the attention of all thus interested the 
vast importance to these professions of such 
an assembly, or the great misfortune should 
the present occasion be allowed to pass un- 
improved, or from lack of a general sup- 
port, fail of being a grand and glorious suc- 
cess ; such a success as will dignify, honor, 
and enlighten the profession; its failure all 
would feel, to be not only a humiliation but 
a great misfortune. We hope all will at 
once mauifest their interest, and signify 
their intention to be present by communi- 
cation to the Commiltee on Convention, 
office of Penmanb' Art Jocrnal. 

Let us have prompt and united effjrt, 
and there cau be nothing short of the 
grandest results. 

The Journal as a Mediom of Advertising. 

The present large circulation of the 
JotiRNAL, reaching, as it does, a very large 
majority of all the teachers of writing and 
bookkeeping in the country, renders it a 
most elTeetive medium for advertising books, 
merchandise and materials desired in those 

Teachers seeking situations, and persons 
desiring to employ teachers will find the 
columns of the JouiWAii an efieetive me- 

The fact that no advertisement not jn 
line with the objects of the JonRNALare so- 
licited, and quite a limited number of others 
are desired, renders it doubly valuable to 
Ihe few who do advertifie. 

FhiUip's New Series of Copy Books. 

We are in receipt of a series of four num- 
bera of writing books, from Prof, J. E. 
Philips, Central Square, N. Y. They are 
made ou a new plan ; in the first cover is 
a pocket containing the copies on slips 
designated to be pmcticed in each book. 
The slip is placed directly above the Hue 
to be written upon anil moved down the 
page line after line, to follow the practice 
of the pupil. The copies are systematn, 
well engraved, and well graded for use in 
public schools. These books will especial- 
ly commend themselves to teachers who 
advocate the use of moveable copy slips 
in teaching writing. 

Srown's Complete Business Guide 
is a concise and practical work of 160 
pages, treating upon book-keeping, com- 
mercial calculations, business correspond- 
ence and commercial law. It seems to 
be a meritorious work, one well adapted 
for use as a text-book in aU grades of 
schools and colleges. 

It is well bound in cloth and sent for 
examination for Sl.lOper copy. See adver- 
tifiement in another column. 

Practical Lessons in Flourishing. 
Owing to the amount of very in- 
teresting matter that has been presented 
for insertion in the pr-setit issue we have 
been obliged to defer commencing that 
course until the next issue, when we 
shall commence by giving an excellent 
illustration ot the correct position with ex. 
plauation of movement, .tc. Weshall spare 
no pains to make tliis course of the greatest 
value and aid to all interested in this fas- 
cinating department of penmanship. 

Business Education. 

We earnestly commend to the careful 
cousideratiou of all persons interested in 
bnsmess colleges, the very able article 
upon this subject on page 2, from the 
pen of Prof. Van Sickle, principal of Busi- 
ness CoUege, Springfield, Ohio,. It is sel- 
dom that we have had the pleasure of read- 
ing so able and clear a vindication of the 
Business CoUege course as is therein pre- 

Renewal of Subscriptions. 

Subscribers who desire to continue to 
receive the Journal ahonld not fail to re- 
new their subscriptions, as the Journal will 
in all cases be discontinued at the end of 
the period for which the subscription is 

Persons desiring to purchase any kind 
of card-stock should address the New 
England Card Co., Woonsocket, R. I. 

Parents who desire to awaken an interest 
in writing on the part of their children, aud 
teachers who wish to continue, to success, 
the interest awakened by them in their 
pupils should certainly commend them to 
subscribe for the Journal. 

Teachers and pupils of ornamental pen- 
manship will find " Ames' Compendium '* 
the most complete guide and assistant ever 
published. Bead what is said of it on page 

Business CoUege Items. 

Colorado Academy aud Business Col- 
lege, Denver, Col-, was dedicated ou April 
25, ex-Governor John Evans presiding. 
Able and interesting addresses were made 
by ex-Governor Evans, ex-Governor Grif- 
fin, Attorney-General Sampson and others, 
accompanied with music, and terminated 
with a general collation. Judging from the 
three column report in the I^ocki/ Moimtain 
News, the whole afi'air was a splendid suc- 

The business department is in charge of 
W. W. Williamson and D.S. Pence. 

The Spenceriau Business College at 
Cleveland, Ohio, is in a highly prosperous 
couditiou, two hundred aud twenty-five 
students being at preseut in attendance. 
Ou Friday evening, April 5, the students 
and friends of the college held a grand re- 
Prof. P. R. Spencer, the Proprietor, is 
deservedly popular with his students. 

Prof. H. E. Hibbard, principal of the 
B. AS. Commercial school of Boston, is en- 
joying an unprecedented degree of success. 
On the evening of March 28, there was a 
grand reunion and recept-on of the former 
pupils of the school, which, judging from 
the Battering notice from the Boston press, 
was a most complete and gratifying suc- 

W. R. Glen, formerly of Sjiringfield, 
Illinois, has purchased of E. K. Bryan, 
ft one-third interest in the Columbus Busi- 
ness College. Both Messrs. Bryan & Glen 
are skillful penmen and representative 
teachers in their profession. A college con- 
ducted under their combined eflbrts wiU 
merit large success. 

Prof. S. S. Packard has inaugurated a 
regular course of Friday afternoon lectures 
which are delivered by eminent speakers 
before the students and friends of hia 
college. These lectures pertain to the var- 
ious topics connected with the course of 
business training and are very interesting 
and practical. 

The Colorado Academy and Business 
CoUege, Denver, gave a grand puldic re- 
ception on the evening of April 5. The 
college is conducted by Selden R. Hop- 
kins and is in a flourishing eoudition. 

H. C. Clark, has recently purchased the 
AUis Commercial College at Rockford, 
III. The institution will hereafter be known 
as the forest City Busii 

Exchange Items. 

The Penman's Help, published by Clark 
k Wietiug, Toledo, Iowa, for l ebruary, 
has been received. It is superior in all 
respects to any previous number re- 
ceived. It is well printed, and well filled, 
with int«iresting matter. We hope its visits, ' 
which have been quite irregular, wiU here- 
after be more regular and frequent. 

The Evening at Borne is pubUahed 
monthly by H. A. Mumaw, OrrviUe, Ohio. 
It is weU filled with choice reading matter. 


C W. R., Maryaville. Ohio. We can give 
yon DO iofomiatioD concerDing Frederick C. 

J. H. B.. Cohimbia, 111. Wove paper, 
other things being ecjnal, is regarded as sn- 
perior to laid, for writing pnrpoBCs, 

F. C, Lowell, MasB, We Bhall in Rome of 
our future nuniherB give some specimena 
and advice in card writing You write a very 
easy and graceful hand. Your weak point 
is in the spacing and disproportion of some 
of the letters. 

O. C. F., Millwood, Ohio. We can send 
back numbers of the JonasiL from No. G 
inclusive, which would include all the prac- 
tical lessons in writing. Japan ink is not 
good for executing work for plate engraving, 
the hair lines are not strong enough ; good 
India ink should be used. 

Mr. H. K., lahpming. Mich. — Considering 
yourageandftdversecircumetances you deserve 
much credit for what you have accomplished, 
your writing would be greatly improved, and 
its 8peed increased by making it a little 
smaller. It is legible and easy, which are the 

) greatest essentials to good busines 

J. A. Painter, Notrona. Pa.— You have the> 
basis for a good liand-writing, you hr 
good movement nnd tolcrnhly 

careful practice before trying to teach. Your 
writing lacks symmetry, equality in size, 
spacing, and slope. You do not observe suf- 
ficiently the proper use of the right, left, and 
compound curves as connecting lines. For 
our opinion regarding pens, see list of pen- 
man's supplies in another column. 

G. W. S., Inglewood, Va. " A young lady 
who is teaching in this vicinity tells her pu- 
pils that business men will not employ clerks 
unless they write with the muscu' 
ment. Do they prefer the musculi 
bined movement? and can any one write 
faster by using the muscular movement? I 
have always taught the combined movement, 
and preferred it becnufie I could write better 
filb that niovt'inent." You are undoubtedly 

R. A. Lambert, penman at the Lacrosse 
(Wis.) Business College, incloses in a well- 
written letter several very gracefully written 

C. Hills, at the Spenoerian Business Col- 
lege, incloses several gracefally written spe- 
cimens of writing ; also several fine card 

Thos. A. Kice, presidtnt Mound City Com- 
mercial . College St. Louis, Mo., sends a let- 
ter in which he displays remarkable facility 
of movement and grace iu the writing. 

J. C. Murray, North Berwick, Me, sends a 
very creditable specimen of Nourishing and 
writing, considering he is but seventeen 
years of age and has not received the aid of 
a teacher. 

Jos. Foeller, jr., Ashland, sends several 
fine specimens of off-hand flourishing aud 

card-writing. Mr. Foeller's specir 
much more than ordinary originality i 
sign and skill in t 


J. R. Goodier, Penman at the Indianapolis 
Business College, writes an elegant letter, in 
which he incloses several fine specimens of 
off-hand flourishing aud writing; also, seve- 
ral good specimens of cards. 

Miss Susie Marsh, Brandon, Wis., incloses 
some very well written copy slips. She fa- 
._. .- j^^j ^^ doubts 

mber. We have 

penman at the Burlingtc 

of her being eligible 
none. Attend by all ; 

B. L, 
(Iowa) Business College forwards one of°the 
most graceful and masterly specimens of off- 
hand flourishihg we have ever examined ■ 
also, an elegant specimen of practical 

B. Mus-ser, teacher of writing at Smitb- 
ville (Ohio) High School incloses some beau- 
tifully written specimens. Although sixty- 
three years of age Prof. Musser wields an ex- 
ceedingly nimble pen, and speaks well of 

and works for the Journal, 

J. M. Mehan is teaching classes at Oilman, 

W. W. Williamson, who for several 
months past has been under Prof. De 

Wyoming Business College, King- 
ston. Pa., is now connected with the Colorado 
Business College, at Denver. 

W. H. Lamson, forraerlyteacher of writing 
in the public schools of New York; and 
author of " Lamson's System of Writing," 
published by Harper Bros., has gone into the 
poultry business at Rahway, N, J, 

Fielding Scotield, penman at the B. andS. 
Business College, at Newark, N. J., has re- 
cently completed a very fine specimen of 
engrossing. The Newark /?»% Journal 
says it is one of the finest specimens that has 
ever been seen in that city. 

W. G. Emerson is teaching writing in the 
public schools, at Creston, Iowa. He is a 
good wtiter ; says he never received but 
seven weeks' instruction. He is delighted 
with the JouBNAL and Compendium, which 
proves his good taste and judgment. 

Ames's Compendium of Practical and 
Ornamental Penmanship. 

We have compiled below a few of the 
multitude of flatteriug notices aud com- 
mendations bestowed by the press and pro- 
fessioDtil penmen upon this work. Few 
works have been equally fortunate either 

book of great value to penmen, and ia un- 

penmanship.- Pro/. O. C. Sloelnctll, A'mcafk, y.j! " 
It ia remarkable for ita acope, variety and origin. 
ality.— Pr^y C. C. Curtis. MinneapotU, Minn. 

uWi'B£*Itm\"u'thSw8*ta^ '"""'' °' ""' '""'' '"* 

„- , 5^"*^'',', '"'SDlflceaL— Pro/. A. S, BeardtUy, 
iiashinfftoiivitte. O. 

J/LM?man'o»o"'^V»* *'""*''^' tting— Pr(/. A I,. 

"'^",1? ^Oft""^^ "' poiiiUBUBLip.— F. U.'walert, Oar- 

I expected to see a vrry r.iliinbU work. It jrreaUy ei- 

ceede my higLest ovpectatione.— Pj-^. j: Jt. South- 

1.8 WitbjUt 



i. A^ 

., Hii Wi^, 

llghUd wit 
he kind I 
o», X. r. 



II the n 

OBt complete 

/vor. ir. c. 







adfipted t 





n or (lesitinB 


ail's mip. 



or profliiced. 

rapbic effects a: 


alike for ease, rapidity, and 
escelleiice in writing. 

C. L. V,.Philmont,N. Y. "Ist. In striking 
Italian capitals is the movement reversed 
and the pen held in the ordinary way, or is it 
held as iu uff-band flourishing, and the paper 
turned to accommodate the strokes? 2Qd. 
Id off-hand flourishing is the pen held by 
penmen in general as per instructions in 
Congdon's works ? This position seems un- 
handy to me. 3rd. With which numbf 
my subscription expire V" Ans. No. 1. The 
pen is reversed aud held sane as in off-hand 
flourishing. Ans. No. 2. The position of 
hand as given in Congdon's book is advo- 
cated and practiced by many pen; 
substantially the same as was practiced by 
John D- WilUams. Yet we do not think it is 
the best position ; we should bring the third 
aud fourth fingers iuside of the pen rather 
than throw tbem outside as represented 
the cut you a " 
to illustrate c 
the June iss 
with the pres 

I of the JoDBNAL. Ans.i^o. 3 

T. P. Frost, of Springfield, Mass., sends a 
well-flourished bird and a large assortment 
of skillfully flourished cards. 

Copies of two elegantly designed and en- 
graved flourished eagles 'have been received 
from the Buffalo Business College. 

A. W. Smith, priuoipal of the B. and S. 
Business College, Madville. Pa., sends an 
elegant epecimeu of off-hand flourishing. 

A, C. Cooper, principal of the commercial 
Department of Cooptr Instititute. Lunder- 
dftte Co., Miss , incloses a skillfully flourished 

H. W. Flickinger, of Philadelphia, favors 
with a letter which, for genuine ease aud per- 
fection of style, w« have gsldom seen 

J. G. Cross, A. M., Principal of North 
Western Business College. Naperviile, HI., 
sends a series of finely engraved aud praoti- 

H C. Spencer, Washington, D. C, has re- 
cently favored us with two elegant specimens 
of his epistolary writing ; also three beauti- 
ful little gems of writing which we give in 
another page; much of the finish and 
beauty of the original writing is lost in the 
engraving and printing. 

W. C. Sandy, penman at the Troy (N. Y ) 
Business College, write.-i a very graceful let- 
ter, in which he incloses several remarkably 
good specimsus of writing from pupilsin the 
college; they speak well for both teacherand 
pupds. Mr. Sandy is also highly commended 
by his employer as a skillful, hard-workine 
and successful teacher. 

S. C. MUler, penman at the Keystone Busi- 
ness College, Lancaster, Pa., forwards a 
great variety of specimens of off-hand flour- 
ishing which evince remarkable skill both in 
design and execution, one of which appears 
on this page of the Jodbkal. He also 
incloses in an elegantly-written letter a 
superb coUection of written cards. All these 
specimens of writing are of a high order of 
ment, and fully sustain Mr. MiUer's reputa- 
tion as an accompbshed penman. 

in winning favor or finding patrons. Near- 
ly one-half of a large editioD is already 
sold, and but little more than ninety days 
have lapsed since its publication. In no 
instance has it, to our knowledge, received 
an adverse criticism. We feel fully war- 
ranted in saying that DO other work upon 
penmanship ever published so fully meets 
the desire of the professional and art- 
ist penman. It not only furnishes liim a 
greater number of and variety of alphabets 
and practical esumples for flourishing, but 
many complicated designs for engrossingaud 
other purposes of displayed penmanship : 

ustly e 


umanablp publications ; one 
ot only tbe author's talent 


J, Was 

hingtou^, dH'. "' '"^'■*'^'"'- 

pecial ad 


over other publications of 
through wbitib you exhibit 


inly Uh 

not only furniehed alpha- 

witboat lt.~rro/. 0. E. Cwly, Ntw 1 

■ifnda whoaeekthe best de- 
; publications of tbla v\m* 


The CoupENDiUH bonud in cloth, is sent 
post-paid to any address in the in the Doi- 
ted States, or Cnnadn. on receipt of S5.00. 
Bound in half Russia aud gilt, for S7.50, or 
it is sent as ii premium (iu cloth) for a club 
of twelve subscribers to this JoonNAn ; in 
gilt for a club of eighteen fiabscribers. 


Tribal* to P. E. Spencer. 


■r« 1* ■ qn'l*!, ODpreUntlmia f[r*Te. 
pclmbvd ■h»ft, all «I*((«nM tai gn 



m. wninxMl Bbotit bj Aiiil'a ■wmI' 
find immirrril .Spmrrr'i bnrnble torn 
maUlilvM maator of tb» (iiyrtlc tlu 
1 tbl&gi pf«cUc*l, in ■oii.i' dlTlue. 




annlal frlmiiS— 

Or framo U» cliuin tin* or ■ nonlog v 
Or irlT« th* aoclal boor a faapplor fit 

Undor on« roof, and on ooo wli)t«r'a n 

E"Ph wttboiil UInt of pridfl lucre, or luat— 
A llvlfiRfrircff ; now w bat T why, onir dait. 
DamI T So. Sueh ever do the jjravo defy— 
Thfj/ are Immortal and can never die. 
Tutbee.ohl nibUomaeter of tbepen. 

Penman's Convention. 

Thi! Bhy.\nt, Stbatton & SsnrH 1 

BtTHrsnss Collkoe, > 

Mkai.villk, March 25. 1878. J 

Prnf. D. r. Atnes : 

DmR Sib— Thb Penman's Anx JounKAL, 
of thiN moiitli in tiBfore rae, nnd aa usual it 
in full of ititBre<<titi!^ items. I have 
tlii*t valiiiilile alioet for 
yi't havo not beMu nblrt to ooiitriUute to itfl 
columns. My nilenco lias not been 
by neglect, iior yet from uon-appiwiation 
of its merits, for I counitler it a gem m ap- 
poaranoe, while each unmbor is replete 
with valuable information and beautiful 
doaiffOB contributed by all tli 
penmen and artists in the country. As I 
mny not be able to contribute to its col- 
nmnitvery much in 
the future, I will 
Bay I couHidei 

And now to the Bosineafl College CoDven- 

I noticed a call for a Business College 
ConTfution, by Prof. Spragne, of Wyom- 
iiiR Cnmoiereial College. 

I heartily endorse bis idea, for if dairy- 
men. po'iItrj-meD. spTtsmeu, and men of 
every conceivable calling have coventioos 
to furtlier their interests and leara from 
each other new ideas, and, in short, if they 
can pm6t by meeting together why not 
Business College men and penman? 

And now. let me say, there have been a 
number of just such conventions already 
held by the International Bi]Bine)^GQllege 

The first one was held in Chicago, I 
Ihiuk in 1863; the next one in New York 
Cily, in 18G4; the next one in Cleveland in 
ISe.'j; and each succeeding year in differ- 
ent cities. The last one was held in Balti- 
m'>re, and the next one is to be held in 
New York city, and the time is set for the 
id Tuesday in April, but in all proba- 
bility it will be postponed till a later date. 
The subject of po-'tponement is now under 
discussion by the members of the Associa- 
Lud will no doubt be held some time 
the present year. 
Now, OS a member of that Association, I 

I New OBLEATfi. AprU, 1872. 

I Editor Pe>tian's Art Journal: 

The ideas evolved by the active and pro- 
bfic brains of some of the erudite and en- 
thusiastic teachers of onr specialty — bosi- 
nesB science— which to-day is so essential 
a part of a liberal education as to be 
deemed indispensable by all progressive 
minds, touch a responsive chord in onr 
botom, and portray our feelings and senti- 
ments to a limited extent. We would 
occupy a broader field, stand upon a higher 
plane, and present a more generoun view 
of the subject than has hitherto been given. 
We should expand our heart* and liberalize 
onr minds until we can cheerfully extend 
a hearty welcome and a fraternal grip to 
all educator- throughout the length and 
breadth of this lovely land; at least, all 
who are teachers and authors of commercinl 
science, which covers a wide and beautiful 
field of practical knowledge, embracing in 
its unbounded limits book-keeping, with 
its concomitants, penmanship, commercial 
arithmetic, political and domestic economy, 
letter- writing, commercial law, and, with 
US, sociology, physiology, phrenology, 
&c. The benefits that would accrue to in- 
dividual members, either directly or in- 
directly, from the holding of merely a pen 


JouiiNAL far super- 
ior id anything of 
the kind I have ev- 
er seen, and should 
bo taken, read, and 
supported by not 
only every educator 
in the laud. 

I urn an old peuumu: have been in the 
oanse now twenty-seven years; but for the 
past year or two my health has been 
poor, and I have been obliged to "let up" 
a little; and this is the reason I have been 
so alow to ackuowledgo the claims of the 
Art Journal. 

It is won<U'rful to sea the great improve- 
ment in penmanship made in the last 
twenty-flvo years. Well do I remember 
the good old Uncle Platt, as we us«d to 
call the author of the " Spencerian," and 
the many days spent in " Jericho," the old 
log seminary at Geneva. No young man 
over mot Mr. Sponcer without becoming 
bettor for the acquaintance. 

The champion penmen twenty-five years 
ago were but few. P. R. Spencer, V. M. 
Bice, J. W. Lusk. E. 0. Folsom. in the 
wt>at, ICnapp and Rightmeyer, and a few 
others in the east, were about all. Now, 
I wilt not try to euumerite them. The 
Lord said to Abrum, " Look now towar(b 
heaven and tell tho stars if thon bo able 
to number thorn," uud he siid unto him, 
" so tihall thy soi-d he." The penmen are 
almost as numei-ous. 

What has caused this great change and 
increase ? I can answer in a few words. 
Biisiuess Colleges and such papers as the 
Pknu&n's Art Jodrnal. 

We Americans are apt to boast of our 
great improvements, but in truth in the 
matter of peumauHhip no country on th** 
face of the globe can eomp.ire with us in 
point of progress and olegauce in orna- 
mentjil pen-work at least. Hut enough of 
this, I have diverged from my text. I 
will say, however, long life and abundant 
proeperity to the Fekhan's Abt Joubnal, 

tion, as also to the teachers of book-keep- 
ing and penmauship throughout the conn- 

At the next meeting of the L B. C. As- 
sociation an invit.ition be extended to all 
worthy educators to meet with us. The 
meeting of the members of the Association 
may be called a few days prior to the gen- 
eral convention, to give time for the trans- 
action of such business as would not be of 
interest to the pubhc. And then a grand 
meeting of all hberal-minded educators 
may be convened. A vast amount of good 
both to the I. B. O. Association, as also to 
the public, might be gained by such a 

The best method of instruction, the sub- 
ject of text-books, the rates of tuition, and 
a variety of subjects may be discussed, and 
abetter feeling and understanding estab- 
lished between colleges and educators 
than now eziata. 

A. W. Sjoth. 

man'$ convention would not be sufficient 
remuneration to those whose residence is 
remote from the selected, favored city to 
warrant incurring the requisite expense to 
enable them to attend. There now exists 
an association of business colleges, com- 
prising many, if not a majority, of the 
leading institutions of that class in this 
country ; but it has not held a meeting 
since, if we mistake not, '73, though several 
subsequent attempts have been made, but 
each proved, for want of a quorum or some 
other cause, alike futile. We do not pre- 
tend to know what has paralysed and rend- 
ered practically inoperative this associa- 
tion. But as there must of necessity exist 
a cause for every effect, it follows logically 
that something esoteric perhaps underlies 
tins condition. "We know not whether this 
apathy be the result of pure, unalloyed 
indifference, produced by the belief that it 
dots not pay, or superinduced by the great 
financial depression, from the frozen hilts 
of the north to the sunny fields of the 
south, that baa hindered the progress of 

nearly every enterprise and industry during 
the last half decade. But as a large num- 
ber of the best and most infiuential pen- 
men are connected with these schools, 
and " in union there is strength," it would 
be politic to politely suggest to this associ- 
ation — not ostracising other similar educa- 
tional establishments — to unite with us in 
one grand and glorious convention, and 
start the ball with such impetus that it will 
roll on through succeeding years a bless- 
ing, edifying, elevating, purifying. If this 
coalition could be effected, it would doubt- 
less prove largely beneficial, not alone 
to those who devote their time, talents and 
energies to our beautiful art, but especially 
so to business college proprietors, by 
awakening anew in them the fires of prog- 
ress and improvement, which have so long 
semi-slumbered ; arousing them to a sense 
of obviouH duty, and creating a spirit of 
friendly emulation and laudable enthusi- 
asm. The plausible and seductive argu- 
ments adduced by our disinterested (?) 
brethren, especially in the East, relative to 
holding the conveutiou at** home, sweet 
home," apply with equal force to our land 
of oranges, magnolias, and fragrant per- 
fumes ; but as the Crescent City rest im- 
mediately on the perimeter of the Conven- 
tion (all) circle described by the obedient 
pen of one of our worthy fellows, and would 
probably receive only a complimentary 
vote, we shall merely put it in nomination, 
using no flowery rhetoric or stern logic in 
presenting its claims upon the suffrages of 
the profession, Our second choice is Den- 
ver, Colorado. " Tlie star of empire west- 
ward takes its flight." The Eiist, by hold- 
ng the balance of power, has long swayed 
<he sceptre, and dictated to the "rest of 
nankina" her terms in regard to gi-eat 
national enterprise, giving httle considera- 
tion to the wishes 
or demands of the 
South and West, 
but a new era is 
dawning, for the 
voice of these sec- 
tions is to-day an 
important factor in 
solving problems in 
which the Ameri- 
can people are in- 
terested.) The 
above is parenthetically thrown in ; for we 
do not harbor a desire to create or awaken 
sectional strife, but cherish a fond hope 
that we may have, under some name, some' 
where, at some time a convention which will 
be productive of the greatest good .to the 
greatest number. 

Respectfully and fraternally submitted 
for the careful and earnest consideration of 
the craft. Yours truly, 

J. B. Cdndiff. 

Cady, Wilson A Walworth's Busi- ) 
NEBS College and Phonograj-hio >■ 
Instftdte, New York, April 24, '78. ) 
Editor Penman's Art Journal : 

Dear Sm— It is reasonable to suppose 
that no live teacher questions the benefit 
that might be derived from a convention 
of those interested in teaching penman- 
ship and the commercial branches, and we 
all owe you onr thanks for the pubhcity 
you have given to the movement through 
the columns of the Journal. 

Of course all in this vicinity would give 
preference to New York as the place of 
meeting. The expense of living in a large 
city for a week or two need deter no one 
for it is full of hotels and boardrng-houses, 
large and small, high and low priced. 
There could not possibly be a better hall 
than Mr. Packard's, which he has kindly 
offered. August should be the time, the 
teachers having moat leisure during that 

As to committee or preliminaries I am 
sure that all teachers in this vicinity will 
do their utmost both before and during the 
convention to make it a success, and it can 
be made a great success if all who come 


will bring Bomething of the enbstantial 
siiUfl of their work. Od this point I most 
heartily approve Mr, Packard's saggeation. 
and shall not feel that all the necessarj 
work has beeo doue anless it is carried 
into effect. It is not advisable to show off 
the skill of some phpuomeuul writer 
mathematician, nor a set of books that 
has cost some plodder twice the time and 
labor they are worth. Instead of this a 
most welcome contribution could be made 
of the average writing of whole closaes, oi 
the entire sets r)f books of certain students. 
Teachers exhibitiiig such meritorious work 
should be able to give valuable advice to 

There is much room for di 
the writing teachers methods — fine 
coarse pens, lessons to beginners, 
meuts and movement exercises, writing 
from dictionariea, Sec, &c. Suggestions 
might also be made on various courses of 
instruction in business colleges. While I 
believe tlie ability of commercial teachers 
is equal to that of any other claas, I am 
led to believe that we are behind in many 
things pertaiuing to methods. 

I shall be glad to hear the geueral voice, 
and trust it will speak through the May 
number of the Journal. 

Very truly yours, 

C. E. Cadt. 

Wyoshno Coumbroial College, 1 
KiNGWON, Pa., April 19, 1878. ( 
Messrs Editors : 

Dear Sms : — The friends of business 
colleges are pleased, I think, to know that 
the proposed Convention is a "fised fact." 
The committee of arrangements named by 
the Journal, with the addition of the 
name of D. T, Ames, undoubtedly "fill 
the bill," and au evidence of the assured 
success of the Convention ia found in the 
fact that all are impressed with the idea 
that no time should be lost in preparing 
for it. Very much of the profit and iutevest 
of the occasion will also be determined by 
the programme, wliich I hope the com- 
mittee will immediately take in hand. 

Personally I would prefer August G for 
date. That would give opportunity for 
many to start Monday mornicg and arrive 
in time for the opening. Four days, in my 
opinion, would be sufficient time to serve 
the purposes of the first convention, clos- 
ing Friday afternoon or evening by a gen- 
eral jolification meeting with " feast of rea- 
son audflow of soul," and giving most of us 
opportunity to arrive home the same week. 

Without any particular preference, and 
fully appreciating the magnanimity of the 
western colleges in indorsing the move- 
ment, it seems to me in starting these con- 
ventions we should begin at New York and 
thereafter "follow the course of empire."' 
Very truly, 

S. S. Spraoue. 

Van Sickle's Business College, ) 
Sprus-gfield, O., April 9, 1878. f 
Editfir of the Peyiman's Art Journal: 

Sir : — I am in favor of the proposed 
Convention of the Teacher's and Penman 
of Business Colleges. Let it be at New 
York city, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Phila- 
delphia, or any other central locality ; and 
July or August the time. Physicians and 
other teachers have their associations ; why 
should not we? Every penman, teacher, 
and author of bookkeeping should favor 
such a convention and do all in his power 
to be present. 

J. W. Van Sickle. 

Packard's Business Colleqe, 1 
New York, April 18, 1878. f 

Fro/. Ames : 

I should be glad to attend the proposed 
convention at any point between Portland 
and New Orh-aus from wliich the seashore 
is easily accessible. My habit is to spend 
"vacation "after the manner of the por- 
poise. New York ia m the vicinity of 
Coney Island Beach, and if this doesn't 
, for the existence of the city, it 

proves to my mind that it ia the best place 
for the meeting. 

In August the water is delightful. If 
this city and Coney Island are to be de- 
cided upon, I favor as the committee on 
preliminaries the gentlemen you named in 
your April number of your Journal. 

But there should be a convention, how- 
ever or wherever. 

Yours truly, 

Wu. Allen Miller. 

Although we have not received as nu- 
merous a response to our propositions in 
the April number of the Journal as we 
hoped, sufficient has been leceived to in- 
dicate a wide-spread and general interest 
in the subject, as the following articles and 
report will indicate. M^ny whom we 
know from personal knowledge to favT 
and desire to attend suchau assembly have 
made no response. Between thirty or forty 
communications, all favoring it have been 
received. As will be seen a very large 
majority favor New York as the place, 
and August 5tb or 6th as the time for 
holding the same. We are confident that, 
all things being considered, this is a wise 
conclusion. While it wdl uudoubtedly 
inconvenience many, and perhaps debar 
from attending some of our extreme 
western and southern brethren, we feel 
certain that a much larger number will 
attend than if held elsewhere. The first 
convention will, in order to be successful. 

Profs. Sprague and Dean, of Wyoming 
CommerciBl College, Kingston, Pa., both 
favor New York and Aug. 6. 

A. C. Cooper, Lauderdale Co., Miss., fa- 
vors the Conventiou; does not promise to at- 

Thomas A. Rice, St. Louis. Mo., favors 
the Congress, and St. Louis as the place, 
July the time. 

M. E. Bennett, Schenectady, N. Y., will 
attend at New York, Aug. G. 

G. A. Shattuch, Medina, N. Y., wilt at- 
tend at New York, Aug. 6. 

H. C. Wright, Brooklyn, N. Y., will at- 
tend at New York, Aug. G. 

J. B. Morgan, Haddam Neck, Conn., will 
attend. Thinks no place more auspicious 
than Paokard's Halls; favors Aug i>. 

Jas. McBride. New Vienna, will attend; 
favors Cincinnati. Ohio, and Aug. G. 

E. L. Burnett, Elmira, N. Y., will attend, 
New York. Aug. G. 

L. Moon. Reesvile. Ohio, will attend, de- 
sires it to be held at Cincinnati, Ohio. 

W. P. Bedford, Falmouth. Ky., favors 
Lexinfitou. Ky. 

A. C. Blaokman, Green Bay, Wis., says he 
cannot attend, but is very aniious the Con- 
vention should be held. He thinks some 
Weptern city preferfthle to New York as the 
pla«e. He also suggests ,that alt interested, 
who cannot attend, should send a written 
communication, giving their views and ex- 
perieuce relating to some one or more of 
the subjects likely to come under the con- 
sideration of the Convention, also that the 
same be read and published in pamphlet 
form with addresses, and the other proceed- 
ings of the Convention for reference, and 
the beneht of those who are unable to at- 

We consider the foregoing and other 
assurances we have received sufficient to 
sustain our assertion in the April issue of 

require much thought and preliminary 
labor, in advertieiug, arranging program- 
me, securing speakers, and the influence 
of the press, etc., wliich can be more 
readily and successfully accomplished in a 
metropolis than elsewhere. For the future 
we will say with Brother Sprague, "follow 
the course of empire." 

We would gladly give all communica- 
tions in full, but want of space forbids. 
We therefore give the following summary : 

Thomas Powers. Fort Woyue, lud, says 
hold the convention any, at New York. 
I endorse your committee and will try to at- 

James H. Lansly. Hold the Convention 
in New York, Aug, 6. I approve your 

E. K. Bryan, Columbus, Ohio, favors the 
Convention, to be held at Columbus. Ohio, 
and offers his commodious rooms free. Names 

G. R. Bathbun, Omaha, strongly favors 
the Convention and Columbus, Ohio, as the 

H. E. Hebbord, Prin. B. and S. Business 
School, Boston, will attend, New York Aug. 

■^ P. Duff A Sons, Pittsburgh, Pa., will at- 
tend or be represented at any time or place. 
H. Russell will attend ; favors Chicago as 

Chas. French, Prei. French's Business 
College. Boston, will attend at New York, 
Aug. 6. 

W. R. Cbilds offers the use of bis commo- 
dious college rooms at Lexington, Ky., free, 

the Journal, that the holding of a Con- 
vention, and its success, is assured. The 
Committee of Arrangements named by the 
Journal have been almost unanimously 
endorsed, with numerous suggestions that 
the editor of the Journal be added, which 
honor, notwithstanding his great mode.sty. 
he will not decline. At the earnest re- 
quest of Prof. Packard, Prof. William Al- 
len Miller will take Mr. Packard's plnre 
upon the Committee. With the exception 
of ye editor, these gentlemen composing 
the Committee are representative mfn iti 
the profe&siou, and will do all that can be 
doue to ensure the success of the Couveo- 
tioo. The Committee will proceed to take 
immediate action toward the accom]>lish- 
meut of the object for which they have 
been designated, and since it is now set- 
tled that a Convention is to be held, and 
the time and place apparently fixed, we 
especially urge upon the attention of all 
in any manner interested in its to 
at once put their shoulders to the wheel. 
While the Committee may do much, it is 
not in their power alone to command suc- 
cess, that can only come from a strong, 
full and united eflfort of the fraternity. 
Until further notice, suggestions and com- 
munications relating to the Convention 
may be addressed, 

Committee on Contention, 
Office of Penman's Art Jouhnal, 

205 Broadway, New York. 

In this column we shitU iasert, ia each 
issue, a limited number of the autographs of 
prominent pi^nmen and authors. When cuts 
are furnished, they will be inserted free. I( 
engraved by us, a charge of SI. 50 will be 
made, which will include a duplicate cot to 
be sent by mail to the person represented. 
Ciit,s must not exceed 2* inches (or the width 
of one column) in length. Autographs furn- 
ished for us to engrave shnukl be either the 
exact size desired, viz, . 2\ inches long, or 
just twice the length, viz. : ii inches ia 


Is an accomplished penman and teacher. 
Supt. Penmanship, Keokuk {Ir)wa) city 
schools ; Piof. of Penmanship, Keokuk Mer- 
cantile College, and proprietor Peirce's Nor- 
mal Penmauship Institute. 

Is a good writer. Teacher of Penmanship at 
Green Mountain, Perkins' Academy, South 
Woodstock, Vermont. 

Is one of our most skillful writers and flour- 
ishera, and Prof, of Penmanship at the 
Keystine Business College, Lancaster, Pa. 

Proprietor of Forest City Business College, 
Rockford, 111., and is a very skillful penman. 

Is author. and publisher of "Phillips' Prac- 
tical System of Penmauship," Central Square, 
N. Y. He is an expert writer and successful 

Is a rising young penman at Elizabeth, N. J., 
where he is a popular teacher in several pri- 
vate schools and acade: 

Is the well-known expert and ronnd hand 
penman. His style of writing is peculiarly 
adapted for all legal documents. This signa- 
ture is remarkable for its apparently having 
no beginning or end. 



A iinb«rd of. ' Writing C«kI« Id th« R««hri 
(N. Y.> kriMlt Mery ilar cubic* ine to give Ixllcr a 
•lAck (Wriung morr dAatalav ttaftn eraj) tl 

( »Dt«,3& foraoc.: 


A^r,;:';--,:- .':"• 

Artistic Penwork. 

\J oriffinal tUiianM, no Vko •like, and eotlrolr now 
»o tbo nabllc. lor BOc gond 35c. lor ft t>*a>di/ul pur> 
«/ off-hand flMrithinfi, or $1.00 for flv^. Yonr iiMnc 
t*«lr wrlll«n on Ono UowofirO^Ior 26c. Bamplo*. 


L.AM1I.K with ym.r .mm« «n.1 pfl.-e-llsl «<jnt by 
r» »,,.l tor luc. N.. (roe »««. A. HMITH. 

i^ liii ImliiiK iTirijiuiij BuiioeaH Alphabet, wll 
priritod liiitnicliorii'. Now, orlalDftl, plillosupblct 
Putiiplu iirilque otylff, »Iaptoil to prlvulo loaruci 

clawM. Biniili) let, A 


A COMPICTENT TEACHKR of Dookkooping, Arllh- 

pirdctilAro a* U> pularv, rcforonco, A<-., BuAlNES-s. 
coro PKNMAM'S Altl JOURNAL, 305 Broadwoj', New 


JT wiilnlii Ibe largort vorioty of C«rd8 ever olTere 
ttint nro MilUblu for fluo pt-n work. W« buve tunde 
■poclalty of Peninkn't Cftrds, oat Edge Cards, Iloi 
VAgK CardR, Whlto BriNtol, Ullt Border Card*, Cardli 
Dluo, DiMk Purpio, out tlorkor Eloflant ricbwell Lit 

^ <H 


roniplole BtisiiieNS Guidei 

KM nn iiY I \(i n...ik- 

Hwnilolph. N. Y 

"VlirANTED-A HraUi 

other bminMiM prolprr 
pocted, PENMAN A, C 

ViatXINO 0ABD8 written Bud sent by mill >l tbe 
following ratos: Plitlu SpeDcorlan, :iS ceut*.; 13 
(lincnnt doBtuiKt fatyMlmlloB of pou work. 4U ceLtB. ; 
pKU-liouHatiod, SI. Stmplo, aScont*. D, V. EBLLEV, 

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Tbo Kamlly Kooord ISxJJIn. o 

asiioclmdnShooUofKuuroHiDgBaclillxUlu. i o 

ItiO Beautiful SuroU Carda, 18 doBlgua 6 

DANIEL T. a;B3, 

AgUtU Tmutod. 30a Uroadwar, N. T. 

Tbo following a 
>ulB)a awardod . 
iitouulal Ptolure of Progreaa 

moulala awardod by «n 
Ooiitouulal Ptolure of 
puu art pul>llahedbj ui 

Kr.»i sl'ililT Kiut tvBl (tenluB — Hon. Sditarda 1 ....^ 
p,;,!, riul. .1 SUtea Mlnlater to England. 

TUo) uri- iii<l<.'«d B wonder and a inarveL I doub 
wbylluT ilif Of t of penmanahlp, employed lu Ihcm 
tioii pi.'Hit>-», has evur been eqiialod in tlita country. - 
Ht>n. lA lio]/ Morgan, JubUco of tbo Supremo Court o 

P A C K J»L R D ' S 


tborougb tnliijiig lu ' 

Accounts, with Arithmetical Problems . 


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dispTay^uts foOdvertisino. 



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m FULION STBEET, cor, Cban^h St., N, Y. 12-at 

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apeclmen circular with 1< 



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ensluli, BrmaeU. Time jtlg. hujmiu. Al^„. tftnir V.irptt-,, Telnet Ruga, Crumi Ototlil 
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ilj", at MOS Bi-ond-way, loi- W 1 .00 per "Vt 

NEW YORK, JUNE, 1878. 

VOL. II. NO. 3. 

BuBtDCOR Colleges, occ 


?nl SpeD 

cerlau Copy Books, 



806 BBO^DWAY. 

205 Broadwny, Now York. 




urtb Street, 



Eminent Penmen of Oldtn Times. 

In 1750. Mr. Joseph Cljunipioii publit-hed 
iu lioodon "ThePaballkl or Compara- 
tive Penmanship Exemplified in four of 
tbe oreatest original fobeion masters, 
Tiz. : L. Muterot, J. Vandni Velde, L. 
Barbedvr, Ambrose Perlimj.^' It coutfliua 
tweuty-foiir oblong folio plittes and (oui' 
piigeH of letter press. Mr, Tliorowgood 
eii«riived it. The whole is iiu elaborate 
aud curioue performance, and Mr. Thorow- 
good, though he performed tlie part of a 
curious euKraver, acknowledges that no 
graver am /uUt/ come up to the neatness, 
spirit and freedom that there is in the 
author's hand. 

In Eoglish works on penmanship fre- 
quent mention ia made of the names 
mentioned above aa the equal, if not tbe 
superiors, of their cotempniary English 
penmen. The information I can glean 
so meagre that I purpose to present in th 
article all I am able to learn about tliem, 

Biekham, in " Penmanship in its Utmost 
Beauty and Extent, published in 1731, 
says ; " A very correct mauuscript of this 
great man is now in tbe hands of Mr. 
Zachary Chambers, which has for mauy 
years been esteemed an inimitable per- 
formance by all the judges that have ever 
seen it ; but since his purchase of that in- 
valuable treasure he baa, through the dint 
of a huppy genius and an unwearied in- 
dustry and application, made tlie nei 
advances of any man to the freedom 
beauties of tliat surprising original ;" and 
Massey, thirty years later, says: "Mr. 
Chambers has in his possession an excel- 
lent manuscript of the aforesaid Velde. 
deemed the best thing of the kind iu the 
kingdom. He purchased it of Mr. Beard, 
a writiug muster near Radcliff Cross, for 
tweuty-five guineas'* (about 6125). 


was a Frenchman, and published iu Paris 
iu 1647. " He wrote a very large and curi- 
ous copy -book in various bauds. His 
natural genius inclined him principally to 
tbe practise of round hand, in which he 
excelled. His beauties, however, our 
British moderns have to their immortal 
honor happily improved, as several curious 
'9 in this undertaking (Biekham's 
aanship in its Utmost Beauty and 
at), will undoubtedly dL-munslrate. " 

Art and culture have long c 
considered synonymous terms, 
hard for us to picture au artist a 
uncultivated being, expressing i 

to be 

was an Italuiu of Aviguon. " His genius 
led him to the sole practice of tbe Italian 
hand, which he executed after so exceed- 
ingly neat and beautiful a manner that he 
flourished without a rival, was the admi- 
ration of all his cotemporary professori* 
and the darliny of the hidies. He oblij/ed 
the world by his productions in the year of 
our Lord 1604." 

was a Dutchman of Rotterdam {Massey 
says of Antwerp). cotemporary with 
Materot, hi.s works were published at 
Amsterdam in 1605. He principally 
studied aud practised the beauties of the 
German text. In an essay on the Art of 
Wriling. by Roliert More, writiug miitster, 
published in the second part of '• Natural 
Writing." by George Sliellev, London, 
1714. I find the following notire of Velde : 
" The immortal Velde stands in the first 
rank, whose very faiUts (if any) I know not 
the uiRU that hath ability to copy. We bave 
a manuscript of his in England but imper- 
fect; thu D (tt curious sprigged letter), be- 
ing onfortouately lost." 

" Ambrof-e Perling not only wrote but 
engraved his copies ; wat the nest exqui- 
site master that was distinguished iu Hol- 
land. He made the round hand, as being 
best adapted to business, his more ic 
diate study, and the freedom that appeared 
in his originala had a grace inexpressibl 
He published his works at Amsterdam i 

These sketches, brief as they are, gi\ 
about all that can be learned of these one 
prominent writing mufters, and will sen 
to give some general knowledge to the 
reader, of four men not born on Euglish 
soil, prominent among the penmen of 
olden times. 

The Pen as a Means of Culture. 

t, more than any other element, has 
id to raise man m his gradual attain- 
t of civilization aud culture. The 
Histhetic part of our natures is far m 
largely endowed than the practical 
philosophical ; and it is by a constant 
emulation of the beautiful and tbe pleas- 
ing that mau acquires nobihty, purity 
and hiftiuess of character. Witness this 
natund tendency in the surpassing adora- 
tion which the world pays to its artists, ita 
poeta, paiutera, composers, authors, arclii- 
tecta. How much dearer the name of John 
AMilton U> English lips than tliat of the 
great philosopher Newton ; and yet the 
latter was a man of more practical worth 
to Eugl.-.nd aud the nations of the globe 
than all the bay-crowued poeU of the cen- 
turies. Such is the power of art, 3uch its 
influence upon our lives aa individuals, as 
nations, as men. 

son none of the teuder graces which trans- 
form and illume the souls of others through 
his thoughts and fancies. On tli 
hand, I have just fluisbed reading 
cle on the greatest inventor of 
times, Edison, who has set the world agap 
with his wonderful revelations in the realm 
of science. The correspondent wlio was 
admitted to an interview with this remark- 
able man describes him as n raw, unkempt, 
carelessly -dressed individual, " with a large 
quid of tobacco continually in his cheek." 
Now, I do not suppose that the phonograph 
will suffer one whit in the estimation of the 
people for this bit of disclosure, but what 
should we thiult of "Hiawatha"— a pro- 
duction almost as unique, in its way, as 
the invention of our young scientist — had 
some newspaper reporter found Mr. Long- 
lellow iu his literary workshop defiling the 
floor with tobacco juice, aud coutiadiotiug 
by his crude aud careless appearance every 
sweet thought and rau fancy in that bit of 
»aarveIloUb metre I 

So far, then, as a man is an artist, we 
look to him for culture aud beauty of 
character, for purity, eloquence, nobility, 
aud all the finer characteristics of the soul. 
Nature's nobleman is not, according to tlie 
old proverb, her child of toil, but her child 
pathy, of quick heart, of vivid 
When we attempt to single out 
markable means of culture, we 
find that no instrument has felt tlie touch 
of master- fingers so often as the pen. These 
idols of art, these adorable geniuses, have 
impiessed themselves upon humanity 
through so simple a medium as a point of 
clefted steel I The world is aglow to-day 
with the sunset fancies of how t 
wliose only wand of transformat: 
hollow reed and a cup of gall ! H 
can we lail to honor tlie pen, that puny 
agent of so much light and beauty ? 

But it is not in this trite aspect that I 
wish to present to you the pen as a m 
of culture. There is another view w 
is equally striking and less familiar, 
refer to the culture which may be der 
from the mere wieldituj of the pen, apart 
from the thoughts which its passage over 
paper transcribes. There is probably no 
.simpler, more voluntary exercise in form 
and symmetry than tliat aflorded by the 
pen. Give a boy the means of writing, 
and he will eventually produce pleasing 
forms. It oomes natural to follow the flow 
aud interlacing of the manifold letters, to 
reproduce in rapid succession the same 
studies which masters of the art in all 
ave exhausted their skill upon. 
On the other hand, provide a boy with 
ketching materials, aud in nine ctrses out 
.f every ten he will succeed in producing 
miy a senseless blur, no more like his copy 
than the blank surface of the sheet itself, 
e, then, a natural taste in most minds 
for this form of art, this gate-way to the 
great temple of culture ; aud by following 
this inclination. I believe that the more 

love for beautiful forms and such a facility 
iu producing them as to really elevate and 
ennoble their thoughts and lives. For why 
should not one brancli of true art possess 
as potent au influence for good as another ? 
and why should this must practical and 
simple of all the departments of art be in- 
ferior to its supplements in elevating tho 
human mind and heart ? To teachers of 
this delightful and useful art, therefore, say 
I, God-speed ; and may the time soon 
come when every man, woman and child in 
the land shall learn the beauty and depth 
of culture which may lie in that little wand 
of wonder, the Pen. 

Trifles Necessary to Good Penmanship. 

Make tl 

e tliouKli t 

uncultivated i 

ilghty o 
Make the uUgbtr ugttu of eternity." 

These were words that we learned when 
a child, and how often have we thought of 
them since when teaching penmanship, 
and how profoun*'' impressed have we 
been with that grand old truth, that if 
wou'd aacceed, let us look well to minor 
details in every particular. The neglect to 
attend to trifles has been the cause of more 
failures than any one thing thati have ever 
wn, both as regards teachers of pen- 
ship and those engaged in various other 
pursuits. A little neglect may breed great 
mischief ; for want of a nail the shoe was 
lost, for want of a shoe the horse was lost ; 
and for want of a horse the rider was lost, 
being overtaken and slain by the enemy ; 
all for want of a little care about a horse- 
shoo nail. Precisely in the very same 
manner have we known writiug teachers, 
who were well qualifled in every other 
particular, to fail iguominously by their 
non-attention to the trifling details of the 
business. Some that were able to make 
splendid specimens of penmanship have 
made most dismal failures as teachers, be- 
cause they could not be made to under- 
stand this one vital and essential element 
of success. In a recently contested will 
case, in the city of Philadelphia, the trifliug 
error of an attorney who left out one word 
cost his clients $500,000. Well begun 
ia half done, is a time honored maxim, 
and in nothing is it more applicable than 
in learning to write. Who ever saw a 
teacher who commenced right, was care- 
ful to seize upon every opportunity, how- 
ever trifling, to contribute to his suooeas, 
ever fail? Just how failures occur by 
neglecting trifles is the point that I am 
sure is a vital factor in the problem, that 
sbould by no means be ignored. 

I will give an illustration of a young, in- 
experienced teacher whom I was acquaint- 
is a grad- 
uate of a first-class commercial college and 
good penman ; came out west, as many 
do. to teach writing. He said he was 
going to teach at a certain place, and re- 
quested me to call on him when lie got his 
clofes fairly under way ; which I promised 
to do. At a certain time I called on him, 
and found, by tbe many 

ight attain snch a dissatisfaction, that everything was not 


altogetber ftHlovt^Iy aa he Imd represented. 
On attending hi* clam that evening several 
thing* which he thought altogether to:> 
trifling to be thought of for a moment, 
wftHJiist exactly whnt waa causing the whole 
difll'-ulty. Etch pnpil took his pen and 
fell to writing a» best he might, some of 
thfcm doing their level beat to see how 
many i>ages they could get over during the 
evcoiug, while others hod that slow, 
nioumfnl, Hnnil-tike luovemeiit, that was 
truly mo^t painful to witncM. As to posi- 
tion, Jiicfa FiilHtaflTs recruit* in tlieir palm- 
iest dayM could not begin to assume one- 
half of the difTcrent jioMtionH ; and as to 
ppuH and writing material, the saints de- 
fend and the readers of the Joijrkal ex- 
C11HG us from attempting in our limited 
space to describe the various kinds of pens, 
the many different colored inks, and the 
various shapes and kinds of paper that 
were used on that occasion ; it would be 
impossible to describe it, suDice it to say 
that the course of lessons was voted by all 
the class of pupils a farce, and it is said 
that the teacher left between two days to 
avoid arrest as an impostor. How true 
this may be I do not know, but I do know 
that he made a most miserable failure, out 
of which might have been a grand success, 
had he looked more carefully to the sta- 
tionery of bis pupils, and insisted on each 
maintaining a proper position and 
given them the proper instructions in the 
movements, and also of keeping good 
order. These things seemed to him, so 
he told me. altogether too trifling to occu- 
py his attention for a moment, hence the 
result ; and who bIhiII say that some one or 
more kindred faults is not what causes the 
failure of a great many of our best penmen, 
when they attempt to impart their skill to 
others. Forewarned is forearmed, then 
let all remember, as all desire that success 
should crown their efTorts that nothing, 
seum it to be ever so trifling, if it can con- 
tribute to your hucoess, be not overlooked, 
for, like poor Warner, you may fail by ig- 
noring that which you need above all other 
tilings to give you success. 

ModoBty among Penmen. 
Is there any tangible rcnson why penmen 
should be more conceited than other i)eo- 

None is apparent, and yet (here are 
those in the pr<)fessiou who exhibit these 
traits to a remarkable degree, especially 
the younger portion. 

It is needless to say that there are iu the 
profession many penmen who are as mod- 
est and gentlemanly tw the most conscien- 
tiously upright men in any other business, 
nay, more, the penman's profession con- 
taiuh some of the moat finished, cultivated, 
and unassuming gentlemen that soaiety 
produces. This statemtnt, howevei, does 
uot ameliorate the other iu the least. Uu- 
deuiable proof of our statement miiy be 
found by referring to the odveitising col- 
umns of this papoi' — otherwise a model of 
good sense and excellBuce. 

Our object in writing this is to invite at- 
tention to a number of advertisements for 
written cards, pen flourished designs, &c. 
No nanuw will be mentioned, aud wc hope 
none will be offende.1, as it is the principle 
that is attacked and not the imUvitltml. 

Of a dozen advertisements of this kind, 
ten claim to do the best work. The follow- 
ing are a few literal quotations. The italics 
are my own. " Samples of the hdndsoinest 
wrilti'U oards ever executed with the pen." 
"The h<itiilsmnest thing you ever saw." 
Another iisiurant advertises "the most 
beautiful card work sent out by mijf pen- 
man." Here is a modest assertion : "I 
execute iu the mmt perfect aud artistic 
manner a variety of plain and ornamental 
penmanship." Another retiring young 
advertises "One dozen elegantly written 
cjuds, unsurjiossed for grace aud beauty," 
and "A mnst iea"/i/ij//> flourished design, 
with grace and da^h unsurpassed, for 25c. 
Another man makes the timid venture that 
be cim make the "finest scroll ciinls in 

America ;" while still another aspirant for 
fame write*-, according to his own humble 
opinion, the "most beauli/tdcaxAn'm Amer- 
ii-a." While one candidate for patronage 
entreats the puhlic to "send 50c. for the 
most beaiUi/ul and masterly }>iece of off-hand 
dourishing ever executed," another be- 
seeches us to "send 50i;. for one of the 

capitals are his own. Here are two pair of 
expertB who have been impressed with uu 
identical idea. It only proves again that 
" Great minds run in the same channel. 

What but an adamantine heart c^uld re- 
sist the appeal aud squander 50c. for the 
most beautiful aud masterly thing ever ex- 
ecuted — but they are both lest, and there's 
the rub— he is in a dilemma as to which he 
shall order fmm. The following is really 
touching in its display of unpretending re- 
tirement : " , who has no equal m u 

card writer in the Unifed States, a fact con- 
ceded even by his opponents, writes 13 

cards iu a style that bos made famous 

for 18c." 

Eighteen cents* worth of fame ought to 
crush any common mortal ; but this pen- 
man has reached the top of the ladder, (to- 
gether with the other nine) and having 
overcome all enemies, he graciously re- 
ceives their willingly conceded homage aud 
wears the victor's palm with unassuming 
grace, aud — condescends to write 13 cards 
for 18c. 

To drop sarcasm, however, we venture 
to opiue that some of these individuals 
never eaw the first-class pen-work of the 
ablest men in our profession, but have 
talent that should be developed by expe- 
rienced professors before it is brought be- 
fore the public. 

They are "cock o' the lull" in their own 
town, and are led, by the well-meant, but 
ignorant praises of their friends, to believe 
they are the best card-writers and flouiish- 
ers in the United States. 

We give them all due credit for what 
talent they possess, aud judge their work 
according to the knowledge they have ac- 
quired, but would condemn their bi-agga- 
docia as something entirely uncalled for. 
We admit, also, that some of these penmen 
may execute really fine work, but that does 
not excuse the^n from conceited and self- 
glorviug advertisements. 

Their praises, if ever sung, should be 
warbled by others, and not proceed from 
their own mouths. If the press, or au in- 
fluential penman ever said a good word for 
them, that would be a suitable thing to 
quote. Th(tt is a legitimate and commonly 
accepted way of advertising. 

These advertisers seem to forget, when 
they make these extravagant statements, 
that there were and are such professioual 
men as The Spencers, father aud sons, J. 
D. Willinma, D. T. Ames, J. W. Pay son, 
A. H Hiiimau, W. H. F. Wiesehahu, Pro- 
fessora Ellsworth , Montgomery, Mussulman, 
Goakoll, Miller, and many others, whose 
works have been before an admiring pub- 
lic for years, aud have earned for them- 
selves reputations which need uo trumpet 
blast from themselves. 

Let us cite some parallel examples in 
other branches of art, and observe how 
ridiculous they appear. An artist who ad- 
vertised his work in the manner given be- 
low, would be at once adjudged to be a 
conceited coxcomb, as well as a miserable 
dauber. "N. B. Seud me 810 for the 
moat beautifully artistic aud grand con- 
ception ever executed in America. My 
style of work is uusurpashed for dash 
and brilliancy, aud cannot be excelled. 
My landscapes ore the most superb things 

And imagine a half dozen artists (?) fly- 
ing off iu the same style of selfMidorution. 

Imagine a singer advertising himself 
thus : "Those wishing the services of an 
excellent singer should apply immediately 
to Signor Bombosto. He has a must brill- 
iant aud exceedingly melodious voice, and 
the grace and brilliancy of his execution is 

unpp 'ed in the history of music in 

the I ^ Statea He must be heard 
2Ba(^:^ij." "(Send ten cents for a sam- 
pie an^^-scriptive circular!") 

In ii— ^Jie advertisements for card and 
ornani^il work, iu the Jouhnal for the 
past y^2 there were but two diecover^ed 
that dH not savor of this catch-penny 
style. Biese were refreshing eases in the 
arid desM't of self-laudation. I quote them 
in fidl, with the omission of uames. 

"Visiting cards written and seut by mail 
nt foliowiug rates. Plain Spencerian, 25c. 
Twelve different designs fac-aimiles of 
pen work, 40c. ; pen flourished, $1. Sam- 
ples. 25c." 

" A rare offer. To penmen and learners. 
For tfl.OD I shall send, post-paid and care- 
fully rolled, eight diftereut designs of off- 
hand flourish iu|,'. These specimens are 
executed on sheets 10x16 in. large." 

If we Were going to order some pen- 
manship, iu entire ignorance of the merits 
of all the advertisers, we would undoubt- 
edly order of one of these gentleman. 

Perhaps we would uot get first-class 
work, but what of that ? 

We are not disappointed, for they did 
uot advertise their work as the best, and 
there was no reason for expecting it, except 
the confidence imparled by their unpre- 
tendiug and modest manner of advertising. 

Let us couaider for a momeut the evils 
attending the first style of advertising. 
The prime evil is the injury that it inflicts 
upon the piofessiou of Penmanship at 
large, by degrading it in the eyes of the 
public to a mere quack business and giving 
them a chance to look down upon it, while 
the siucere friends and workers of the 
profession are striviug to advance its 
staudaid to a higher grade. As a second- 
ary cousideratiou, they injure themselves 
and do uot, after all, attain the object 
aimed at. 

First, because their manner of advertis- 
ing does not command respect, nor inspire 
confidence, and seuMble people avoid tiiem. 
Second, because they injure what trade 
tliey may have started by not being able 
to fulfill their promises. 

All of these men cannot send out the 
best work, either theoretically or practically. 
If a man is humbugged once, he learns a 
lesson by experience ; but he is foolish if 
he allows Inmself to be dui^ed iu the same 
way again. 

When thi; 


ship w'ill take a mor 
the busiuess as well i 

The preparation 
prompted by a desin 
possible, institute a i 

;radicated. Penman- 
exalted position in 
1 the social cummu- 

iif this article was 
to do g^od, aud, if 
form in this matter. 
If in our *'ariiestnes8, we have overshot 
the mark, we are truly peuiteut. We close 
witti the earnestly expressed desire that 
the advertisements iu the Jouunal may 
both advance in quantity and improvo iu 
quality. W. L. G. 

The SigniScance of a Billion. 

Mr. Henry Bessemer writes as follows to 
the Loudon Tiinea : " It would be curious to 
know how many of your readers have brought 
fully home to their iuuer consciousness the 
real siguificauce of that httle word 'billion,' 
which we have seen of late bo glibly used iu 
your columuH. 

"Let UB briefly take a glance at it as meas- 
ure of time, distance and weight. As a 
measure of time, I would tuke on© second 
lis th» unit, and carry myself iu thought 
thiough the lupt^t* of ages hack to the first 
day of the year oue, uf our eia, remembering 
that iu all those years we have SfJ.'Vdftys, and 
in every day just HC,400 aecouds of tims. 
Hence, in returuing in thought back again 
to this year of grace 1878. one might hav* 
supposed that a billion of seconds had loug 
siuue elapsed ; but this is not so. We bavs 
not eveu passed one-sixteenth of that num- 
ber in all these long eventful years, for it 
takes just ^U.IJH" years, ssventeen davs, 
twenty-two hours, forty-five minutes, and 
five seoonds to oonstitnte a billion of seconds 
of time. 

'It : 

> bring under th« 

cognizance of the human eye a hiiliou ob- 
jects of any kind. Let us try in imagina- 
liou to a rrange this number for iuspectioii, 
and for this purpose I would select a aover- 
eign as a fauiillar object. Let us put oue on 
the ground and pile upon it as many as will 
reach twenty feet lu heighr ; than let ua 
place numbers of similar columns iu close 
contact, forming a straight line, and making 
a sort of wall twenty feet high, showing only 
tlie thin edge'; of the coin. Imagine two 
llel lo each ulher 

ng pi.i 



reel, Wa 
) walls for 

must then keep on exteudiug the: 
mileu — nay, hundreds of miles, aud still we 
shall he fur short of the rtquired number. 
And it is uot until we have extended our 
imaginary street to a distance of 2,380^ 
miles that we shall have presented for in- 
spection our oue billion of coins. 

"Or in lieu of this arrangement we may 
place them flat upon the ground, forming 
oue continuous liz.e like a long golden chain, 
with every link in close contact. But to do 
this we must p.iss over land and sea, moun- 
tain and valley, desert and plain, crossing 
the equator, and returning around the 
southern hemisphere through tie trackless 

way again 


equator, thun still on and on, until we again 
arrive at uur starting point; and when we 
have thus passed a golden chain around tha 
huge bulk of the earth, wo bhall be but at 
the beginning of our task. W© must drag 
this imaginary chain no less than 'G'i times 
around the globe. If we can further imag- 
ine all these rowa of links laid closely side 
by side and every one in contact with its 
neit;hbor, we shall have formed a golden 
band around the globe just fifty-two feet 
six inches wide ; and this will represent our 
oue billion of coins. Such a chain, if laid 
in a straight line, would reach a fraction 
over 18.328,445 miles, the weight of which, 
if estimated at oue-quarler ounce each sove- 
reign, would be 0,975,447 touK, and would 
requite for their transport no less than 2,826 
ships, each with a full cargo of 3,000 tons. 
Even then there would by a residue of 447 
tons repreienting G4.0K1,<J20 sovereigns. 

"Fur a measure of height let us take a 
much smaller unit as our meaNiiriug rod. 
The thin sheets of paper on which these liaea 
are printed, if laid out flat and firmly pressed 
together Bs in a well-bound book, would rep- 
resent a meosure of about :-333d of an inch 
in thickness. Let us see, now, how high a 
dense pile formed by a billion of these thin 
paper leaves would reach. We umst. in 
imagination, pile them vertically upward, by 
degrees reaching to the height of our tallest 
spires; aud, passing these, the pile must 
fitill grow higher, topping the Alps and the 
Andes, and the highest peaks of the Hima- 
layan, and shooting up from thence through 
the fleecy clouds, pass b«yond the confines 
of our attenuated atmosphere, and leap up 
into the blue ether with which the universe 
is filled, standing proudly up far beyond the 
reach of all terrestrial things; still pile on 
your thousands and millions of thin leaves, 
for we are only beginning to rear the mighty 
mass. Add miUioua on millions of sheets, 
and thousands of miles on these, and still 
the number will lack its due amount. Let 
ui pause to look at the neat ploughed edges 
of the hook before us. See how closely lie 
those thin flakes of paper ; how many there 
ora iu the width of a span I and then turn 
our eyes in imagination upward to our 
mighty column of accumulated sheets. It 
now containa its appointed number, and our 
one billion of sheets of the limes super- 
imposed upon each other, and pressed into a 
compact mass, has reached an altitude of 
47,348 miles." 


Now for the Joi-rnal, and leci-ive all the 
numbers cuntaiuing practical leMSoiis iu 
uluue will be worth 
imes the price of the siilmcriplion 
to any pupil in ori.amenbd penmanship, 
and especially ^u to tin Be who are seeking 
to improve withuuc the aid of a teacher. 

Back Numbers 

of the Journal can be supplied, beginning 
with No. 6. No prior number can be sup- 


The Village Schoolmaiter. 

:i<)^ by Ibp utr^am th»t tunw the mill, 
Mh Uught ud lhri.b«I Uie rilLgt icli 


; fought 111* fight B 

Detection of ForgerieB. 

Bloat peiiiilf with wliom I hiive conversed 
hold to tlie doctrine expressed by the iate 
Judge Nelson of the Uiited States 
Supreme Court. He said be supposed an 
expert iu handttTitings to bo one who, 
wlieu Nbowu two writings, and being told to 
look ut this one and that, could instauti; 
tell tliiit r>nc WHS genuine and the other 
fnrgcd. Tliero never was a greater mis- 
liike. It is the principle which moat peo- 
ple Buppii.'-e to be the correct oue in such 
mutteif*, Hint un expert detectfl the forgery 
or geuuinenesa of a writing by n general 
reNemblance to or difference from another 
known to be genuine. In fact, all the 
moneys that liave ever been paid out ou 
forged clieckH or orders liave been paid on 
the Flrength of the general rej-emblunce of 
the forged to the genuine signature. There 
is very little known about handwriting, 
and many crude and awkward notions have 
become prevalent in regard to it, Many 
people think, honestly, that they have 
great experience in the Imndwritiug of cer- 
tain persona, simply from the fact of hav- 
ing often seen such pernons write. You 
might OS well say that tlie laborer who ban 
been for twenty years eugaged iu bieaking 
Btone for a highway has a good knowledge 
of the geology of the rocks. The whole 
question of detecting handwritings is oue 
of study, obserration and long e.\perieuce. 
Aak a man, for inHtauee, to tell the charac- 
teristics of bis own handwriting and he will 
not be able to do so unless he has spent a 
great deal of time and thought in its study. 
A striking instunc* in point is afforded 
liy the testimony of John J. Cisco, who 
was a witnetis a few years ago in a case be- 
fore United States Couimissiuner White iu 
New York. Mr. Cisco swore that nobody 
could deceive him in regard to any signa- 
ture with which he was familiar. A scrap 
of paper, with " Truly youis, John J. 
Cisco," written on it, was handed to him, 
and hepotitively identified it aa his writing. 
Yet it appeared that this waa not so, but 
that the signature Imd been carefully 
traced and forged. There is, I repeat, an 
ab»ohit*'ly scientilic method of determin- 
ing the true character of a signature or 
other writing under question, if sufEcient 
material— namely, the admitted genuine 
signatureH or other writings of the person 
whose writing isiu question— are furnished 
to a didy qualified expert. The same iis- 
sertion holds good in respect to anonymous 
writings. And there ia no true reason why I 
this should not be t^o. Every one. of all j 
the millions who wnte, writes a ■' hand" as I 

distinctive as is bis face, and which, those 
familiar with it, as readily recognize. By 
some law of h\» organization he is bound, 
from the time he has learned to write to 
the time wbea all cease to write, to ' 
iu forms and combinations of forms pecu- 
liar to and characteristic of his own chiro- 
graphy, and that of no other person on 
earth. There is no dispute about this, uor 
can there be. Ever since writing has been 
practiced this fa<!t has been recognized, 
and our courts of law have acted upon it 
as a well settled fact. The distinguishing 
features of writing consist in the forms of 
the letters, the pressure of the pen in the 
downward and some other movements, and 
in the relations which the letters sustain to 
each other. Tlie combination of these, in 
any given word by one writer, will be in 
many respects diflerent from that in the 
same word written by any other person. 

Leaving this one word and going to 
others, we find letters brought into other 
combinations, differing from those of any 
other writer iu the same wordH in many 
respects. Sometimes the difference is very 
wide, and again the combinations aie found 
to be very much alike, but still differing. 
All departure from absolute models of 
form (writing books, letters and combina- 
tions of letters) may be considered as devi- 
atiouA into forms clinracteristic of or pecu- 
liar to the writer's style. Strongly marked 
deviations or very peculiar movements may 
be considered an thoroughly characteristic 
as nothing beyond a mere apprnximfition 
to them will ever be found in any other 
writings. But it is necessary that all should 
be combined, form, pen pressure, relations 
of letters to each other, and scope (or 
sweep of hand, fore-arm oud arm) to make 
up a handwriting. I shouUl not omit 

wrof« the papers he claims to have been 
written by the same person. Again, there 
must be no disagreement as to skill, ca- 
pacity and power of hands. They must be 
in harmony, so to speak, throughout. The 
question," Who is an expert ?" is oue which 
no one seems able to answer as far as hand- 
writing is concerned. One great trouble 
about this ehuss of experts grows out of the 
custom of judges and lawyers of caliiug 
any one who testifies about a signature an 
'expert." They talk about persons who 
for the first time in their lives have certi- 
fied to a signature or handwriting as the 
" plaintiff's expert" or the " defendant's 
expert." Ia it, then, any wonder tliat ex- 
pert testimony frequently gets branded aa 
worthless when such witnesses as these get 
styled experts ? 

Now, in regard to the examination of a 
particular handwriting which is brought 
into question in any way. The first thing 
to do is to get a large number of writings 
known to be genuine. The characteristics, 
peculiarities, and distinctive features iu the 
formation of evi ry letter and of combina- 
tions of letters in words are most carefully 
noted. The manner in which the letters 
are drawn, the shading, the manner in 
which the pressure of the pen is applied, 
all come in for a large share of careful at- 
tention and scrutiny. The examiner be- 
comes familiar with every stroke which the 
person whof>e writing is under examina- 
tion is accu.stomed to make in writing. At- 
tempts to disguise handwritings are 6a^^ily 
detected. Even careful forgeries cau be 
fastened ou their perpetrators by the 
traces of their characteristics. In writing 
a simulated hand it is not only the capitals 
which have to be changed, but every small 
letter, nay, even every characteristic must 

I above cut is from a flourish by Jackson Cagle, Atlanta, Ga., and is loaned for 
use in the Journal by the publiahera of the Bame Gucsl, Boston, Mass. 

at all. Though the letters iu the various 
signatures were of different .sizes, and 
seemed to possess at the ftrst glance only a 
very general resemblance, a more careful 
scrutiny showed them to be almost olto- 
gether identical. 

Those who have not seen the tedious 
ways in which the identification of signa- 
tures and writings is made practicable 
have little idea of the intense and arduous 
labor which precedes any satisfactory re- 
sult. When, however, a well-qualified ex- 
pert has concluded an investigation, the 
conclusions and results whioh he arrives 
at are so fortified by the numerous facts 
adduced that tliey are irresistible, and af- 
ford proof almost as absolute aa any — even 
the most accurate — of which human obser- 
vation, study and experience are capable. 

Washington's Book-Keeping. 


spaces between words as having a str 
bearing upon the general effect of a m 
ing. Given, then, a handwriting, can 
reasonably suppose another handwriting 
will be the same in all these details ? 

I consider the arm a machine for writ- 
ing. Can you find any two arms that 
do not differ in very many respects ? Com 
pare the hand— let alone the arm— of ont 
person with that of anotlier, and the ex 
ternal differences will be found almost in- 
numerable, and what internal differencet 
may not exist in the anatomy ? Ask the 
proprietor of a cotton mill to turn out 
woolen goods from his looms, or the owner 
of a woolen milt to weave silken fabrics ; 
it will be no more unreasonable than to 
look to my writing machine to do your 
writing. As well look to a hand organ set 

give you 

to grind the "Marseillaise" 
"Go.l Save the Queen" at your demand 
There is much in common between thou- 
sands of handwritings. The turns or curves 
at the bottoms and tops of lettera, the form 
't loops in long letters, the width of loops, 
these will have no distinctive bearing in 
very many and yet often be widely 
di.stinclive as between two writings brought 
o compari^oQ. Now, an expert's busi- 
is, when a writing is submitted to him, 
to determine what is characteristic 
therein, what distinctive and what peculiar. 
Before doing s.. he must be satisfied that 
there are no movements in the questioned 
writing that are not thoroughly within the 
capacity of the "hand" to achieve which 

be obliterated, the curves, the pen pres- 
sure, the manner of shading, the loops, 
&c., all must be changed in order that the 
identity of the writing shall be lost. To 
do this requires a different hand." 

The reporter was then told to write hia 
name twice on a piece of paper. He did 
so, and the two signatures appeared to be 
altogether different iu size, shape and 
every feature, perceptible at first sight. 
One-half of one of the siguatures was then 
cut off laterally, and a comparison made, 
letter by letter, and line by line with the 
other. It was then marvellous to see what 
great similarity there still remained be 
tween the writings. As an illustration, ad- 
ditional to the one above given, in regard 
to the little information persons possess as 
to their characteristics, a gentlemau of 
New York, who is a bank president, once 
said after examining two signatures of an- 
other person, one of which had been pro- 
nounced genuine, and the otiier forged, 
'•Why,"said he, "I write my own signa- 
ture at different times with more variance 
re is between these two." "Do 
you think so ?" queried an expert who was 
present. -'Yes. I am sure of it." The 
bank president handed a number of cashed 
with his signature attached, to the 
expert. They seemed to vary very much, 
but the expert after examining them for 
several hours, pointed out so many pecu- 
liar characteristics running through all the [ T"" 
signatures that the bank president was 
astonished to find there was any difference 

In these days uf dissatisfaction with pub- 
lic servants and while the subject of reform- 
ing the oivil service is being agitated, it 
would be well for those having the interest 
of their country at heart and the safety of 
the nation in their hnnds to visit the Treas- 
ury and look over the accounts of General 
GeorgeWashington while he was Commniider- 
in-Chief of the American army during the 
Revolutionary war. For over half a century 
they have laid in the vaults of that building, 
and are now brought to light iu order that 
the necessary nrrangemeut-s may be made to 
secure their preservation. They are in them- 
aelves a le.ison of simplicity, honesty, 
straightforward and fair dealing. 

The accounts are stated in General Wash- 
ington's own writing, written in a clear, bold 
hand, and for systematic arrangement and 
the comprehensive manner in whioh they 
are staled are superior to the customary 
method of book keeping of the present doy. 
The title page hears the following insorip- 

" Account of G. Woshington with the 
United States, commencing June, 1775, and 
ending June, 1783, comprehending a space 
of eight years." 

Entries are made of every item of hii 
household expenses, for all moneys usad in 
transportation of troops, fee. 

A reference to history will show that Gene- 
ral Washington repeatedly declined to accept 
compensation for his services while serving 
as commander-in-chief, and this fact thess 
accounts show. 

General Washington's determination not 
to cover up and take advantage of the over- 
Bight of the Government is well illustrated 
by the following entry, and the marginal 

By cash £133 Ifis. Note; The sura stands 
on my account as credit to tbs public, but I 
can find no charge of it against me in any of 
the public offices. Where the mistake lies 
I know not, but wish it could be ascertained 
as I have no dssire to injure or to be injured. " 

Washington also submitted a table giving 
the amount of money received at different 
times, giving its nominal value, and its vahie 
by depreciation, from which it appears that 
in October, 1777, fl.OCO was worth $911 ; in 
January, $i2,000 was worth $1,370. 

The market valua continues to depreciate 
so that in March, 1709, .$2,000 was quoted at 
$200, and $r>00 was i|50. 

Many interesting extracts could be given 
from these accounts, but none showing more 
forcibly the honesty and purity of character 
of the saviour of our country than those 
above quoted, and, in this connection, with 
a view of illustrating his modesty and good- 
neis, it is proper to give his final note at the 
end of bis statements which is worthy of the 
highest encominms of a grateful people and 
would be a shining example for all to follow: 


I bad 

1 that 

hich, except such n 

w and then to apply to pri- 

vate uses, were all expended in the public 

service, and, through hurry, I suppose, and 

llie perplexity of business, (for I know not 

account for the deficiency,) I 

1 to charge, while every debt 

against me is here credited. 

July 1, 1783. 


I Coloinn »I8 00 $3.^00 |*S 00 I13« 

ffer Ibo followiuK 

[Micrlbor. until further i 

ttoni, uob of wlilch arc among ibe floMt « 
penmaniiblp over publlibed, rlz. : 
loOentennlalPlcturcofProin'MB... 20x11 I 

,e UtrA'B P«ycr I8jM 

Id MarrlBDA Cnrtlflote 18x33 

.0 Fftmlly n«n>rd 18x33 

ippotm^D Hhool« of EngroaaJng Mot"-" 

I, 18 differ 

Opnt«nnlal Plotiire, Bl£» 38x10 InobcB, retails for f3. 

WllllBma k Packard'* Oulite, retails for fl.eo. 

of Amoa' Oompondliini of Ornainoatal Pennianabip 
prloe tB. Tbo aamo liound In ffllt will bo aont fo 
AlKbtoon aiibMorlborB and tIR, prlc(> ST.fiO. 

For twolvo nomea and $13, we will forward a cop; 
nf Wllllama k Pnckard'a OoinM of PoiimanKhlp, retail 

llona dcalgnod for The Pbkman' 


NEW YORK, JUNE. 1878. 


Wo are Rrixtifleil and encouraged by the 
prompt rcoBWftl of aiibseriptiouB by most 
of our old BubBcribero, ns well as the gene- 
nil goiid will mauifested toward the Joun- 
NAii, both by kind words nudan effort to 
extend its circulation. 

We hope our friends will not weary in 
wi-11 doing. Although the circulation of the 
JoDfiNAL is large, there are yet thou- 
aandti of teiiohers and persons interested in 
the mibject of writing, who should and 
woiiid, if properly solieited, subscribe for 
the JounNAii. There is no reason why it 
Hhonld not be one of the most widely cir- 
culated and best Hiistjiiued class papers in 
th.i OMUiitry. 

As you Give, in Measure so shall you 
While no piiina will be spared on our 
piirt to render the Journal as interesting 
and uttriictivo as possible, yet very much 
must depend upon tlie liberality of pen- 
muu in sustaining it, both by way of in- 
ducing Hulweriptions and contributing in- 
teresitiug and instructive matter for its 
colnuiiiK The more of means for supplying 
good papers that are placed in our Imuds, 
the more we can give in return, A pen- 
man's paper, to be in the largest degree 
RUCosMiful. slioidd re6ect through its col- 
umns the grand apf-rcgate of the l»o*t 
thought, and greatest iirtistic skill nf the 
profe&Mou. That is what we desire (or tlie 
Journal, and tlierefore nsk penmen to 
make the cause of the Journal, as it is in 

great measure, their own, and give it h 
strong helping hand, while we pledge our- 
selves to most fnlly reciprocate by adding 
to its excellence. 

Modesty and Trnthfolness in Advei^ising. 

On another piige wiJl be found a com- 
munication criticising somewhat seveiely 
the style adopted by some penmen (or 

Undoubtedly some of our patrons will 
question the propriety and policy of ad- 
mitting such criticisms tf) tbo columns of 
the Journal, but we l)elieve that a sober 
second thought will lead all to approve, 
commend, and, we trust, in some in- 
stances, to profit by the couchisions 
reached by our correspondent. 

The profession of penmanship, certiiiuly 
in this country, has never commanded tlie 
e-steem and respect of refined and educated 
persons, to whicli its reftl value and im- 
portance justly entitles it ; this bus been 
chiefly owing to tbo bad taste or knavish 
purpose of a few who have persistently 
onnounced themselves as champions, 
kings, bosses, or with some other ridicu- 
lous title, ofi'enng unrivaled and unheard 
of facilities, and making promises impos- 
sible to be fulfilled. Such persons have 
usually secured large classes only to l)e- 
tray their utter im-ompetency, and, in 
many iiiBlances, their dishonesty by col- 
lecting in advance money for instruction or 
other service, which they would not even 
make an eflbrt to give, thereby not only 
disgracing tliemselves, but bringing dis- 
trust and ill-repute upon the profesaiou 

One such noisy impostor will do much 
more to injure than many honest and 
really skilful teachers can do to sustain 
the dignity and honor of their profes- 
sion, from the verv fact that r fraud, in 
necessaiily occupying constantly a new 
field of labor, will become extensively 
known, while the honest teacher, with 
genuine merit and good repute, receiving 
his highest remuneration and greatest 
honor where be is best known, will huve a 
correspondingly limited acquaintance. 

We do not wish it to be inferred that we 
are in any manner opposed to the most en- 
ergetic and liberal advertising —quite the 
contrary. A judicious use of printers' ink 
has made many a princely fortune. Genu- 
ine merit cannot be too extensively, if 
truthfully, advertised, norwill any amount 
of bragging, false claims, or cheek, confer 
permanent success upon a fraud. 

It was the boafet of A. T. Ktewart that no 
untruth or misrepresentation regarding the 
quality or value of any article offered for 
Bale in bis houses would he permitted. Any 
employe proved to be guilty of such was 
at once dismissed from his service. Tliis 
becoming known as his established princi- 
ple, brought a multitude of patrons, and 
conferred upon him a success without a 
parallel in this country. Mr. Stewart was 
a liberal advertiser, but a modest and 
truthful one. 

There can be no doubt that false, 
boastful advertising in the end is very bad 
policy, and much less productive of genu- 
ine and permanent success, than that mora 
modest and truthful, 


The cuts uaedasilluatratious in the Jour- 
nal are photo-engraved by the "New Yi'rk 
Photo-Engraving Company," under the di- 
rect superintendence of J. C. Mosa, the dis- 
coverer of the proces-s from pen and ink 
drawings, andtir.-, therefore, exact fiic -simile 
representations of the actual penmanship. 
It isnuly through the aid of this process that 
the publication of surh an illustrated pa- 
per as the Journal is rendered practical. 

The perfectiou reached by the Pliolo- 
Eugraviug Company in the repioductioD 
of drawings upou relief plates is really as- 
tonishing, and has already wrought a per- 
fect revolution iu the old, slow and expen- 
sive process of wood-en gniviug. Drawings 
intended for photo-engraving should be 




be 1 

quality iu the plate not iu the drawing. 
In order to secure the best result*, draw- 
ings should be mode twice the dimensions 
of the desired <-ut. The finest quality of 
jet black India ink should be used. It 
should be remembered that no light or 
gray line will photo-engrave. Avery large 
proportion of the specimens forwarded to 
the Journal, and designed for pubUcation, 
cannot be engraved from the bad qu dity 
of the ink used. We wish all who forward 
drawings or specimens of flourishing or 
writing to us for reproduction would bear 
this fact iu mind. 

Penmen's Convention. 

It is now positively determined that 
there shidl bo a convention of penmen 
and c<unmercial teachers held at Packard's 
College Hall on August 6. Thecommittee 
on preliminaries will immediately announce 
the same by a circular (n copy of which 
will be seen in another column), addressed 
to all persons supposed to be interested, 
iuvitiug their early answers to several im- 
portant questions therein proposed, with 
suggestions bearing upou the convention. 
We feel that we cannot urge too strongly 
upon the members of those professions the 
great importance not only of at once re- 
sponding to this circular, but of doing all 
iu their power to secure the most complete 
and triumphal success of the convention. 
It will be the first convention ever held so 
far as we are informed, embracing these 
professions, and will therefore stand as a 
precedent to their honor or dishonor. 
Each member of the fraternity should, 
therefore, feel that he is, in a measure, 
responsible for the result, and not only 
resolve to attend but to contribute, to the 
best of his ability, for its success. We 
fully believe that there is not wanting am- 
ple intellect and attidnments in these pro- 
fessions, if properly interested and brought 
out, to constitute an assembly which shall 
do honor alike to the profession of pen- 
manship and practical business education. 
Who will help to prove that such is the 

Interesting to Visitors. 

Penmen and admirers of dkilfnl penman- 
ship who visit our office, find great pleasure 
in examining the many specimens that tiave 
been received from the correspondents and 
contributors to the Journal, which we 
have recently arranged in a large album, 
with alphabetical index, convenient for in- 
spection. We shall take pleasure in add- 
ing others from penmen who have not yet 
favored us with a specimen of their skill. 
At the suggestion of Prof. Peiice of Keo- 
kuk, Iowa, we propi)Se to add the photo- 
graphs of tliose who have contributed 
specimens, which would greatly increase 
the interest and pleasure of those who in- 
spect the work in the album. 

We, therefore, request all whu have sent, 
or in the future may send, specimens of 
their penmanship to the Journal, lo also 
send their photograph, to be phiced in con 
nection with such specimens iu the album. 

Prof. Peirce alho suggests as a means for 
becoming better acquainted, a general ex- 
change of photos between the leading 
authors and teachers of writing, and sUirts 
the ball by sending his to the Journal 
and publishing his reqne.-.t for an exchange, 
which, see in our advertising culiimus. 

Lessons in Off-Hand Flourishing. 

In the present number of tlio Journal 
we begin a course of iustnictiou in flour- 
ishing. Each number will coutaiu one or 
more practical exercises or elements in 
flouriehing, with such instruction for 
practice as we may he able to give. These 
lessons will be progressive from the first 
elements to tlie flourishing of birds and 
other complete and attractive designs. If 
each lesson is properly studied and prac- 
ticed, according to our instruction, they 
will be sufficient in the end to enable any 
one to become quite accompl^hed in this 

popnlarand fascinating department of orna- 
mental penmanship, and will alone be tvorth 
many times the entire price of a year's sub- 
scription to the Journal. 

How to Prepare India Ink. 

Take a slojjiug tray of slate or porce- 
lain, and grind the ink gradually in dis- 
tilled or common rain-water until it be- 
comes of the required degree of l»lackuess. 
The ink must be ground freshly each time 
it is used. It will not do to dissolve it in 
water, as it does not become sufficiently 
pulverized to flow freely, and does not 
adhere to the paper with sufficient tenacity 
to resist the erosion of rubber. 

Van Sickle's Practical System of fiook- 

This is a compact practical work 
of over two hundred poges, embrac- 
ing book-keeping by single and double, en- 
try. The author does not profess to offer 
any new system, but claims to present the 
science of accounts in more convenient, 
practical and progressive form, than has 
been done by other authors, which claim 
appears to be well founded, certainly as 
regards most works now in use upon that 
subject. Teachers of book-keeping and 
proprietors of business colleges should at 
least examine a copy of this work. 


Through Mr. Jos. M. Vincent we learn of 
the death of Prof. F. E. Arnold, which oc- 
curred at Los Angeles, Cal., on Feb, 1. 

Prof. Arnold had for some time past 
been iifflicted with consumption, and the 
information of his death was not altogether 
unexpected. He was born iu Maine, in 
1846. While quite young he went to Rock- 
ford, 111., where he remained nine 
years ; he also taught fur a while in Iowa. 
In 1874 he removed to Los Angeles, where 
he established and conducted, nutil his 
death, a bnaiuess college. He was a skill- 
ful penman and a very successful teacher 
of writing and other commercial branches. 
He had a large circle of acquaintances in 
Los Angeles and vicinity, by whom his loss 
will be sincerely regretted. 

The well-known publishing house of 
Potter, Aiusworth & Co., publishers of 
the Paysou fr Bunton popular system of 
copy-books, announce in another column 
their removal from John street to metre 
spacious and commodious quarters ut 35 
Park Place. 

Business College Items. 

G. W. Hansley announces the opening 
of u Business College at Corsicaua, Texas, 
on June 17. 

F. K. Simouds succeeds F. E. Arnold hs 
proprietor of the Los Angeles (California) 
Business College. 

James Souder has succeeded W. A. 
Drew lis proprietor of the West Cuicago 
Business College. 

Thos. Powers, proprietor of Fort Wayne 
Business College, has issued his College 
JoHitial, which is a very credtable appear- 
ing sheut, and contains many practical 

David A, Gnnu, who Inw for some time 
past been teaching writing at Walla Walla, 
W. T.. has recently established the Puget 
Sound Business College, at Seattle, Wash- 
ington Territory. 

M. B. Woi thington, who is one of the 
mr)st accomplished writers in the United 
States, ic company with Mr. Anderson, 
/ormerly from Pittsburgh, Pu., is about to 
establish a bnsiness college iu Chicago. 

The ludiauapolis (Ind.) Daily Journal 
of May 4, contains a very fluttering notice 
of the Indianapolis Business College, which 
is conducted by Messrs. C. C. Koeruerand 
J. R. Goodier. The latter is one of the 
most skillful penmen of the West. 


The gradnstiog eiercisM of the New 
Jersey BntineM College, Newark, look 
jiltice OD April 26, and coosjsted of 

orations, recitations, and addresses. 

c'.llegp is i-ondncted by Messrs. Miller A 
Ktoirkwell. Both are competent and faiti 
till teaobers. and fully merit the liberiil 
patronage which they are enjoying. 

The Bryant 4 Stratton Busines.s College 
of Brooklyn, N. Y. , under the proprietor- 
ship and able managemeut of 0. Clag- 
horn, has, during the past year, enjoyed 
more than its usual degree of prosperity. 
During a recent visit to the college we had 
the pleasure of examining the course of 
instruction and witnessing the very satis- 
factory results as manifested in the 
marked improvenjent of the students as 
they progressed through the several stages 
of the course. The aggregate improve- 
ment in the writing as exhibited in the 
bookkeeping was excellent. Prof. C. is 
among our most earnest, faithfid and 
exacting teachers, one not to be satished 
with ordinary results. 

Exchange Items. 

TSt Engravers' Pro,/ S/ieel, published 
monthly by Wm. A. Emerson, East 
Douglass, Mass., is got up in excellent 

Brown's Phonographic MnnlUy, pub- 
lished by D. L. Scott-Browne, 737 Broad- 
way, comes to hand .'nil of interesting mat- 
ter pertaining to its specialty. 

The Penman s Literary and An Jonrnnl, 
published by J. D. B. Sawyer, Ottawa,' 
Canada, is an interesting ond well edited 
eighl-piige paper, devoted principally to 
writing and commercial education. 

The Neie York Era, published weekly 
for 81.00 per year, by the "Era News- 
paper Co.," 1 Chambers street. New York, 
is a large eight-page poper, ably edited, 
and well filled with choice matter of local 
and general interest. 

The Masonic InsUltile Journal, published 
by Oscar Hightower, Alverado, Texas, is an 
interesting eight-page journal, published 
monthly fur 60 cents per year. It is high- 
ly creditable to the institution which it 
represents, ond deserves a wide circula- 
te Nets Fork Daily Star, under its new 
management, is fast winning favor and 
patrons. With its new heading and enlarged 
form. It is one of the most attractive of our 
metropolitan dailies. It contains all the 
news, .erved up in good style, for only two 

The Home Onesf for June, published by 
J. Latham & Co., Boston, is received. 
It is edited with ability and good taste, 
and filled wi.h matters of general interest. 
Its department devoted especially to mat- 
ters relating to penmen and penmanship 
is ably edited by Prof. O. A. Gaskell, 
formerly editor of the Gazelle, and is un- 
usually interesting and attractive, having 
a beautiful specimen of flourishing by 
W, E. Dennis, (now teaching writing at 
Wrighl'sBiisiness College, Brooklyn, N.T.,) 
and an interesting biographical sketch, 
lupaniod with o portrait of Professor 

regular appearance 

J. n. S.. Monheii 

and graceful hand ; 

By following the ruled 
ieiy, you would add to its 

,Pa.— Yo 


lacks precisio 
rnuities. Your let 
id slope : the capita 

Kreatly .» siz. 

large. A liltl .„.(,„,„. o „., 

give you au exoellent bRndwriting. 

H. J. C, Chelsen, Vt.— Foraboyof six 
teen, wlio bna had no iDHtraction, your writ 
bg does yon great credit; it is easy and grace 

Your weak point is lack of uniformity 

in slope and shaded strokes; yon should 
also have greater care to keep your writing 
upon the line. 

O. M. W., Randall. Iowa.— You h( 

very free. eaBy movement, and the ba 

a good hand-writing. Yoii need to study the 
analysis of some standard system of writiyig. 
and give special attention to the proper 
relative heights of the capitals, loops and 
one-space letters, also to the other propor- 
tions of your writing. 

C. O. S. Ransom, Pa.,— Qnea. 1. What sys- 
tem of phonography do you consider the best ? 

2. Would it not be of considerable value to 
penmen were they able to write and teach it ? 

3. Who is the oldest teacher of penmanship 
m the field at present, and what his age V 

publish the proceedings of 

many readers of the Jour- 

io) Bnsincsf 
m letter. Foi 
. as well af 

B. F. Robinson, Clarksbory, W. ' 

leventeen years old. sends a skilfully-i 

;uted specimen of flonrishing. He is 

to Its j deutly a genius with the pen. 

W. N. Yerei, Lond».. ^ 
easy College,send8 a beautifully 

dhas I grace and freedom of movi 

general good taste, it is rarely 
L. W. Moon, Reesville. O., 
very tastefolly-written letter, si 
npecimens of card writing 
exchange spec* 

W. H. Cook, Higganum, Conn., sends a 
specimen sheet, giving a variety of stylef 
of writing and lettering which are very cred. 
itable ; also several original and unique de- 
signs for flourished and lettered cards. 

D. K. Lillibridge, Davenport (Iowa) Bnai 

Fith other pen 

uld lik' 

j,„, „„ iu„ou elegant I 

closing a perfect gem of flourishing. 
L. is a graduate of Packard''^ n..oi«. 
lege, was a pupil of John I 
euji>ye the reputation of b 


To deadhead specimen hunters 
vould commi'od the following 



g one 

isfnl teachers 

skilful and 


Jackson Cagle, penman at Moore's Busi 
ness College. Atlanta, Georgia, forward: 

of oflF-hand flu 
terly ; for real 


of good 


of all the elei 

flourishing, they are seldom equalled 
shall probably present some of them 

A nd koDw naught but cn»h ordem I eanae*. 

Are there not many penmen who, hav- 
ing been harrassed by numerous postal 
card requests for specimens of their writ- 
ing, can endorse the above sentiment ? 
For my own part, the larger share of mail 
I have received for years has been fron; 
this class of mendioauts, and I was a long 
time learning how to teach them that the 
pleasures of anticipiition were a great deal 
more cerLain than those of realization— 
Ls and ^^venil of them who should have sent 
of the , cheeks for samples having "passed iu 
m the j their checks" in the natural way before 
such realization. But for some time past 
. "■"" I imd |,ggQ comparatively free from such 
annoyances, until, in au unguarded hour, 
I advertised in ThePenman's Art Journal, 
and since that time new swarms have made 
tlieir appearance, and I have no peace. Is 
there naught will destroy this pest ? 


lAL who cannot attend? Ans. 1. So far as 

mr observation goes, we believe that the 

Standard system of Phonography." pub- 

ished by A. J. Graham. Bible House. New 

^ork. iK the most complete and practical. 

Vns. 2. It would be a valuable accomplish- 

uent not alone to penmen, but to all classes, 

and should be taught by every teacher and 

very school in the land Long hand is 

•stage coach" in writing, short hand, 

telegraph and rail ear. Ans. 3. We 

don't know. The oldest teacher on our 

rof. B. Muaser, Smithville. Ohio 

aged 63 years. Ans. 4. The Joi-bnal 

111 contain as full a report of the proceed- 

igsof the convention as is practical, and I 

presume that the convention will take meas- 

"uwe the proceedings published iL 

ft r"»"iphlet form for circulation 

among the fraternity and others who may de- 

We had the pleasure, a few days 
call from W. H. Lathrop, of Bost 

, Hei 

ikillful penman and an agreeable gentle 

West, teacher of English 
..s Colleg - 



The Specimen of Flourishing 
upon this page is from the pen of H. C. 
Clirk, who has receutly liecome proprietor 
of the Forrest City (formerly Allis' Busi- 
ness College, Eocktord, III.) Prof. Clark 
is on accomplished penman, ami a skilliul 
and successful teacher, well deserving of 

es«lleni°i;,nd '"''"• '"• '^°" """ " "•'^ 
taste ; a trifle less shade would improve ?t°° 

E. O.S., Albion, Ind.-Tourwritingisverv 
creditable, a little less shade will add to its 
appearonee and to your speed and ease of ei- 

A. C. T.. Wichita. Kas.-You write a good 
business hand, one very creditable under the 
circumstances; It is too much shaded for 
ease and rapidity in execution. 

icIiCBter. N. Y., 
jard writing executed in bis usual 

J. M; Willey, Punesvillo, O., .ends a beau- 
tiful lelt«r and a very graceful and delicalelv 
Mited specimen of flourishing. 

C. W. Dougall. Fort Wayne. Ind. writes a 
very handsome loiter in which he incloses 
several specimen slips, which are very credit- 

J. W. Pearson. E. Mecca. O., sends some 
excellent specimens of writing! His move- 
ment is very gracefid and his writinc correct 
and in good taste. 

mds speci- 

■ P'>nmen's Convention. ' 

S^L. Davidson, a pupU of A. B. (Japp, al 
Held s Business College, .San Francisco Cal 
;ends a letter, the style of which does credit 
ilike to pupil and teacher. 

J. T. Grunger, formerlv teacher of wiit 
ng in the Zsn-sville (Ohio) Public Schools 
s stenographer in the oflic« of the Texas 4 
'aciflc It. R. Co., m Exchange Place, N. Y. 
P H. Carney is having good success leoch- 
"e w"lmg at Lawrence. Mas.s. He for- 
;ards the names of twentv members of his 
last clos» assui.soribers to the Jodb»*l. This 
18 strong evidence of a good teacher and seu 
sible pupils. 

... S. Gumbart. who for some years was a 
skillful assistont in our olHce, and subse 
quently became quite celebrated as an artist 
and engrosser in this ciry and Brook- 

.1. N. V. Harrington, Rochester N Y 


conclusive evidence ,f ' °""'' abundant 

' new calling. 

A Teachers' Convention. 

We notice in The Penmax s Abt .Joonmi, 
of the current month a movement for a 
National Convention of teachers of penman- 
ship, book-keeping, and the other special, 
which compose the curriculum of busi- 
1 colleges. It is a movement in the right 
direction, ond there ought to be no reason 
why it may not prove to be eminently suc- 
cessful. The expressions point to holding 
the convooation in this city during August in 
the hall of Packard's Business College. No 
better time or place could be selected, and 
now let the persons interested go aheod with 
spirit and understanding ; and. after warm- 
ing themselves and their co-laborers into an 
appropriate glow, so as to make a large at- 
tendance certain, let them sec to it that the 
game is worth the powder. " Whoever 
has in charge the programme of exercises 
uld mate sure of something worthy of 
ocoasion. Let the most practical teach- 
ers be called to the front, and if any have 
the gift of tongue let them be called upon 
to proclaim themselves and their work. 
Business colleges are not slow in putting 

hasentered the ministry, and commences If rfk .1 ,■ 

pastoral duties with the Park Bapt," ° ""'"'" ■'°'"''"' '»""• Let the 

showing of the good 
things they possess as shall fully substantiate 
I these claims.— JV. r. SchoolJmirjial. 


Penmen's Convention. 

The following circular him Iieeo pre- 
pared by the committre on Peomen'* 
Omvention. nail in to b*» mniled. »« far sr 
ii in poMihlA to procure- the onmeo and 
ftddrefwen, lo everj t<?aclier iind antlpor 
of writinK or rommercinl hrftnehpM in the 
Uoit^d 8tate« or Cai-adii, nnd it in to he 
hopwl that nil will renpoiid promptly mid 
fnlly to flll the propwitioDs therein con- 
tained. Any one entitled to do bo who does 
pot receive the cireulnr, is hereby re- 
qaeit^'d to either nddre^ the committee 
for th« nftrae, or forwsnl their answers om 
per circrilar printed below : 

New York, June 1, 1878. 

DEABSrn— By the almo«t unBDimous vote 
oxprofwed In answer to suKgeRtioDH in Tbb 
Penman's Anr Joobnau it has been decided 
to hold a convention of teachers of writing 
ond nthor coinmeroial braucheR in the Hall 
of Packard'B BuHineas College in this city, 
beginning August (J; ond the undergigned 
bftvo hoen in like manner designated as a 
Oomniitte© of Arrangeraents. 

The Committee auggCHt tbatthe convention 
Hit not longer than four days, and desire to 
Icnow as far as poHfiihle who will attend, and 
what active part in the proceedings 
members will take. You are, therefore, re- 
spectfully requewted to favor the comsnittee 
witbont delay with answers to the following 

1. Will you attend the convention? 

I. In what branohcH is it your province to 
give inst ruction. 

3. Arc you willing to address the conven- 
tion either orally or in writing touching one 
of the following points? 

1. The general Hubject of practical educB- 

2. Your recognized apeoialty. 

8. Any branch coming within your prov- 
ince, and will you indicate to the committee 
your preference? 

H. Wliother able or not to attend, will you 
favor the committee with nuggestionB regard- 
ing either the preliminary arrnngementB or 
the proceedings of the ConvontioD ? 

The committee desire that these questions 
■ball be annwered fully and as promptly as 
poKsiblo. They also suggest that teachers 
bring or aoud for exhibition any woik of 
students iudioiiting remarkable improve- 
ment or skill in any department of com- 
mercial study, and present an explanation of 
the morinsliy which such reKults have been 
attained. It would be of interest and advan- 
tage to every member of the convention to 
nee the work and learn the methods of 
others ; teatdiers and authors are therefore 
invited to bring or send to the convention 
specimens of their own penmanship, copies 
of printed works, manuscriptFi, models, and 
charts, or other teaching apparatus, new or 

The information received in response to 
this circular will guide the committee in the 
preparation of an outline of programme of 
Bubjpcts and speakers, which will be sent to 
you at an oarly day. 

It is the wish of the committee to extend 
this invitation to all teachers and authors 
of commercial branches throughout the 
ITiiited States and Canada. You would con- 
fer a greot favor upon the committee by 
sending the names of all entitled to an invi- 

Hotel and boarding accommodations may 
bo had at verj- reasonable rates, and choice 
is offered at many good hotels and boarding- 
houses between the Eurooean and the ordi- 
nary plan of living. A good room in an ex- 
cellent neighborhood can be procured at 
three to four dollars per week, and a room, 
with board, at six dollars and upwards. 
Should your deure assistance in procurinc 

There has been no time in the history of 
modern poumsuship and of commercial 
schools when there was a fitter opportunity 
or a more pressing need of tUscusn'on of 
mfthodt than at present. The public interest 
in our specialties is great ; let as reuder oar- 
i«lves worthy the confidence placed in as, by 
makiuB every effort to promote the welfare 

of those to whom and for whom we are 
responsible. Address 

Wm. A.L1.TS Mn-i^B. 

Chairman of Committee, 
Paokard's Busineas College, New York. 

Wm. AlLKX Mn-LEB, I 

D. T- Ames, New York. 

C. Clagbobn, Brooklyn, f Committee- 

H. C. Wbiobt. Brooklyn, E. D.- I 
C. E. Cady, New York, J 

The following letter came to hand too 
late for insertion in our May issue : 

N. J. BCSINEfla CotlJEOE, I 

Newark, N. J., May 29, 1878. ( 
Friend Ames — Please place ns npou rec- 
ord as heartily favoring a convention. 

No further argument is necessary to 
prove its expediency or utility, a** your 
numerous correspondents have already pro 
and conned the matter to un evident con- 

We prefer New York a-s the place for 
holding the Convention. 
Yours truly, 

MuxEB & Stockwi;ll. 

"Blind" Letters at the New York 
Post Office. 

The average of misdirected letters sent 
up to this department is over five hundred 
a day: the day I was there last it ran up 
to about 1,000. The most difficult of these 
goto Mr. Stone, who is called "the blind 
man,"' perhaps because he can decipher an 
inscription that is utterly illegible to any 
other man in America. His most difficult 
cases are the foreign letters. Here is a 
letter directed to "Ssnduik," which he 
makes out to be Sandy Hook. Sometimes 
the arrangement of the name and address is 


I BridKO 

is very plain when you once understand 
that it is " For Mr. Thomas Smith, Bridge- 
port, Conn., America." But when a man 
says ''Hoio," bow is anybody but a blind 
man to know that he means Ohio? One 
letter reads. " Bet Feet Kue de Agua." Now 
the blind man knows that "Rue de Agna " 
is Spanish for Water street, and that there 
is a Water street in New Be<lft>rd, Massa- 
chusetts. " Lysraro, Warner Co., "ho trans- 
lates into Luzerne, Wnrren Co, ; and Com- 
mon County, P. A.," is made into Cameron 
County, Pennsylvania. But who would 
guess that " Overn C. D. Learey," in one 
line, meaus that it is to go to Auburn, in 
search of C. D. L.? One letter is directed 
to " Kunstanzer Brauerei, S. I,, Amerika. 
Mr. Stone recollects the fact that Constance's 
Brewery is at Stapleton, Staten Island, and 
the letter is sent there. He reads " loel" 
into Iowa, and "te Pella in Yomah," he 
makes to go to Fella, in the same State. 
Nor does Ohio get off with one miss. Here 
is one letter that wants to go to " Stadt Hioh 
ZuoKounati, Strasse 15 ''—that is, to the 
State of Ohio, Cincinnoti, Street 15. But 
that is not all. This other one wants to 
reach the same city; bnt it has a bad spell of 
aoother kind, for its direction runs "Scitz- 
naty." And then " Pizzo Burg, Messessip," 
is sent to Vioksburg. Michigan is spelled 
"mutting." "Glass works Berkshire," is 
sent to Pittsfield in Berkshire county, Mass- 
achusetts, where there is a glass factory. 
But the hardest one I saw was addressed to 
"John Hermann Schirmen," in one line, 
with the wonderful word, " Staguokaundo " 
for the rest. Mr. Stone cut the word in 
twain, and read it "Chataiiqua County," 
while he translated the whole into "John 
Hermann, Sherman P. 0. , Chatauqua county, 
N. Y." 

But there are some which even a blind 
man cannot make out. One letter in rather 
a good handwriting, is very vaguely ad- 
drtBsed to 

■' Mftclur, Esq., Ameriquo. " 
Another reads: 

•■ Too much of this. 

In this case the close of the letter has 
been copied exactly by some one who did not 
understand the language. Instead of too 
much of Ibis, there is really too little. But 
here is a case where the top of the letter 
has been imperfectly copied in the same 

fashion. Itreads: " Tnesday Evening, Nord 

If Tuesday Evening should see this article 
he will know that his letter has gone back 
again to Europe. — Scribner's Magaxinf. 

The Responsive Chord. 

Eev. J. William Jones, in an addre.'w be- 
fore the National Sunday School Convention, 
Atlanta, Ga,, related the following incident: 
In the early spring of 1863, when the Con- 
federate and federal armies were confront- 
ing each other on the opposite hills of Staf- 
ford and Spotsylvania, two bands chanced 
one evening at the same hour to begin to 
discourse sweet music on either bank of 
the river. A large crowd of the soldiers of 
both armies gather to listen to the music, the 
friendly pickets not interfering, and soon 
the bands began to answer each otber. 
First the band on the northern bank would 
play "Star Spangled Banner," "Hail Colum- 
bia," or some other national air, and at its 
conclusion the ' boys in blue ' would cheer 
most lustily. i en the band on the 

southern bank would respond with 'Dixie' 
or ' Bonnie Blue Flag,' or some other South- 
ern melody, and the 'boys in gray' would 
attest their approbation with the old Con- 
federate yell. Bnt presently one of the 
bands struck up, in sweet and plaintive 
notes which were wafted across the beautiful 
Rappahannock, and were caught up at once by 
the otber band and swelled into a grand an- 
them which touched every heart, ' Home, 
Sweet Home!' At the conclusion of this 
piece ttiere went up a simultaneous shout 
from both sides of the river— cheer followed 
cheer, and those hilJs, which bad so recently 
resounded with ho.stile guns, echoed and re- 
echoed the glad acclaim. A chord bad been 
struck responsive to which the hearts of 
emies then — could beat in uni- 
; and, on both sides of the river, 

—Philadelphia Times. 

Years ago Senator Morton sent to his 
children a New Year's letter, which said 
among otlier things; "You can never 
know the depths of a mother's love— how 
constantly you are in her thoughts, her anx- 
iety about you from day to day, and what 
sacrifices she would make for you. We have 
been talking about you, and wondering what 
you are doing, and hoping you will make 
great progress in your studies during the 
year which hos just come in. One year is a 
great portion of one's Ufetime. Much may 
be done in one year in getting an education 
and fitting yourselves for the duties of life. 
Lost time can never be recalled, and cannot 
be made up. Each year should show a great 
ileal learned and great improvement in the 
manners and characters of my dear children. 
My great anxiety and desire are about my 
little boys. I am constantly wondering what 
they will be when they grow up to be men. 
Will they be learned, talented, good, pros- 
perous, and an honor to their parents and 
country ? Such is my daily prayer. We hopg 
you think of us, and love us, and think of 
your dear absent brother, vfho is so far away 
on a lonely island in the Northern Sea. You 

must constantly 

prayers, that he may be preserved in health, 
and prosperous and be safely returned to us 
during the year. 

Ames's Compendium of Practical and 
Ornamental Penmanship. 

We liave compiled below a few of the 
multitude of flattering notices and com- 
mendations bestowed by the press and pro- 
fe^oual penmen upon this work. Few 
works have been equally fortunate either 
in winning favor or finding patrons. Near- 
ly one-half of a large edition is already 
sold, and but little more than ninety days 
have lapsed since its publication. In no 
instance has it, to our knowledge, received 
an adverse criticism. We feel fully war- 
ranted in saying that no other work nj^on 
penmanship ever published so fully meets 
the desire of the professional and art- 
ist penman. It not only furnishes him a 
greater number of and variety of alphabets 
and practical exumples for flourishing, bnt 

many complicated designs for engrossingand 
other purposes of displayed penmanship : 

in pr«p«ratioD nnd ttiorowph knowl«d|te o 
e c«rlaiolf taken a long step tn advance o 

a placing before 
Ji'irwiufiigly b« 

nergeUc worker 
. Clark, Nttcar 


be without It.-Pr9f. 

is grand, magutflcont.— Pro/, A, 
hingumville. 0. 

S. Beardtley, 

lefman, Quincy, 

,'." ^^""'"^ 

1 thing 

-Prtif. D. L. 

8 a perfect rao 



;«',:.:: s::- 

B my biglieBt 



It grpatljr en- 
T. K.SmM- 


gresaivo poe 
t it.— Pr^. 

^L^^An ..y It li 
e,Red Wing, 

am delighted v 
y, Tioy, N. Y. 

"Sa'-e ever 

eeen.— /Vo/. W. C. 

^tbf ng eTonJS 

-G. T. Ca" 

non. Bo 

rt, ^hloh w.. 

nauBblp.— /V"/ 

ctlcal depar 
A, a. Hi»m. 



■>enKyan'a Help. 


ubjcct ever produced. 



triumphant In Mr. 

1 POKt. 

elTaa ?n Ue"ec 

liar udaptat 

on "fori 


1 through the work.— /"uAWim' ireei 
16 Of tbs moBt elaborate and nrtiatl 
■e of this nrt ever pul)liahed.— >! 

re never aeon a won containing f 

Is teacher of penmanship at the Queen 
City Comm'ncial College, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
The speciraeus whir.h we have received from 
bis peu are among the very, and indi- 
cate that he is a master of the art. 

Is one of the pi-oprietors of the long famous 
" Duff's Commercial OoUfige," Pittsburgh, 
Pa. He is an accomplished writer, and pen 

Is assistant teacher of writing io Soule's 
Commercial College. New Orleans, La., and 
is a very skillful penman. 


iplished writer, nnd is having 
marked success teaching classes at Oakdale, 


Rare and Special Premioms. 

Ah an iuducement of mibscriljera whc 
lertu of subscription to the Jodrnal 
about to expire, to renew the sai 
RD(t to {-oiiippDSute tbeoi for mtikiog 
no effort U> intliice others to Bub»crili 
we offer tlin following Bpeciul prem- 

For eiurh oM Miibscriber who will remit 
81.25 we will renew his snbscriptiuii for 
one year Hnd muiI a copy of the Ceuteiiniul 
Picture of ProKres-. 23x30 inchest with key, 
(retailH for 81); for ent^h renewal, anil oix 
aiMttionul ttubacriber, remitliug 82, we wil 
miiil the Kume prcuiiiim Tree. 

For one renewal and two additioim 
Hiil)8criber9. with 83, we will mail the Cen 
lenuiul Picture 28x40 iin:he>* (retails for S2), 

The Bpecimeu from John D. Williams 
will also be mailed tree to each new 


gi'ueral pntinium list, see Iwt col,, 4th page. 
Tu fuablo persims whn have not seen 
the premiums mentioned above, to judge 
Bomewhat reyardiug their interest and 
value, we give below a brief drscription, 
with a few of the multitude of fluttering 
notices received from the press and emi- 

The original Picture of Pro .reBS, which 
is now in the office of the Aht Jodbnal, is 
36x52 iuches, and was executed entirely 
with a pen, requiring about one year of 
close labor. Although iia design and exe- 
cution were prompted by tlie desue to 
exhibit at the Ceuteuniat, its design and 
character are equally appropriate to any 

nted by the Uuite>l Stiites 
coat of arms, and jta a title, iu large, beau- 
tiful, bold lellers. th« word Oentennial, 
having f..r a groundwork the main Oen- 
teunial building in perspective. Directly 
under this are two pictorial soenea repre- 
Hentiiig tlie dlMCovery of America by Col- 
uml.UB, in U92. and the landiug of the 
Pilgrims at Ply mouth Rock in 1C20. Under 
i large landscape pieti 

1776, presents the country n 
a vast interminable wil- 
derness, with small {set- 
tlements here and there, 
representing the pioneer 
coloniut, clearing away 
the forests, building log 
houses, fighting the 
savages, &c. The other, 
1876, represents the 
same landscape changed 
by the lapse of oue hun- 
dred yeai-s, from a wil- 

The above ent represents the coiTect at- 
titude of the body, as well as the position 
of the hand and pen while in the act of 
It will be observed that the hand and 
^D is reversed so as to impart the shade 
to the upward or outward stroke of the 
jen, instead of the downward or inward 
itroke as in the direct or ordinary position, 
while writing. 

Sit square at the desk, as close as is prac- 
tical, and not touch it, the left hana rest- 
upon and holding the paper iu the 
proper position, which must be always in 
mony with the position of the hand and 
1. The penholder is held between the 
thumb and first and forefingers, the 
thumb pres-sing upon the holder about two 
8 from tne point of the pen. The 
finger is bent at tLe centre joint, 
forming nearly a right angle, and is held 
iderably back of the second finger, 

then, "'^'*'^ ""^^t* "PO" t^e under side of the 

holder, about midway between the thumb 
and the point of the pea. The third fin- 
ger rests upon thft fourth, the nail of the 
latter rests lightly upon the paper about 
one and a half inches from the pen, in a 
straight line from its point, parallel with 
the arm. The movement employed is that 
of the whole arm, which is obtained by 
raising the entire arm free from the tabhi, 
resting the hand lightly upou the nail of 
the fourth fiuger — all motion of the arm 
being from the shoulder, which gives the 
greatest freedom and scope to the move- 
ments of the pen. This same movement 
is used in striking whole arm ctpitals. The 
practice of flourishing will be foiindto great- 
ly add to the facility and grace of one's 
ordinary handwriting. What dauciugis for 
imparting grace and ease of movement to 
the body, flourishing is to one's hand- 
writing. Its practice is thus of doubl,* 
importance, as a discipline to the hand, 
a separate ancomplishmeat. 

e Sptaker of B 
o3t happily I 

^aard Thornton, ft 

It iB a beautiful a 

I shall preierve ni> a 

Uiift«d States duriDN 

1 the Unit«d 
ington',D. C. 

•ti's (JV. )'.) Itlegraph, 
Kewarle {Jf. J.) ifoming 
rlkjng ; the conoeptlon 
uiu of events comprised 

U. fftuhinff- 

n/, Washington, D. C. 

, WaBhtngUtn, D. C. 

t*, Cmnntanding Tih li 


tud towns, // 
vast commerce, internal 
improvements, agricul- 
ture, public institu- 
tions, manufactures, ic, ic. 
ing these landscapes is a scroll i 

Shal«r, i 

Wo have hud manu- 
factured especially tor 
our use a pen called 
"Ames' PenmanV Fa- 
vorite, No. 1," which we 
think is peiMiliarly adap- 
ted to the use of pea- 
business writ- 
iu':, flourishing and for 
school purposes. One 
dozen sent as a sample 
by mail on receipt of ten 
cents, box containing 
i Hi-MS-s for 30 cents, oue 
gross bos.Sl. For other 

les de; 

ed by pe 

the left, 

are inscribed the almost proplietic words 
uttered by Bisliop Berkeley in 1728, 
*' Westward the course of empire takes its 

At the left of these landscapes is a 
portrait of Washington, around which iu a 
largo oval is written the Declaration of 
Indeiieudeiice, which is inclosed in a 
bundle of fasces with a scroll entwining 
thirteen times around them, upon which 
are inscribed the names of the original 
thirteen States of the Union. Opposite, 
to the right, is the same design, having the 
portrait of Lineolu, the Emancipation 
Proclamation, while the scroll entwines 
thirty-eight times around the fasces, having 
inscribed the names of the present thirty- 
eight States of the Union. 

Anmud all these, iu a beautiful floral 
rustic b.»rder, are openings in which are pr"'*ento't"i' 
twenty-two pictures, representing leading ' '*^0ue7ui'c 
histoiicol events, and illustrating by con- |"}'™n".foi 
tiosta the treat changes and improvements Tb^ wht 
that have taken place iu our country Us'^u'ihor 
during the past hundred years. | /or'Bo'ili't. 

The entire work has the appearance of a ^^***^'"'' 
fine steel engraving, and constitutes one 

ndicated, oue by shading 

ard curve, and the other 

they can be made rapidly 

d with great precision, having special 

re to make the width of the shaded 

form and with the proper graduation of 
shade. Upon the successful mastery of 
these two exercises will greatly depend 
the ultimate success of the entire course 
of practice. 

of the moat it 
historical pictun 
The followiiiK 

cresting and attractive 
ever published in this 

ts from the pn 

by all wb< 


—Manv/actiirer and flu; 

,) Daily Slandard. 

J American, Waterb 

Jting Mid valuiible a eoinrlbutinn to it 

State Sup't or f ubUc luetruoUoD. 

—H. Y. Cmnmercial Adverlisfr, 

Editor Penm 

Dear Sir— 
your printer: What is " writing from dic- 
tionaries ?" Don't ho raeau writing from 
directories! In my liwt letter to the Jour- 
nal I used the e:£pression "writing from 
dictation." See copy. 

Yours very truly, 
C. E. Cadi. 
lOo reference to the copy of the com- 
munication referred to, we see that Mr. 
Cady is correct. The types will sometimes 
go provokiugly astray. — Ed. Journal,] 

Teachers and pupils of ornamental pen- 
manship will find " Ames' Compendium " 
the most complete guide and assistant ever 
published. Read what is said of itou page 

Stimpson's U. S. Treasury Gold Pens. 

Broadway, New York, 


A. Rare Opportunity 

and p*7lnc 

written rsrila, •nd liOc. for Bay kipbsbpt. 

KaJarr MpMTted. $000 and upward*. A.ldr**" D. J. B, 

Free ! Free ! ! Free ! ! ! 

PenuiaD,">Ull ecoda bla uiiexc*Ued wrlH« 

O N. V. flAB 

T)HOT(JH EXCHANOHJ wllb all tbeleadfn«r 

TDRHIRE to ezcb»DK« ape 
with even? good penman 

dole, Neb. 


acroll CBrila, STk:. per doEcn. Samplw, 10c, 
work. Addroan O. E. DEWHUR8T, New H 

GAZE roNUKR' ' 1;FJI()LD' 

A^:'.:.''. ■■■... ■ ■■ '^;^ 

(N.y.) In.' . l.i 
.look |W, ,[..., I.... i: . ■ 

Pona Iboat In ut>o 
BInDk Carda, SI. 

38c. ; Obllqtio Pea 
W (elzo 4) per M. 



d.Vki'Jx'i"." ■! 

,„.;,:,: if 

by m .11 


,•- (\ RECIPES f 
»)U oluillng 
Indelible) a^nt for 

M^'silvtr Wbll«, 


. (li>- 



School Journal, 

iBoend'ully ii 
tlipubllsl ~ 

inugbt 1 



loly o. lumeriai^uai lu proj 
aubjeol to which It U devoted. 

OATiOK," lu whloh tke KlQderRLirten, Obje 
Ing, Hcbool Uoom Melhoda, DlaolpUue, tc. 
and practically treated. 

HuUorlptlon price {2.00 


What Everybody Wants. 

On receipt of prk-oa auuexed. I will eoud, po ■ 
paid, ouplea of any ol the following pen-picturt! 

Ive apeoliuoua of iiouniauahlp ever piibllahed. 
The Uoutouulal Picture of Progreaa, 'J8xM In. $3 

Tbo t<onl'a Prayitr, 23i38 iu. 

Tbo MuTtago Corttacuta ISi'JSIn, 

3HpeoluiouSbeeltiof Eugrosalugeacli llxU tu. 1 

Aiienu wanted. 3US Broadivay, N. Y. 

The following are a fow of the mauy llatleri&g tea 

Ceiiteitulal Pioturu of ProgroM and other works 
peu Kt published by ue : 

It ia a Ceutouulal chart llluatratlug the oourae 
empire wealward. and ahoiild have a place in ovo 
huii8ehold.-&c 0«D. John A. Dix. 


Potter. Ainsworth& Co. 

Payson. Dunton and^cribn^r Sya'em of 

Would reapectfuUy a 
that they bave ren 
35 Pork Place. 

Hbip, and of the ol 
aent on application li 




Accounts, with Ar ithmetical Problems, 


S. S. PACKARD, Publisher, 






til a It 

cji; i-.o^- '■ .■„,„„„„„ ,.__^_^;,,;;;,,,,.''-^^;.»->r^§rc) 

Every Variety of Pen Work Promptly Executed in the Most Perfect Manner. 
Also, Counsel given as Expert on Hand- Writing and Accounts. 


hudbUUrciJcE. oVSufogifeMnued"? TLcbm oT-«Miti%^ScSS^'a>nll^'%Z Bs'iuig ibeni 
lul., Haodblli, »1U be mor. .ilraMlve. bence more HVjIj to bo read .nd pte.erv.d. , , . 

UuplioateH in Klenroope Plaics will bcBeutby maU to any addrees. at low prices. Inclose atamp 

>jpIoiiina niid Spccl> 




138 and 140 t 


^ngUsh, BruMseUt, Three ply, Inymin. AUo, SUlr OarpeU, Velvet Rugs, Ontmb Olotht 
Oil COjiluf; etc., vcrv eheup at the Old Place, 


Carpets cnref.illy pnelted mid B.?nt lo nuy put of the United States free of charge, 
SKISTD P"<)K PRT ■'.■ f.r^T, .7. A. BENDALL- 


/,A^\st\^m\xVWi\\A\s\m=> ■^■^^^'^ Witsst 


n- Series of 

ncHnnk pens 


On receipt of the prices annexed, we will forw&rd 
by return of mail, or by expreae as stated, any artjclp 


li^VI'^^ l^A'I'KNT 

1 TAINTOB, 305 Broadwi 

"^"' 0.n.CityI,u.ln 

ess College, Quiucy, 111. 

1 1 anyibiuy elHe. Caplti 

■J BUrt you. J12 E 

^^ by the iudustrious. 

girls wanted every* 

TRUE fc CO., Augusta, Main 


doz. A variety >>( etylcx uu 

\ complete priee-liHt, Add 

\— Your name beautifully 

Forged. Disguised & Anonymous Writing 


W^acrolWdlrVto ind':^'^' ^t' ^''^it^' ^fan 
tiUd. Sunples, 10c. Addresa GEO. W. SLUS^ER, 
Inglew ood, Va., Bockiu^hum Co. 3-11 

By ordering fn 
upon receiving a ei 

1, driwg. paper, hot-presi 


■■ 1.000. by 

iprei. 1 SO 

slgna, V 



r pack' of as card 


Windsor & 

ar Bup. Ind. Ink 

pr atk, 1 00 




dl. Ink, per .tic 

k.".... 1m 



**.""*. 1 2f 

WUli^ama A 

Hard-, .i., 

.;.;;: J g 

Congdon's Normal SyBte 

These are good works 
Kty to Speucerlan Peum 

Spcneerian Compendium 

m of Flourtehijii 
of Lettering... 

nehlp *.. 

bner'sMan al.. 

ery superior, pe 

doi.... 1 51 

light everj 




on with di>. 

rlplion w 

tb pricea for U 

New roit 

Publisliea 3IoiitUly, Mt viOG Kroad-vvny, f oi- SS 1 .OO jjor Y<! 

NEW YORK, JULY, 1878. 

VOL. n. NO. 4. 



Moveaieut is the fouudation of all good pen- 

maDsbip. Printed copy books are good in 

their places as bt'Ips, to a teacher oud should 

never be looked upon in any other light. 

No teacher, I am sure, would expect his pupils 

> become grarumariiiiiB Irom merely study- 

ig a text book or copyingfinished sentences. 

or mathematicians by copying wrought 

problema; nud no teacher ebonld allow ei 

text book or a copy book to supersede him 

'Chooi. His personal supervision and 

interest are elements of Guccess in any branch, 

mmanship is not an exception to this 

I contend that an easy practical band- 

j, suitable for any calling in life is not 

to be learned by patterning after printed 

copies of any si-ries of copy books alone ; but 

learned either by the skillful advice and 

of a teacher who understands the 

Practical Hints on Teaching Penman- 

le Htudent 
'iuces me that 
L-xcept perhaps 
rally so poorly 

DEO. 27, 1877. 

My observation during a 
than eighteen years, both 
teacher of penmanship, co 

in drawing, are teachers gtc 
qnalilied to t€<ich as in wr; 
want of qualification, probably, superintend- 
ents and school officers are partly at fault, by 
not requiring any particular standard of skill 
or qualification in writing on the part of the 
candidates for teaching. If the law required 
all applicants for a certificate to be qualified 
to teach penmanship from the blackboard 
systematically and scientifically, it would not 
be long before they would qualify themselvei 
in this study, both by theory and practice, 
aud I feet assured that no teacher, who 
doBires t) meet the wautsof his pupils in the 
Kohool-ro..m. would complain if examiners 
required this of him. It may be argued by 
same teachers that we have now the very best 
lithographed copy books, which is, or ought 
to be sufficient. It is true there are a num- 
ber of excellent systems of penmanship in 
e«nernl use; but a system of penmanship is 

too frequently cuuai' .,^ 

of copy books, and the fact that copy books 
are text books, and should be thoroughly 
understood, is seldom recognized. 

Do our youth, by the study of these books, 
become good penmen? Have educatort 
realized what they expected from their use? 
Do pupils learn from them the correct me- 
thod of holding the pen, and proper position 
of the hand and arm ? Do they learn from 
them the proper position at the desk ? Can 
they learn these from the hooka as they are 
used in most of our sohools? Hiw any other 
than the finger movement ever resulted from 
their usg? The finger 
which IS alm..Eit universally the 
practiced in writing copy books, is not usei 
or taught by any noted teacher of penman 
ship except for small children to learn th. 
formation of letters, nor by any rapid btiai 
nesa writer in the country. Is it then ai 
advantage for the youth of our schools it 
learning to write to use a movement exclu 
sively. which they will not practice wher 
they enter upon the duties of an active life ■ 

vith a thorough course of practice on 
iment exercises, or through long expe- 
e, either in the counting room or in some 
ofRce. The style of writing acquired through 
the use of copy books in our schools is nearly 
always stiff, tramped and impossible, as any 
good teacher of the art can tell you. The 
teacher who simply gives his pupils a printed 
copy, or spreads o,it before them an en- 
graved chart, and lets them pattern after that, 
about fifteen or twenty minutes a day at 
raudom— sitting in any position they chouse 
and writing whatever movement they can, 
will never turn out any practical business 
writers. While it is indeed tme that imita- 
tion aud practice are the chief means by 
which penmanship is acquired, it 
portont for the learner to know h< 

to practice. I feel a.ssured that 

practice on the true philosophy 

of motion is of more benefit than ten weeks' 

t is of course not to be expected that the 
schools will furnish any fioinhed 
penman— far from it ; for I am well aware 
that with the multiplicity of branches taught, 
teachers are unable to do this, even if they 
were competent ; but they ought to do, what 
;eocbing they do riff/it, and teach each pupil 
under their charge at least an easy, plain 
hand, or to lay the foundation of good pen- 
lip, so that all may become finished 
lu who are willing to give the necessary 
practice to it. • * • The greatest diffi- 
culty, perhaps, in the way of advancement 
lany of our public schools, is the indiffer- 
ence of many teachers who do not seem to 
regard penmanship with the importance it 
deserves. I have heard some go so far as 
to say that because Horace Greeley and a few 
others wrote most wretchedly, bad peui 
ship must be a mark of greatness. As 
Diight we say that because Edgar A. Poe 
au opium eater or Gen. Grant 
smoker, that intoxication and smoking are 
marks of greatness. Many have an idea that 
good penmanship is an endowment, that a 
person must be anatural writer or it is useless 
to attempt to acquire the art. Could we not 
say, with as much propriety, that a person 
ought to be a natural reader or speller before 
ipting to read or to spell a word ? Such 
ideas are too absurb to have weight with any 
persons of experience. Some, of course, 
have more aptness and taste than others, but 
that is the case in every branch of study. 
The principles of penmanship are few and 

id any person of ordinary intelligence and 
'e grains of push to a square inch of mns- 

cular power ca 


aster them 

n a short time 

A teacher's ac 



are precisely 

what be makes 


em; h 


ccess depends 

largely upon hi 

t t 


nduatry; what too 

many lack is 


f P 

rpose. They 

to think that they must be able to 
every branch at a jump or without much 
or, or they do not possess the natural 
ability to acquire it. Perseverance aud atick- 
tbe foundation rocks which 
sustain all well-directed efforts in any calling, 
while the drifting sands of indecision lead 
any a teacher down to failure. 
Another very evident difficulty in properly 
teaching writing in our public schools is the 
selection of poor material. I have seen al- 
uany different kinds of pens used as 
■e pupils iu the school — coarse, fine, 
. icratchy, stumpy, rusty— all kinds- 
teacher and pupils alike indifferent as to their 
quality. A bad pen in a large unwieldy 
holder, alone is a sufficient cause of failure in 
trying to learn to write well, to say nothing 
of the poor ink that is commonly used. 
Another fault is that where copy books are 
used pupils are often allowed to write in too 
high numbers. Instead of requiring them 
thoroughly master the principles and let- 
's in the lower numbers they are allowed to 
itethe higher numbers first. This is a 
bad practice in any school. The teacher who 
de&ires to succeed well iu teaching this art, 
lassify his pupils. There should be 
e thau two classes in any publicschool, 
and each member of the same should 
be required to write the same copy at the 

if the teacher is alive to the importance of 
the subject, the time spent in writing will be 
regarded by the pupils as the most pleasant 
part of the day, aud the teacher will be am- 
ply rewarded by the rapid advancement of 
his piipiU.— iVrtfwfla/ EducnUn: 

Commercial Schools. 


it alio 

e. which is too fre- 
pupil is away from 

here and anoth 

quently the c 

any wrilingh 

the class on his return and make up the 

lefiBou lost some other time at the pleasure 

of the teacher. 

Another great drawback is. that some pupjls 
get in the habit of writing too fast, and this 
is one of the very worst habits that the 
teaoherhasto encounter; and I might say 
right here that hardly one in a dozen has the 
correct method of holding the pen. The best 
plan that I know to teach writing from copy 
books is, first to select good material, then 
:o show the proper position at the desk and 
correct manner of holding the pen ; then 1 
the class practice easy movement exercisi 

blank paper for five 
this let the teacher wr 

the board, and requ 

e the lei 

; after 

lie class to correct any mistakes that may be 
lade. After a few lines have been written 
ave the pupils expunge, change books aud 
criticise each others efforts— requiring all cri- 
ticisms to be in strict accordance with the anal- 
ysis previously given. This will form in them 
the habit of criticising their own work. Let 
the aim be to do well whatever ia done, how- 
ever hltle that may be. Master one feature 
at a time, and whether the lesson be spacing, 
shading, or slant, let the undivided attention 
of the class be directed to that one point. 
If the teacher keeps up au interest in his 
classes, puts some enthusiasm iu hisremorks 
aud uses the blackboard freely I venture the 
assertion that his pupils will show more 
improvement in two weeks than in two 
iths by the ordinary way. I know from 
experience that this plan can be successfully 
t iu any district school — the time 
allotted to writing may necessarily be short, 
perhaps not more than twenty minutes; but 

The rapid increase of business schools and 
colleges since lt;7o, both in number and at- 
tendance, shows that they admirably meet a 
ant in education which is in no other way 
> suitably supplied. 

There were in 1S70 only twenty-six buainesa 
colleges in the United States, with 154 in- 
structors aud 5,825 students. There are 
to-day more than 131 business colleges and 
commercial schools, with at least GOO teachers 
and 2.1.000 student.-^. 

In the West, the business colleges are 
largely attended, and rapidly growing in 
favor, as a means of special education. Illi- 
nois has the largest number of thes^e schools 
of any State, or U business colleges; Ohio 
has V>, and Michigan «, 

The business college in San Prauciaco is 
attended by middle-aged people of both sexes, 
is well as by the young, and seems to have 
■aught, in this respect, the true democratic 
ipirit of special education. The business 
colleger in some other cities also are becom- 
ing more and more scfiooh for the people as 
well as for the young. 

A knowledge of the common English 
branches, or reading, writing and arithmetic, 
is the only literary preparation necessary to 
enter the commercial school. The sessions 
for instruction in the larger schools are held 
in the moiuing and evening, on every busi- 
ness day throughout the year. A student 
may enter upon his studies at any time, and 
may take a complete course of study, and 
graduate or only receive instrucUon in 
special branches at times that do not inter- 
fere with regubir business occupations. 

studies that a student may pursue, or 
from which he may select forspecial instmc- 
on, are, in the best organizt'd schools, pen- 
lanship. book-keeping, including meicantile 
jrrespondence, bills, invoices, checks, notes, 
drafts, etc ; banking and commercial ac- 
counts; arithmetic and algebra ; navigation, 
engineering, surveying; architectural and 
mechanical drawing; English grammar, and 
the modern languages. 

The cost of tuition varies from S50 to $300 
a year; the highest figure being for the most 
expensive studies in the full course, 

Some of these sohools have business de- 
partments, in which the students have actual 
business training, having regularly organized 
banks, with stockholders, directors, etc., in 
which deposits are made, checks paid, notes 
and drafts discounted, exchange bought and 
sold, the general business of which is carried 
on by the students, tmder proper super- 

The schools meet the wonts of a large 
number of people whosa early education has 
been limited, but who have the purpose and 
time for self-improvement in hours not re- 
quired for daily work. Any lack in business 
training, in penmanship, arithmetic, book- 
keeping, etf., may llms be supplied. 

We would recommend to young l-"" "■' 

advantages for btudy havi 
for the highest business bucce 
they most need, i 

-^™..u«o «i auujD business college 
mercial achooi. — Youth's Coiupanion 


A Game of Life. 


) idly depenils, 
upoo kindrod on 


> something, no doubt, I 

How Steel Feus are Hade. 

A few wtuOtsHiiicc line of oui' coriespoud- 
cuts requeritutl tliat we sIjoiiM iufoiin the 
roiidera of tbe Jourmal ifgardiug the pro- 
Ui'seuf mauiifactut'iiig steel pens. Deemiug 
this mibjoct of ucuihiderublf iuterest tiDd 
importauce, ouu, to uuswer wliinli in a satis- 
fnctory mauuer, required personal obser- 
viitioD and iuforiimtiou which wc at that 
tiniu did uot posfccss, and desiring our 
auswer to be botli ftill aud reliable, we re- 
coutlj visited tht- extenhive hlet-l pen works 
of the Esterbrook Hteel Pen 0"., at Cam- 
deu, N. J., which is a suburb of Philadel- 
phia. Arriviog at the works aud auuounc- 
iug ourselvett as uu editor iti pinMiit of in- 
foroiiitiou ill ii{.Nii.i ii. |ieii tiiiUiiug, we 
wore luoal. e.,i,il.nNsl^ ...vivr.l, iiudcou. 
due-ttHlbj llie •.n|H.i,,,i,u.Uiil tlHolIgli the 
Hoveial depiiituiiM.l-, luut llie uliject and 
purticulur proet'ss uf each curelully ex- 
I>luiiiod. We wei'c tiret shown the steel 
from which the pens are made ; it is of the 
tiiivst quality, aud is imported from Shef- 
lield, Kuglaud, ill sheets tive feet long, one 
aud oue-half feet wide, aud oue-sixteeutb 
of an inch thick. These sheets are fii:st cut 
into stvipi eighteen inches loug by from 
two aud oue-half to three iuches wide, 
they are then packed into irou pots, sealed 
with clay, uir-tight, and placed iu a closed 
furnace called the muffle, aud heated suf- 
flcieutly lo remove all temper from the 
steel, thus softening it sufficieotly to admit 
of its being rolled lo tlie required thinuess 
for the particular pen into wuich it is to be 
made. This is done by repeatedly passing 
it cold botwoeu powerful rollers worked 
by (.team ; when brought to the required 
tliickness these strips ure from three to 
four feet long by two to three iuches wide; 
ihev aie theu tnken to the 

where they are passed rapidly through ma- 
ohines, operated by girls, with such rapidity 
as to out from two hundred to two hundred 
and fifty pen blanks per miuute ; ia this 
room are teu macbiues capable of cutting 
an aggi'egatu n( 1,500.000 pens each work- 
ing day of ton hours ; allowing 300 working 
days per year, this would give annually 
450.000,000 peus, about ten for each man, 
wnuau and child in the United States. 

The pens are next pierced and side slit. 
The pierciug is done by a great variety of 
eoniiguration iu the slumps, and forma the 
Muied-shaped upetturo to be seen at the 
back of the pen. The slitting at tbe sides 
or edges gives liexibility. Everytbiug 
here, as in.leed everywhere else, is turned 
out with matbeuthticttl accuracy and pre- 
cision. .In this department there are 
twouty-niue punche-N and a woman is 

working at each. A good hand will pass 
one IhonsaDd gross per Meek through b< 
bands. Tbe 

we next pass into, and bere we must slate 
that before the pens go through this de- 
partment, they have to go back to the 
muffle again to be annealed. Tbey are 
then put into iron boxes which, with the 
inclosed pens, are inserted in the furnace 
before named, and when lieiled sufficient- 
ly, are taken out and aliownl to cool 

The name of this room itself Miffi iently 
indicates the nature of the operation per- 
formed iu this departnieiit, viz ; the mime 
of the makers, the number by which the 
pen is known and the name of the peu, such 
as "The Falcon." "bchoolPen," "Pine 
Point," "Easy Writer," etc., is stamped 
upon them. 

fteen of these marking 
en here. Tliese machines 
foot, while the i)eus are 
being put under tbe marker by bund. It 
will be seen from the name of one of 
the brands just given, that they are the 
makers of tbe celebrated " Falcuu Peu," 
4 8. The sale of this pen alone last 
year was about two hundred tbousaud 

We were next shown into the 

presses to be 

Raising is a technical term which means 
bending ; hitherto the pens have been fiat. 
Now tliey are raised or bent into shape by 
means of jiresses, to which levers are at- 
tached, and which are brought down upon 
tbe pens siugly. Only one pen ia manipu- 
lated at a time. This is the case in each 
department aud at every operation. Here 
we counted twenty-five of these presses. 
Again the pens have to be passed to tbe 
muffle, which may now be called the 

where tbey are put into sheet-iron barrels, 
and under eacb barrel is a slow file. Tbey 
are tlien made to revolve by turning a 
bundle, while at tbe open end of eacb bar- 
rel a workman stands with a spoon about' 
four feet long, which be inserts from time 
to time, taking out a few of the peus to 
see that the process is going on satisfac- 
torily, aud to enable him to take them 
out lit the right moment. 
Now we come to the 

where tbe peus are put into galvanized 
irou barrels with saw-dust, etc., and made 
to revolve until they become bright. Then 
we go to tbe 

brauch of this establisbmeut. Here the 
peus are first ground straight or length- 
wise, aud also across. Tbe object of tbe 
fiist-uamed process is to assist the How of 
the ink, and of the second to retard or 
bold it buck ; thus an equilibrium is ob- 
tained, auil tbe ink flows just as the writer 
uses the pen. This grinding is operated 
on emery wheels, of which there are iift\ 
iu this department. Our coudactor now 
introduces us into the 

where there are twenty-five punches, 
which perform tbe operation of making 
tbe slit at the poiut of tbe peu. When 
we consider that the peu comes almost to 
a poiut at the end, so that there is no 
margiu whatever for the slightest deviation 
from tbe eeutre, and reflect also that the 
operation has to be performed with the 
greatest possible rapidity, our readers will 
see bow perfect the machinery must be 
which is used for this work, and bow skill- 
ful nud expert tbe operators in the perform- 
auce of their duty. 
Our next visit is to the 

Here there are from twenty to twenty- 
five girls at Work, who may be termed ex- 
perts, whose bu&iuess it is to examine eacb 
peu siugly. They tiike up a peu with each 
baud, try the points aud examine tbe 
grinding, stampiug, markiug, fiuish, tem- 
per and geueral appearance. Indeed 

there are from twelve to fifteen clas.se8 of 
pens which are thrown out for as u 
reasons, and these faults aud blemishes 
are noted with such celerity that each e 
aminer will sort 100 gross per dny. Oi 
guide next takes us into the 

Tbe object of varnishing is to prevent 
rust, and impart a fine gloss and finish. 
For this purpose the pens are put into ii 
perfon'ted vessel, dipped into the varnish 
then put into a swinger, iu which tbey )irt 
made to revolve rapidly to throw off the 
superfluous varuish, which also partially 
dries them ; this process is continued by 
sh.duiig them in n riddle ; then they are 
baked for four or five minutes, to dry ofl 
all the remaining moisture. Tbey are non 
ready for tbe 

where they are weighed off into grosses. 
The first gross being counted, and tbe rest 
weighed off with the couuted gross as a 
biilance, and with as much care as if they 
were gold. They are now ready to be put 
into the small boxes, eacb of which con- 
tains a gross, aud which are too well 
known iu the market to need description 
here. " Over every department through 
which we passed there was an experienced 
foreman, who is thoroughly skilled, is an 
adept at tbe work, a;id who sees that every- 
thing proceeds with order, accuracy and 

Most people have doubtless heard of tbe 
nine processes through which a pin has to 
pass iu its manufacture ; here, however, 
eacb pen passes through from fifteen to 
twenty-five distinct operations, according 
to style, quality aud finisb. Tbe greater 
portiou of tbe pevs here manufactured, 
being of a very fine quality, pass through 
from twenty-two to twenty-five operations. 
The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co. make over 
150 diflerent styles of pens, and have in 
their employ from 250 to 300 bauds, mostly 
women, tbe work being principally light, 
is peculiarly favorable for such help. 

The goods they produce are of acknowl- 
edged excellence, equal to tbe best Eughsb 
makers. They are sent all over the United 
States ; also to Canada, South America, 
Mexico, Cuba, and mauy otber places. 
Some of them have been forwarded to 

So well is tbe standard aud unvarying 
excellence of these pens known aud ac- 
knowledged that our general as well as 
State governments invariably require these 
peus to be specified in their contracts for 
stationery, etc. Our public schools and 
corporations iu tbe same way acknowledge 
their undeviating excellence. 

We felt alundautly paid for our visit to 
these works. The cleanliness, order, com- 
fort, couveuience ; tbe marked design and 
adaptability of everything, was striking 
aud exemplary, such as to do high honor 
to American manufacturing skill aud en- 

Shell and Substance. 

Mauy good people have a queer way of 
seizing tbe shell o£ wit without uoticing 
tbe lack of tbe substance. The real pith 
aud marrow of wisdom are easily counter- 
feited with empty words, which it is not 
at all difficult to pass off upon nine iu ten 
for profound thought. A great many of 
the maxims of trade, that pass curreut 
every day without question, if sifted down, 
will be found either t^ have embodied a 
lurking fallacy from tbe beginning or to 
have been perverted from their original 
intent to something not only entirely dif- 
ferent, but essentially false. Some of 
these work absolute mischief with the un- 
thiukiug ; others are only laughable. 
Nothing, for instance, can be more ludi- 
crous than tbe favorite mottoes of teachers 
of penmanship. A master urgors his pupils 
to make their copy-books as elegant as 
possible— a most laudable endeavor ; for 
tbe annoyance, vexation and error that 
arise from bad penmanship are incalcula- 
ble. But the reason which he assigns for 

it, and which of course sounds very poetic 
and very just to them, is curious. Across 
tbe top of tbe blackboard, with plentiful 
flourishes and mis-used capitals, be in- 
scrilies this legend : 

" The Pen is Mightier than the Sword." 
Tbe peu certainly is mightier than the 
sword ; but when Bulwer wrote the line be 
had no special reference to caligraphy. 
The jien that makes the ugliest crow tracks, 
if they are legible, is just as mighty as if 
it rivalled the luxurious curves and dashes 
of the burin. Aud, by the way, this quo- 
tation calls to mind the curious way iu 
which things sometimes outgrow their 
symbols. We never think of typifying 
military power excepi by the bayonet and 
the sword ; though every soldier knows 
that iu modern warfare both tbe sword 
and tbe bayonet are comparatively harm- 
less and useless. Again, you shall bee, 
among exhibited specimens of penman- 
ship, on a finely-wrought scroll, which per- 
haps is put iuto tbe mouth of a rather flat 
eagle, some such quotation as this . 

Tbe truth of the sentiment is not to be 
questioned. But in order to move the 
million minds it is not at all necessary to 
spend any portion of tbe drop in heavy 
flourishes or superfluous hair-line spirals. 
Indeed, the less of these tbe better. 
Probably not one of the thoughts that has 
moved the world was originally written iu 
what a professor of penmanship would call 
elegant hand-writing. Somebody has said 
that it is no particular credit to a man to 
write a legible hand, but it is a great shame 
not to. Whoever succeeds iu making peo- 
ple write so that it can be read easily, is 
engaged in a most laudable enterprise. 

We have thus enlarged upon tbe subject 
of modern penmanship merely to illus- 
trate our opening sentences, which have a 
much wider application thau to those who 
not only think the pen is mightier than the 
sword but believe that peu is mightiest 
which aiakes tbe most flourishes and puts 
the most capital letters iu plme.s where 
prosody forbids them. 

The following is the Chinehe version of 
Mary and her lamb : 

We heard a son of Erin trying to surround 
Mary and her little Iamb the other day, and 
this is the way we understood it : 


lary wud stl 



So celebrated 

a poem sh 

ouldhave a French 

La petite M 

vue bluncbee 
lere la belle 




Stamford A dvoaaU. 

Oui, motiaien 

r ; you av 

ez un very large 

imagination ; n 
Deutsche : 

aifi comm 

^nt est this, pour 

—Hackeitsaek Republican. 
While "Our Special" at the Berlin Con- 
gress was reading the above, Gortshaboff, 
who had been looking over his shoulder, 
made tbe remark r " that he knew a niau 
who could beat that poetry, and not half 
try,' By request of our representative he 
requested his brother diplomat to Schouval- 
off the Eufisiau version, which we have had 
cabled at gi-f ut expense, and here present to 

Napoleon once entered a cathedral and saw 
twelve silver statues. "What are these?" ask- 
ed the Emperor. "The twelve Apostles," wa» 
the reply. "Well," said tbe great captain. 

good, as their Master did.' 


II gold ftDd BiiDW ftgBtuitt the gUdlDg blue 

Attending the Convention. 

Till- Maj uuniber of llie Peimums Help. 
in He. liitt etlituiinl, announces wlint |)ut. 
porta to be tbe sentiments of penmen cou- 
cerniiig tbe convention, namely, timtman; 
favor it, and that otbers regard it iiitb dis- 
trust on account of tbe element of seltiNb- 
ness tbut will suiejj' be manifested to tlie 
disgust of everybody. I do not believe 
that sentiment exists to any extent wortby 
of mention, and were not its expression 
found in a representative paper it would 
in no wise be wortiiy of notice. 

Tbe profession of penmansliip lias grown 
a little too broad in its .scope, and the 
field is too thoroughly occupied fur an un- 
worthy element of that sort to lind en- 
trance. Tbe day has gone when the re- 
cognized peumuu was an expert at card- | 
writing and flaming advertisements, and 
knowing as little of anything else as possi- 
ble ; selfishness and egotism were rife 
among that class whom we will gladly let 
rest iu oblivion. Tbe question now asked 
of a peumau is : " Can you teach our boys 
•nd girls how lo m-ile ? Are you acquaint- 
ed with all the diflerent recognized de- 
partments of your profession ? Have you 
auffioient brains to properly impart instruc- 
tion ? Is your moral character such as 
to make you a (it preceptor of young men 
and women ?" It has come to pass that 
egotism in any branch of education 
is unmistakable ovideuce of stupidity. 
I pity that penman or teacher of any com- 
merciiil branch, who fancies he has 
attained tbe acme of bis profession, and 
that bn cannot learn anything at tbe com- 
ing convention. His mental condition is 
certainly deprecable. If I understand the 
auimiis of the movers of this proposed con- 
vention, nut a single element of undue 
sellisbness is yet open to the visual or 
mental perception of any one ; and from 
what we know of the character of the com- 
mittee, we can unqualifiedly assert that 
the programme and proceedings of tbe cou- 
veutiou will not be in tbe special interests 
of any penman, college or colleges, in any 
sense whatever, but they will be iu tbe 
genernl interests of every college and pen- 
man in tbe United States and Canada. 
Now it is possible to make that convention 
a grand educational success, but the re- 
•ponsibility of making it such rests upon 
every business-college teacher and pen- 
man in tbe country. It is not to be a con- 
vention of lifly teachers, but a convention 
of at least three hundred and fifty of the 
live, practical, earnest teachers of tbe 
«*(,& country, warm with the fervor of 
educational fire. Let no oue go into that I 
convention e.'specting to be a '■ wall dow- 
er." Every teacher in attendance will be I 
expected luj certainly to do his duty in 
helping on tbe interests of the convention, 
as were Lord Nelsoi/s sailors in figbtiUK 
for Euglaud at Trafalgar ; and pray, let us 
liear nothing further of jealousy among 
penman, and obstinacy in according to 
others the merit their acquirements de- 
mand. Leave out these despicable fail- 
ings from mention in the profession. 

I should not hesitate to advise u young 
teacher of oommeieial branches, just start- 
ing out, to borrow from tifty to seventy- 
live dollars, if necessary, for the purpose 
of attending the convention. I believe 

tiie importance of the occasion woubl w 
rant 11. 1 believe it also to be of the 
most importance that every busiuess-c 
lege manager shall be present wilU all 1 
teacbeiu Commercial colleges have been 
proposing for a score of years ; but it has 
never yet been demonstrated that there is 
sufficient substance in 'them to create i 
cohesive force necessary lor a fully de 
veloped organism. Let it be shown onc< 
for all, at that time, that they are a vital 
force in tbe system of education, co ordi. 
nate with any other branch, and an eminent 
exemplification of the practical require 
ments of the present age. 

Teachers can help very materially in ad- 
vertising tbe movement by writing up no- 
tices for tbe local papers. They can aid 
tbe committee of arrangements also by 
sending in names of teachers of commer- 
cial branches, according to request. 

Tbe time is past when the commercial 
course consisted of a few sets of bookkeep 
ing to be completed in from "eight tu 
twelve weeks," and when tbe term Pen- 
man was applied too often to an unprinci- 
pled nomad whose chief purposi 
get money without giving any sort of 
equivalent in tuition. The day is ap- 
proaching when the penman's chair shall 
be found in the seminary everywhere, iu 
iss collegeii. normal and public 
schools, and when the word penman, with- 
it exception, shall be a synonym for -•.cbolar 
id gentleman ; when the business course 
shall require two years of bard disciplinary 
study, and every feature of tbe course 
shall be clean-cut, comprobeusive and ac- 
curate in all its details ; and the convention 
will serve to hasten that day. 

L. L. S. 

editors iu the vicinity, we are not prepared 
to say. We commend the matter to the se- 
atteution of teachers, with the siigges- 
that as one means of acquiring the 
powe- to read manuscript with tbe same fa- 
eibty and expression as print, the pupils 
ihould be caused to read aloud and to the 
whole school, each other's compositions and 

How often is an audience or a company 
pained by the garbled rendering of some in- 
teresting written document, when, if proper- 
ly delivered, justice would be done to tbe 
ter and interest and information given to 
the hearers ? Instead of this, the bungling 
reader not only hesitates and miscalls words, 
but, taking advantage of a supposed bcense, 
but a real impertinence in such cases, he in- 
terpolates some nonsensical witticisms of his 
own, or seeks to cover his own ignorance by 
remarks on the handwriting, which is prob- 
ably better than his own. 

But the worst of it is, that even in tbe case 
of handwriting which is perfectly legible, the 
r for the person who reads it aloud, 
1 the sing-song, hop-skip-and-jump 
style which is supposed to be as proper to the 
fading of manuscript as a good rendering of 
the thought is to printed matter. Herein 
is double ignorance displayed :— ignorance 
of the proprieties of the occasion, and ignor- 
ance of a very easily acquired accomplish- 
ment—that of reading manuscript in the 
same manner as print. 

Amongst teachers especially, the habit of 

properly reading raonuscript should be cul- 

ated. They are supposed to be the most 

learned persons in many communities, and 

such are often called on in public as well 

in private, to read aloud letters and other 

written documents, and they ought to be able 

to do so. in most cases, without hesitation. 

It is true that every writer has his own pecu- 

Keep on Tryiug. 

Jive orer elgUng, 
ceaae to comploiu, 
ill keep on trying. 

Gems from Our Scrap Book. 

'a nobUily.— 
iriDg beiuty 

d looks for the good flndi 


Reading Manuscript. 

'■ Among the school books used in France 
s ona little known in this country 
listing of fao-nimilei of letters writti 
iusinessmen, eminent people. Ac, intended 
to teach children the art of reading writing, 
of which there is almost universal ignorance 
in America. Every variety of hand is select- 
I od, beginning with the best, and gradually 
proceeding to the scrawls which puzzle prin- 
j ters and ' blind-letters ' men in post-offices." 
We cut this scrap from an exchange news- 
paper, and suppose, without knowmg it, that 
the tact is as therein stated. It puts us in 
I mind of a proposition made by an inteUigeut 
j friend, about a year ago, lo prepare and pub- 
lish a similar work for the schools of this 
I county, coupled with the doubtfully compli- 
mentary request that we ourselves— person. 
I ally, not editorially— should furnish the copy 
for the ■•scrawl" part of the work. Since 
then we have beard nothing of the project, 
though always ready and every day improv! 
lug in ability to do our portion of the labor, 
—in fact rejoicing at the very idea of our 
handwriting being lor once in demand. 

But seriously, tbe French have got the 
start of us in this matter , and tbe sooner our 
chddren are taught to read manuscript, as a 
part of their education, the better. Whether 
this shall be done by the use of a book of fac- 
similes, or of the teacher's (in all cases, as 
it should be; beautiful ohirography. and then 
that of others, down to the specimen scrawls 
which could be furnished by lawyer, and 

lisrilies, but in most oases these are not very 
formidable ; and a hasty glance at the docu 
ment before beginning, will generally sufhce 
to enable the reader to perform bis task t 
satisfaction of all.— ./'en,!. Sehool J^urm 

Pbivate Fortunes of some of the 
Noted PEHSONAaES of Ancient Times.- 
Croesus possessed a fortune of S17.000,. 
000 ; Seneca, tbe philosopher, 812,080,'- 
000 ; Lentulus, a soothsayer, SI7,50O,0Oo'; 
Tiberius, at hie death, left 8118,125,000. 
hicb Caligula spent in less than twelve 

The Journal as a Medium of Advertising. 
The present large circulation of tbe 
31'BNii,, reaching, as it does, a very large 
majority of all the teachers of writing and 
bookkeeping in the country, renders it a 
most effective medium foradvertising book.s, 
merchandise and materials desired in those' 

Teachers seeking situations, and persons 
desiring to employ teachers will find the 
columns of the JooitNin an effective me- 

Tbe fact that no advertisement not in 
hue with the objecU of the JooBNinnre so- 
licited, and quite a limited number of others 
desired, renders it doubly valuable to 
the few who do advertise. 

otlier people's gardei 

end bear mao(uUy aU 

principle nnd tlie leaet understood 

in 1 

&t. F, de SaiM. 

Tbe criterion by which we Judge 

more rigid than tliat by wbjch we 


be Judged. A gianng fnult lu anotL 


cusable weaknees iu o\tne\\ea. O 

iir ey 

open wlien we look at our ueigbbovB 


1 Uiluga a 

1, an«r thai, does not hold Itsel/ respoD- 

lob?" "Tee; Iota of grapes, and ripo 
t there's dog«." "Big dogsT" "Yes; 
" Then, Bob, come away ; ttaoio gfmpet 




(HibKrlbcr, until further r 

perion wndliiii t 
labwrlberw, ludo«ln 
1**1, one yMr, and f 

r ettlie 

wlilob a 

of ponmaniblp ever pubUshod, vis. : 
ThoOonlonuliilPIoniKofProgfWii... 00X38 In. 1: 

Tlip Lord's Prayor on 

TXin Morriftiio OorlinoftlP a no .i 

TUo Family wword ....... • ■ J™^ ,. 

OrlaO DciuUful Scroll Oardw, 18 differeut dcaigi 

rorlUrepnunw nnd $8 wo will forwnrd the 

Ccntoanlnl Plolure, Mie 38i40 loohos, retallB foi 

WUlliwin ft Paekord'B OuldP. rotatls for $2.60. 

For Iwolvo dubiicrlborB and $13. we will send i 
of Amoa' Ooinpondliini of Ornnmontal Pentuai 

otghtooD aubacrlbora and $lfi, price $7.S0. 

For twelve uaniM and $13, wo will forward « 
of WlUlnni* ft Packard'* Ot>ia» of PDumaiuhip, i 

All oommiiiiloallons doalgi-ed for Tbb Pe» 
AiiT JuunitAi. ahould be addrpMPd to the ofl 


309 Broadway, New York, 
ao and addrose very dlatlnotly. 

NEW YORK. JULY, 1878. 

6tb. Every friend of educational im- 
provemeot and progrew* should anbscribe 
for and correspond witli tbe Jocbnai-, and 
thus help to make it what we shall ever 
wtrive to do— a graud medium for the best 
thought Bud information pertaining not 
a to writing, but all departments of 
commercial eduoatioD. 

Basiness CoUeges and the Joornal. 

It is tbe aia. and bua been the effort of 
the Journal to commend and advance the 
interestaot all worthy bueiness colleges and 
teachers of writing. Tliis intention and 
effort on cur part bos, in the main, been 
obierved, appreciated and liberally re- 
warded by the earneat and enccessfnl 
aid rendered to the Jocrnal. Fully 
one-half of all its eubscribers have come 
through buBJnesa colleges— from among 
their teachers, pupils and friends. Indeed, 
there are very few commercial colleges 
from which have not come large clubs of 
Bubscribers. Their proprietors have been 
sufficiently discerning to see that the cir- 
cuhition of the Journal would tend to 
create an interest in writing and business 
education and a desire for facilities for 
greater advancement, when the commer- 
ciid college will be the most natural place 
for them to go. Yet to our great surprise, 
a few days since we received a letter, con 
tainiug the names of a large club, from a 
teacher of penmanship in 
iueca college, in which hi 
address all couiuiuuicatiouB to me at my 

boarding house, because Prof. , the 

proprietor of the college, seems opposed 
to the circulation of the Journal amoTig 
the students." 

Now, as we said before, we are friendly 
to business colleges and their managers. 
We therefore withhold the name of this 
gentleman, lest the possession of such sa- 
gacity and liberality should be received as 
evidence of many other equally eminent 
qualifications as a teacher and manager, 
wbivh, made public, might attract students 
to his rooms in such overwhelming num- 
bers as to become burdensome and ru- 

western bua 

Who Should Take the Journal. 

lat. Every teacher of writing in 
departraunt. To such it will ever convey 
freah thoughts and information whicli will 
add to their ability to interest and instruct 
their pupils and to their own popularity 
and Hiiecess. A dollar's worth of informa- 
tion to the teacher is very Rmall. 

2d. Every pupil seeking to obtain a good 
practical kuowled«e of any department of 
writing, either with or without the aid of 
a teadhor. If receiving instruction, it will 
help them to remember and profit more 
fully therel>y and inspire them to greater 
diligence and success. 

3d. Every parent who has children in 
whom they would awaken an interest in 
writing, or stimulate and encourage an ex- 
ietiUR interest to more rapid progress and 
certain success, will find the Journal the 
most certain and economical means for its 

4tli. Every school i0cer in the United 
States should rend the Journal ; it has to 
do with and will nbly treat upon 
portaiit branch of education— one which 
has been greatly neglected iu our public 
schools both by teachers aiid school offi- 
ccra. It will enlighten and stimiikte them 
to a better performance of their profes- 
sional duties. 

5th. Every clerk or young man who is 
seeking to gain a livelihood liy the use of 
the pen, either as n writer or an account- 
ant : such cannot fail to profit by the great 
fund of inrormatiou pertaining not alone 
to writing but other kindred subjects. 

It Would Surprise 
The many honest, whole-souled subscrib- 
ers to the Journal to be present and ob- 
serve, for a short period of time, the 
enormous number and varied character of 
tbe communications addresaed to us through 
the mail. 

One appreciative but economical young 
man writes on a^05(fj^ cj/'f/; "I am very 
much interested in the copies of the Jour- 
nal which you have so kindly sent me. It 
is certainly the best penman's paper I 
have ever seen, and I wish you success. I 
hope you will continue to mail me an oc- 
casional copy. Please tell me through 
your columns what you think of my writ- 
ing," Aup. We think it a fine (specimen) 
effort to sponge valuable information. 

We anticipate in due time (that he may 
lead our answer) another postal from 
writer, reading thus : " Please mail t( 
address the July number of your excellent 

On another posUil card we read : 
"Mister Editer 

*'I am a farmer boy and never had any 
teacher iu writin excepting iu a dtestrict 
school. I see in a copy of your penman's 
paper that you tell people what you think 
of their writin'. please be so kind as to 
tell me in your next what you think of 
mine for a boy of only sixteen. 

"P. S.— I expect to subscribe for the 
JooitNAL in a few months," 

Don't wait. We advise you to do so at 
ouco. It will improve your writmg, which 
is already good. 

Another postal card, which adds more 
to our vanity than fimince-s, reads thus : 

" Dear Sir— I have been told that you 
execute splendid specimens of penman 
ship. I should be pleased to see a fevt 
specimens of your writing. I should hke 
a few specimens of cards, and a flourished 

eagle, also please mail to my address a 
copy of your interesting paper for June. 
I have seen moat of the numbers and 
would be happy to see that." 

Now we are naturally benevolent, and 
nothing, except getting paid for service 
reudered. delights us more than bestowing 
happiness upon others, certainly upon a 
Iriend of the Jodhsal ; but why not en- 
dose one dnllar as a subscription? We 
will mail the Journal and be mutually 
h,,ppy. Try it, please. 

Another correspondent covers three en- 
tire pages of foolscap with a biographical 
sketch of himself, adding truthfully, no 
doubt: "I should be happy to read 
this in the columns of your beautiful 
Journal—" but since in all probability 
his happiness would be greatly exceeded 
by our unhappiuess, we beg to decline. 

The writer of another post/il card, a 
stranger to us, evidently has perfect con- 
fidence in himself, for he says: "Please 
forward to my address one copy of Ames' 
Compendium of Practical and Ornamental 
Penmanehip, and I will remit on receipt 
ol the same. I have heard it was a very 
fine work." So it is ; so fine and expensive 
that we must decline to mail it, especially 
to strangers, ou an order by postal 
Remit $."1.00 and you will have the pleasure 
of receiving a copy by return mail. 

The writer of no one of the foregoing 
coramunicationp, which are only a few 
among hundreds similar, is a snbscribtr 
to the Journal, nor have they even en- 
closed stumps to pay the postage on favors 
which they have the presumption to auk 
from US gratuitously. Nearly all admire 
the Journal, and wish it and us success ; 
but how, pray, is it to be obtained ou the 
basis of giving value and paying our own 
postage for nothing ? Will they please 
try it by mailing us just a dollar or two 
gratuitously ? Thus they can test the mat- 
ter on their own basis— simply do as ihey 
would be done by. We will meekly bear 
the test. 

We doubt not that many of the writers 
of such communications are conscientious 
and honest, but they are inexperienced or 
thoughtless regarding the equities of bus- 
iness, while others, we hope few, are knav- 
ish and mean, deliberately seeking to ob- 
tain value by cheek and device. The 
former, we trust, will find in this article a 
profitable lesson ; the latter are a species 
of human vultures, upou whom good ad- 
vice is wasted and from whom there seems 
to be no escape. 

Our advice to both classes is that they 
carry the practice of their peculiar ideas 
of economy a little further, and save their 
postal card, for in future such 
tions will pass unnoticed directly to 
tra&h basket. 

Jonathan Jones, and a score of others, is 
orainoub of the wide-spread interest which 
has been awakened in this the first pen- 
man's convention ever held in this or per- 
haps any other country. 

Penman's Convention. 
All teachers or authors of writing or 
of the commercial branches who have 
had a circular of invitatiou to the con 
tiou and a copy of the programme, art 
spectfully requested by the committee to 
at once apply for the same by addressing a 
card to William Allen Miller, CliairmB 
Committee, Packard's Business College, 
805 Broadway, New York. It is the earn- 
est wish that all receive and respond to 
the invitatiou ; let there be an attendance 
which for numbers and ability shall do 
honor to the profes.sion. 

An outline of the proceeding and report 
of the committee will be found iu another 
column. We might add that the prospects 
for a large gathering of the live working- 
men of the profession is promising, even 
more so than we dared anticipate at the 
outset. Many who, owing to distance, or 
other causes, cannot attend, express the 
warmest interest in the success of the eou- 
Tentiou, and are anxious to see the results 
published in some convenient form, for 
reference and study— and offering to pay a 
portion of any necessary expense. 

The promise to attend, of such pioneers 
as K. M. Bartlett, Hon. Ira Mayhew, 

Agents Wanted 

lo every town in the United States ami 
Canada to solicit subscriptions to the Jour- 
nal, to whom we are prepared to offer the 
most liberal inducements. Notwithstand- 
ing our large lists, there are still thousands 
of teachers, pupils and persons interested 
in penmanship who would readily subscribe 
for the Journal were it properly presented 
and their subscriptions solicited. We are 
determined, if possible, to increase the 
number of subscribers to 50,000 before the 
close of the present volume, and why not ? 
That would be but little more than one to 
each post office in the United States and 
Canada. Can there be any doubt that 
there is an average of one person to each 
post office who would be sufficiently inter- 
ested in penmanship to subscribe for the 
Journal were it properly brought to his 
notice. We think not ? 

But how are they to be secured, is the 
question ; we propose to make the effort 
through our present subscribers ; each has 
to do but little to help us to our 50,000. 
As ail inducement, we have embodifd iu a 
circular a most liberal system of ca*.h pre- 
miums, which we will mail ou application 
to anv person who wishes to act as our 

Co'Operative Life Insurance. 
Few institutions are founded for more 
worthy and benevolent purposes, or, when 
honestly and economically conducted, cap- 
able of bestowing greater benefit upon 
mankind than life insurance. Most tier- 
sons will concede this as a fact. Yet in 
view of the severe experience of many dur- 
ing the past few yearx, through the failures 
and impositions of Life Insurance Compa- 
nieM, multitudes are standing aloof from 
such institutions. Confidence has been 
weakened or utterly destroyed in their se- 
curity and integrity. There can be no 
question, that a plau of life insurance, 
which secures to the insured the fullest 
benefit of all money paid, by deducting 
the minimum for the necessary expense of 
transacting the business, is worthy of com- 

Several such associations have been re- 
cently organized among the various trades, 
professions and occupations. The plan is 
mutual and equitable, and is thus : Sev- 
eral members of a trade or profession mu- 
tually agree to pay an initiatory and annu- 
al fee of S2 or 85, then at the death of any 
member, pay to his representative S2 or 35 
each. This method insures the payment of 
the largest sum possible for the expendi- 
ture. Losses are paid promptly from the 
fund accumulated from entry fees and an- 
nual dues, or by an advance assessment 
collected from each member at the time of 
joining the association. On this plan there 
is no complicated and expensive machin- 
ery or a custody of accumulated millions 
which tempt alike to extravagance and 
fraud. From the very nature of the plan 
there can be no reserve capital beyond a 
few thousand dollars necessary to meet 
promptly all losses as they occur, and thus 
prevent delay from colleci ion of a.s8css- 
ments. The economy of this plan is at 
once apparent, and its security is iu the 
fact that there is no inducement or oppor- 
tunity for robbery. 

An association has recently been formed 
in this city, and incorporated under the 
title of "The Mutual Benefit Association 
of New York," which seems to embody all 
the excellent features of this plan. 

Classes are formed among the various 
trades and professions. The membership of 
each class is limited to 500. Persons be- 
tween the ages of IS and io years hav- 
ing passed a proper medical examination, 
are admitted by paying S5 and agreeing 
to pay the same annually and 

the death 


of anj- member. Wben iW class is fuli 
tbe Slim paid in of death is 82,500, 
and proportionate wlien not full. We 
shall endeavor to ^ive a more full accoiiut 
of the workings and advautoges of this 
plan iu some fulnre is«ne. 

Joint Stock Company Book-keeping. 

We have reCfived a copy of Johnsons 
Joint Stock Comfxiny Book-keeping, )>ub- 
linhed byS. (!. Beatty k C".. proprietors 
of the Onturio BiiaineRS College, Belleville. 
Out. This 19 a practical work of eighty 
octavo pa«ep, and is a concise and com- 
plete Ruide in the method of forming joJDt 
stock companies and tor keeping the busi- 
ness records of tbe same. It will he 
found not only ft vahiable t^xt-book by 
those teaching book-keeping, bvit an inval- 
uable hand-book to persons having charge 
of the organization or keeping tbe ac- 
counts of joint stock companies. The 
work is advertiped iu auotlier column. 

A New Roling Pen. 

We invite attention to Gisburne's rul- 
ing pen, advertised in another column by 
the Esterbrook Steel Pen Co.. 2G John 
street. This pen will be of special service 
to accountants, pupils in business- colleges 
and draftsmen. It gives a firm and uni- 
form line, which cannot be varied, like a 
Xiuv from a common pen, by the degree of 
pressure. It possesses gemiiue merit and 
only reeds to be used to be approved, 

Not Responsible- 
It shmild be distinctly understood that 
the editor of the Journal is not to be held 
aa indorsing anything outside of its edito- 
rial columns. Alt commuuicationf, not 
objectionable iu their character or devoid 
of interest or merit, are received and pub- 
lished ; if any jjerson differs, the columns 
are equally open to him to say so and tell 


Id our June number we stated that Jos. 
M. Viucent was teaching writing at the 
Los Angeles, Cal., Busiuess College, which 
was net correct ; he i» not engaged as a 
teacher, but characterizes himself aa an 
admirer of penmanship. We accuse him 
of being a very skillful writer. 

The Phrenological Joornal. 

We invite attention to the advertisement 
in another column of this iuterestuig and 
valuable publication. It treats ably upon 
subjects of vital importance to everybody. 
We take pleasure in commending it. 

Business College Items. 

Detwiler and Mngee, proprietors of the 
Toledo, O., Busmess College, have just 
issued an attractive prospectus for 1878. 

HmhVs Coll'-ge Journal (San Franeisco, 
Cal.}, for 1878, has been received. It is 
got up in good style, and is published 
monthly for SI. 00 per year. 

H. C. Clark, proprietor of the Forrest 
City Busiuess College, Rockford, III., has 
just issued his college Journal for 1878. 
It is edited with ability, well printed, and'' 
is iu every way creditable. 

D. L. Musselman, proprietor of the 
Gem City Business College, Quincy, 
HI. , has just issued his college journal for 
1878. It is one of tlie most attractive and 
readable college papers we have received. 

The B. S. and Giaghorn Busiuess Col- 
lege, Brooklyn, closed for a vacation with 
interesting public exercises. Twenty-fivo 
diplomas were awarded, and addresses 
made by the teachers. The college has 
beeu unusually prosperous during the past 

Tbe twelfth annual commencement of 
the Spencriau Business College. Wash- 
ington. 1). C.oeL'urred on May 28 th, upon 
which o.'casinn tw,-ijty-eight diplomas were 
awardi-d to l,.d_v unl geullemeu graduates. 
Uuder the al>le management of Prof. H. 
C. Spencer, the Wa^bington college has 

won an enviable reputation, and is enjoy- 
ing a good degree of well-deserved pros 

specimen of pen-drawing was shown 
Institute executed by Bliss Nelhe Carter 
pupd of Mrs Miller s 


Miss Norma L. Eltiitge, graduate and 
teacher of Packard's Business College, of 
this city, and recently accountant for the 
North American Hexieip, was married on 
Wednesday. June 26. to Mr. Arthur Coop 
er, an atUiche of A. S. Barnes & Co. 'a pub , 
lisbing house. I 

Mr. Cooper is co be congratulated upon | 
his good fortune. Comparatively few 
young men iu these days have tbe grace to 
discern the true gold iu a woman's char- 
acter, and fewer youug ladies have the 
practical good sense to accumulate for the 
married state tbe wealth of self-depend- 
euije. Tbe circumstances of tbe case, aud 
our duty to the readers of this journal, 
require all this to be said. 


I. S. Preston spends tbe summer 
toga, where he will favor tbe "elite wud ] 
cards written in style, most benutifni. 

G. B Smith, who has just given' 
of writing lessons in tbe Cnnaan. N.H., pub- . 
lie schools, receives a highly compHujentary 
notice in tbe Canaan lieporter. 

O. J. Hill. Dryden, N. Y.. sends specimens 
of writing and flourishing which are very 

S. Moody, East Charleston, Vt., inclcies 
in a well written letter, several superior speci- 
mens of plain aud flourished cards- 

F. O. Young. Camden. Me., sends a few 
lines of elegant writing, and tv/o superior 
specimens of off-baud flourishing. 

.r. H. Grouse, Memphis, N. Y., favors us 
withnvery elaborately flourished bird speci- ' 
men and some very gracefully written cards, 

C. W. Hice. Marysville. Ohio, aged seven- 
teen years, sends a very handsomely written 
letter and incloses his photograph for our, 
collection. I 

P. L. Saum. Burlingtois forwards a moat 
elegant specimen of flourishing which we an- 
ticipated presenting in the Jourxai-, but the 
lines proved too dtlicate for reproduction. 

Chas. D. Bigelow, Sptingville, N. Y., 
writes a letter in masterly style and incloses 
a very gracefully executed specimen of flour- 

S G I Rushford Minn -We have no 
Qforroation ret^arding Mr Multher Tour 
jnting 18 verv free and graceful It has too 
uany buperflmties for I usiuei , >our loops 
ispecially are too l"iig anil full. 


advisable to turn the psper, to suit the "angle 
of your lines, rather than endeavor to change 
tbe position of pen and hand. 

■ H. M. T., Bridgetown, N. J.— Your wnt- 

' ingis easy, graceful aud sufficiently correct for 
business purposes, but it lacks precieion 
necessary for teaching, which yon could soon 

I acquire by careful practice from aud study 

; of correct copies. 

J. E. Soule. Philadelphia. Pa., favors us 
fitb three photographic copies of engrossed 
ifeolutions recently executed by him. They 

cure a good copy of them and study and pri 
tice the same carefully. Figures should 
made light and uniform, in ehadeand size, 
fgood form wilt be found in another pulun 
' or on our sheet of copy slips sent for ti 

F. C , Lowell, Mass., submits 
of his writing, one iu a light 
hand a writing-master's style; another 
written with a coarse pen in a rapid easy un- 
professional style, and asks our advice rela- 
tive to which is best for him to adopt. This 
depends materially upon what use he is to 
make of his writing. If , as a teacher or pro- 
fessional penman, tbe correct, delicate pro- 

has not been tardy or lost a day in ten years, 
six of them here and four in other places.— 
Fort Wa!/n€, Irid., Daili/ Nfw^. 

A. J. Warner, Principal of the Elmira, N. 
Y., Business College gave us a call while on 
his way to the New Eugland States fur a va- 
cation. Prof. Warner is an accomplished 
penman and successful teacher of writing. 

/ W. E. Dennis, who is engaged teaching 
' writing at Wright's Business College. Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., IB taking his vacntionot bis boi 
in Chester, N. H. On ILia page we giv< 
fine specimen of flourishing from his pt 
He is fast advancing loward the front rank 
of his profession. 

J. C. Miller, who has for some time past 
been iu charge of the penmanship depart- 
ment of tbe "Keystone Business College." 
Lancaster, Pa., is spending a season at luks- 
burg. Pa., endeavoring to regain his health, 
which has been declining for a year or more. 
We hope he may succeed. He has been a 
hard-working student aud teacher of his 
profession. It would indeed he a misfortune 
alike to himself and the profession were bis 
rare attainments to be lost or rendered less 
fruitful through impaired health. 

Mrs. A. L. Miller delivered _ „_ 

ingand entertaining lecture on penmanship, 
in which she told the teaohers how to impart 
instruction iu this particular branch in un- 
graded schools ; for instance, to be particu- 
lar and see that the pen is held correctly. 
?"^°°* ""'^ *** S'^® "^"^ attention to th^ 
riting. A fine 

J. Q. Overman, who bos just completed a 
course of lessons in writing with J. McBride, 
HendK a handsomely written letter in which 
he incloses several well-written slips. The 
specimens are very creditable to both teacher 
and pupil. 

W. L. White. Principal of White's Busi- 
ness College. Portland, Oregon, favors us 
with his portrait, aud some most elegant 
specimens of writing. The cards which he 
incloses are esquisite; we have received i 

A. N. Palmer, a pupil at Gaskell's ! 

ness College, Manchester, N. H., sends 

very creditable specimens of writing, flour- 
ishing aud card marking. Master Palm 
evidently a promiKing candidate for c" 
tion among the " Kuights c^f the Quil 

M. C. Blackman. Worcester, Mass., for- 
wards several sheets of off-hand flourishing 
which are skillful iu design, ond executed in 
the most masterly manner. We have rarely 
seen them excelled in either respect. They 
will constitute one of the most attractive 
pages in our specimen book. 

Uriah McKee, teacher of penmanship at 
Oherlin (Obio) College, writes a beautiful let- 
•*"■ and incloses some remarkably finespeci- 
» of muscular and whole-arm writing. 
The specimens are well worthy u£ a place in 
tiie JocBNAL, hut owing to delicacy of the 
hnes it is not po.saible to photo-engrave 

of penmanship, and j the best. The same writer asks why it is 
that pupils at commercial colleges and else- 
where do not acquire a practical busintss 
hand. This question is fully answered in No. 
12. Vol. 1 of tbe JoDKNAL. in aa article enti-^ 
tied : Can a pupil learn to write well by 

apid practice. 

W. D., Partersbnrir, W. Va —I have a few 

luestions to ask you, and you would confer 

I great favor on me by' answering them 

ugh the columns of your valuable paper. 

squarely on tbe paper in the flo 

ercise of tbe last Journal ? Yes. 

Second, Does the Spencenan Cttmpendium 

mtaiu the complete system, plain andoma- 

^ ental penmanship? No, of neither. The 

.key is a complete guide to plain penmanship. 

Third. What pen would you recommend 

r exercising in flourishing? Spenoerian 

No. 1, Esterbrook No. 128, or Ameff's Pen- 

an's Favorite No. 1. 

Fourth. It is very bard for me to get hold 
of a good quality of ink here. I would like 
a hint os to the best ? Davids" or Harrison's 
black ink are as good as any known to as for 

An Australian is trying to invent a machine 
which shall reap, thresh, clean and bag wheat 
as it moves along. When he gels it done 
America will add an attachment which f.elJs 
tbe wheat, grindg it, puts it into birrels and 
stamps each l>arr6l with WWe.—Detroit 

Don't fail to attend or to be heard from 
at the penman's convoution. 




ary Committee ore gind to j 
xpected toterest i 

ThoQghU for Reformers. Signing the Declaration. 

In the Jane issue of the Jodbkal, on- I Tbe following gossip aboat the Declnra- 
ce timt au unexpected interest in | der " Modestr among Penmao," a reform Hod of Indepeneduce is from Wood's 
iman's ConvfDtion hfts been dfvel- | in advertising is advocated. "We are of tbe Household Magazine. &ud is by the Rev. 
I d that the micc«?«h of the move- i opinion that a reform is needed, and we i J. B. Wakeley : 

ment ii< now amnred. Mofit favorable re- 
apoDses lo the circular letter issued by the 
committee* hiive poured in from all quar- 
terN, including the most distant parts of 
the conntrv, bearing a^Burancesof personal 
ioterext, olTering encouraging suggestions, 
and promising attendance and help ; while 
many distiugnisbed commercial edacators 
have consejited to lay before tbe convention 
important paperH. 

The committee desire to congratulate 
tbe fraternity of penmen an<l commercial 
teacherH upon tli^ prospect of a large and 
profitable meeting ; to recommend that 
every member come prepared to contribute 
of his experience and tident to tbe welfare 
of his fellow-teachers, and, through them, 
to the higher success of the VHst and in- 
creasing conbtituency of commercial edu- 
cation, and to earnestly suggest that no 
considerations founded in professional dia- 
tniBt should prevent tlie freest possible in- 
terchange of idenj<, to tbe end that all 
may return to tbeir homes feeling that it 
WRS good to have met their brethren in 

It is gratifying to note that, thus far, cor- 
rcspondcut« indicate no desire to use tbe 
convention to promote merely personal 
ends, but show by their suggestions that 
the opportunity is to be wisely used for 
the promotion of tbe generni good. 

Gentlemen have flignified their willing- 
ness to prepiire papers or address the con- 
vention as follows : 

Business Colleges — Their Work and Place 
in a System of Businesa Education — Hon. 
Ira Maxhkw, Detroit, Micb. 
Sketrti of the Life and Work of P. R. 

beheve that every great class-paper Uke the | "In looking at the signatures, not one is 
JouBNAL should l>ea public educator. How [ written with a trembling hand eicept Ste- 
phen HopkinF. It was not fear that made 

best to instrnct tbe pubUc then becom 
an important question, 


him tremble, for be was as true a pa 
as any of them, but he was afflicted 
the palsy. 

But one of tbe residences of the signers 
is attached to his name, and that is Charles 
Carrol. It is said that one was looking 
over his shoulder when he wrote his name, 
and said to him: 'There are several of 

If we wihh to read to an offend' 
modesty a lesson, is it best to hold hii 
to I'ublic ridicule and heap upon him the 
most malicious sarcasm and by comparison 
and such epithets as "conceited coxcomb," 
or in a more modest and gentlemanly vt ay, en- 
deavor to point out to Lim his faults by 
calling his attention to good examples for 
imitation ? 

Which of the two ways would be beat 
calculated to reach the sober second 
thought, the foundation on which to base 
all improvement or reform ? We submit 
tbe question for consideration. 

In tbe above-mentioned article the 
writer, after ridiculing the advertisements 
of several young penmen and venting his 
excellent powers of sarcasm upon them, 
says, "These advertisers seem to forget, 
when they make these extravagant state- 
ments, that there were and are such pro- 
fessional men as,"-- Here he gives tbe I July, 1776. Not 
names of several penmen whom we suppose that day only by tli 
he considers modest advertisers. cock, and with hi 

Let us see. One of these penmen ad- forth to thi 
vertises bis work on penmanship as the On the second day of August it 

published. Another has adver- signed by all but one oi the fifty sign. 

the best penman iu the | whose names are appended to it. Tbe 

tbey will not know whom to arrest." He 
immediately wrote ' of Carroltou ' — as 
much as to say, if there is reproach con- 
nected with this I wish to bear my share ; 
if in any danger, I am ready to face it. 
There was genuine patriotism. 

It was rather amusing, after tbey had 
signed their uames, to hear Benjamin 
Franklin say to Samuel Adams : ' Not J 
think we will all hang together.' 'Yes.' 
said Mr. Adams, 'or wo shall liaug sep- 
arately.' Many have supposed that all 
the names were signed en the Fourth of 

President, John H.i 
signature it was sei 

to a certain point this culture should be gen- 
eral, and withoot regard to any particular 
aim, or as to how these faculties are to be 
exercised in the future. Beyond ehis point, 
however, the Iroiniug should be special, just 
as it is in this institution, with direct refer- 
ence to the future dnties of life. There is at 
present a great demand for technical educa- 
tion. It is a growing demand. Yon find it 
advocated iu the newspapers ; you find books 
published presenting its claims. The idea 
seems to be that when a young man has pass- 
ed out of college, he should have advanced 
to some extent — he should have made soma 
progress towards acquiring the means of ob- 
taining a livelihood. 

State I 

BuBiuesH Correspondence^L. L, Spuaoie, 
M. A., KiugHtoti. Pa- 

Sketch of the Life of John D. Williams. 

Makinji Good Writers — Hbnby C. Spen- 
OEU. Washington, D. C. 

The Science of Accounts and its Corollaries 
iu Mental and Moral Philosophy — E. G. 
FoLsoM, A. M.. Albany, N. Y. 

Ooniniercial Ltw Practically Considered as 
a Constituent Part of a Business Man's Educa- 
tiini- Jonathan .Iones. St. Louis, Mo, 

Ornnmciital Peumauship A. W. Smith, 
M<^ftdvdle. Pa. 

Primary Instruction in Writing— Geo, H. 
SiiATTDCK, Npw York. 

ClaiuiH of the Study of Book-keeping— J. 
\V. Van Shklk, A. M,, M. D., Springfield, 

A Method of Teaching Practical Penmaa- 
(thip iu Connection with Business Firms and 
Corrpspi.ndencf— C. C. Cochran, Pittsburg 
Centnil Hii^b School. Pittsburg, Pa. 

Writing in the Public Schools— H. W. 
Ei-LswoitTH. New York. 

Omuraeroial Law Essential to a Sound 
BusineBs Education H. H. Bowman, Esq., 
of the Now York Bar. 

Peumauship A, W. Talbott, 


y. N Y. 

' folio 

led ediicrttoi-s will 
}iii sent, mid if time shall permit, will i 
dre-s the eouveutiou : 

Robt. V. Spencer, Milwaukee. Wis. 

It. M Bnrtlelt, Cincinnati, O. 

J. C. Smitii. A. M., Pittsburg, Pa. 

J. W. Poyaon. Now York. 

S. S, Packard, New York. 

D. J. B. Sawyer, Ottuwa, Canmia. 

B. P. Kelley, New York. 

Fielding Sohofield, Newark, N. J. 

Lyman P. Spencer, Washington, D. C, 

P. J. Irvine, Boston, Mass. 

W. L. Blackmau, Alleutowu, Pa. 

J. B. SovUo, Philadelphia, Pu. 

A. 0. Cooper, Daleville, Miiw. 

J. D. A. Tutrell, Jocksou, Tenn. 
William Allen Miller, Chairman of t 

Bact* Numbers 

of the JouBNAL cj'U bo supplied, beginning 


tised himself a 

United States, and another 

do every variety of pen-work iu the most 

perfect manner. The reader will see at a 

glance that W. L. G. has read with one 

eye shut. Far be it from us to write uriti- 

cii'ms upon any one's style of advertising. 

We have bad dealings with all these men 

and have found them honest and obliging 


Now we find that some of the young 
penmen, whose principle of advertising W. 
L. G. attacks, have been students under 
some of the "professional men " whom he 
cites as models. " A tree is known by its 
fruit. " If our ' ■ professional men " adver- 
tise immodestly, why not attack them and 
not their pupils. Firat prune the tree that 
the fruit may be better. 

If W. L, G. was induced to write his ar- 
ticle from a pure desire to institute a re- 
form, why does he ridicule prices ? He 
laughs at au offer to write cards for les- 
than 20e. per i\oz., but aiiya that if be was 
going to order some penmanship he would 
order from an advertiser who makes a rare 
offer to send a piece of fluurishiug 10.^16 
inches large, postpaid for 12lc. Now, who 
with anything buta schoolboy idea of pen- 
manship, would expect agood piece tif fl.iiir- 
ishiug for I2ic. Some we know expect ihem 
for less and enclose a Ic, stamp, otliers 
send a postal card with he promise of a 
large order if the work suits. All of which 
oiily goes to prove again tliat " Giicxt 
7ninds run in Ike same channel/' 

W. L. G, bays, that during the pa^tyear 
he has discovered only two advertisements 
for ornamental work in the Journal that 
tlid not savor of a catcb-penuy style. Now, 
the editor has had a very prominent ad- 
vertisement for ornamental work in every 
issue, and as the two advertisements which 
W. L. G. quotes do not include thit, one 
of the editor's, we soberly propose that he 
lead the van of reform by re-writing bis 
advertisemeut so that it will not savor of 
" this, catch-penny style," and, if possible, 
conform to the refined tast« of our worthy 
critic. This would be practical reform as 
it would set before every reader of the 
JoDBNAL a correct model for imitation. 

H. W. KiBBE. 

[We are pleased to insert iu our columns 
the foreg.iti;; eomniuuication, because, al- 
ihough III,- writer .l.tlei-s from a former 
corrcsiioiuleut. he is evidently on the 
right side of reform. So much as rightfully 
fulls on our side, we shall treasure up care- 
fully.and endeavor to profit thereby.— Ed.] 



attached Ijis : 
Tlie pen u.'ed by the signers js preserved 
in the Massachusetts Historical Society, at 
Bnston. What talcs that pen could tell if 
it could speak ! what a history there is 
connected with it ! 

The signers of the Declaration are dead. 
The bands that held the pen and tbe fin- 
gers that moved it when they wrote their 
names on that olhcial document now lie 
Cold across their bosoms. The average of 
fifty-three at the time of their decease was 
over sixty eight years. Tbe last survivor 
was Charles Carrol, of Carroltou, being 
over ninety when he died. Fourteen sign- 
ers lived to he eighty years old, and four 
past ninety. Tliey all sleep iu honored 

Business Training. 
Address of Hon. Henry Kiddle. Supeiiin- 
New York Citv Schools, to 
Paokabd's Business 


Toung Gentlemen and Ladiesand Gentlemen 
of the audience : 

I have a very high respect and a thorough 
appreciation of the objects and office of tbe 
business college. The fact which has al- 
ready been referred to. that business colleges 
have increased so rapidly in this country ; 
that they have been so prosperouB, as com- 
pared with all other institutions, shows that 
tbey really fill a want ; and I may say, with 
great propriety and justice here, that what I 
have heard, and all that I know of this insti- 
tution, is such as to give me the very best 
impressions of its iisefulness. The scope of 
a business college is vastly wider than would 
appear at first. It is not simply to train men 
for business pursuits. The iuBtruction is of 
course, special and technical, and has a par- 
ticular aim ; but that aim is general in its 
usefulness, and there is no man, whatever 
sphere of life he may choose, who would not 
be benefited by the knowledge he may gain 
iu this institution ; and I could wish very 
heartily iudeed that the higher institutions 
of learning, the colleges and universities, al- 
ways gave this training as one of the essen- 
tial requieites for a diploma. These young 
men can write a business letter with propri- 
ety ; they would not misspell it; their hard- 
writing would be beautiful and fair, and in 
this respect I am sure Ihey far excel very 
many of the graduates of our colleges and 


is no doubt, as has been told yi 
ling, that the great aim and end of 

life is culture, and there is no doubt that np good. 

We find, only two or three years ago, Mas- 
sachusetts passing a law that indnstrial draw- 
ing should be tauL'ht in every one of the 
schools of the State, appointing a 
rt director, and also establit^hing a 
normal art school, in order to encourage and 
give tone to popidar technical education; 
and we find New York following in tbe foot- 
steps of Massachnsettp. Now. many persona 
say, " why should the people be taxed for 
teaching drawing in the public schools? and 
why should thev be taxed for many other 
things, both for general and special culture?" 
England learned the lesson twenty-six years 
ago. At the great Worid's Fair, in 18.51, 
England found herself almost at the foot of 
the list^the United States being at the foot 
—in the productions requiring skill and taste. 
France was at the head. What was done by 
England? Art schools were established all 
over the kingdom. They encouraged art in 
every possible way, and no outlay was con- 
eidered to be wrong, or unjust, or niineces- 
sary,thatwa.s desired to accomplish this end. 
In 1SI)7 England had made such progress in 
the manufacture of these articles that she 
stood next to France. At that time she had 
established one hundred and fifty such 
schools— technically, "schools for the chil- 
dreu of the poor." 

The preceding speaker gave yoii a moat 
admirable address, which, I trust, will re- 
main with you. I trust you will, as he baa 
said, establish in your minds the ideal of 
what your life shall be. I would that I could 
give additional form to these thoughts, or 
say aught that wojid give beauty and effec 
tiveneas to your lives. It is not necessary 
that I should give you any business advice. 
I could not do it if I should attempt it; but 
I would say to you, under all circumstances 
of temptation— under all conceptions or 
ideas of what may be e-Lpedient^ alwat/a pre- 
nerve your integrity. Do not be drifting 
along without rudder or compass. This re- 
mark is exceedingly cogent at this time. 
Every morning we read in the newspapers of 
some great reputation stranded high upon 
the rocks. A man who has been honored 
and trusted in tbe community is found to be 
dishonorable and untruttwortby, and in nine 
cases out of ten he simply sacrifices bis prin- 
ciple to expediency. He says: "I have so 
much money in my hands; it is not right to 
borrow it. but then it is expedient that I 
should do it." He yields to the circum- 
stances, and id shipwrecked, not because he 
intended to do wroug, but because be placed 
expediency in the place of right. 

I cannot better impress upon your minds 
my moaning than by quoting to you the 
words of a great orator. He says: ■' I would 
not have you resemble those weak and mea- 
gre streamlets which lose their direction at 
every petty impediment that presents itself, 
top, and turn back, and creep around, 
and search out every little channel through * 
which they may wind their feeble and sickly 
course. Nor yet would I have you resemble 
the headlong torrent that carries havoc in 
its mad career. But I would have you like 
the ocean, that noblest emblem of majestic 
decision, which, in the calmest hour, still 
heaves its resistless might of water to the 
shore, filling the heavens, day and night, 
with the echoes of its sublime declaration of 
independence, and tossing and sporting on 
Its bed with an imperial consciousness of 
strength that laughs at opposition." 

Build not your houses upon the sand, but 
build them upon the rock of firm principle. 

I trust you will always remember the ex- 
ceUent precepts that yon have received, and 
that they will always be to you a talisman of 


"We would simplj' repeat I lie instruction given in tlic Jn 

nnectiou with tlie above 

VJ / .9. r^ /A^Aj ^' '^A 

At the request of a subscriber we give the above cojiy of tlio numeral'^, which are simple and practical. GraoetuJ figures 
adil very greatly to a good haud-writiug. To the cleik aud accountant especially, good figui-es are indispensable. 

Learn to Wriie. 

I Phunny and Phooiish Paragraphs Per- 
' taining to Penmanship. 

L't language fall a 

ear delight, 
e migbty swi 

'Hang Out Your Banners on the Outer 

Mr. Euitor ; — Through the columns of 
thu JuuBNAL 1 would suggest that we make 
thL' coming convention not Duly a time of 
gifetiug and a place to ventilate oiirir)ea», 
but iilso an exposition, where every pen- 
miin may be kuown by his handiwork at* 
well as by bis good looks and fine talk. 
Artistfi' associations make a display of pic- 
tures, and 80 Hhould we penmen, whiiu 
holding a convention, hang up our speci- 
meUB for iuspeetiou of the congregated 
"iuk slingers ;" also every kiud of books 
uud appliances Ihat could be of use to the 
craft should be on exhibition. No special 
preparatiou or extra expense of packiug 
and shipping would be necessary, but let 
every penman take out of its present 
fmme some specimen or two and carry it 
rolled, and when m New York hire for the 
(uw days of the convention any kind of a 
I cheap frame that will protect it from dust 

*' This feature would be a lasting benefit 

as well as an extra attraction, and more ap- 
propriate thau bunting, flags, or Sunday- 
school evergreen decoration. Lest some 
may adjudge me a conceited "scribbler," 
and one who is anxious to show oCf some 
"Boratches," I must dodge behind that 
old-fashioned signature, 



Now for the Jouiojal, and receive all the 
numbers containing practical lessons in 
flourishing. These aloue will be worth 
many times the price of the subscription 
I to any pupil in oruameutal peDmauship, 
and especially so to those who are seeking 
to improve without the aid of a teacher. 

Teachers and pupils of oruameutal pen- 
manship will find " Ames' Compendium " 
the most complete guide and assistaut e%'er 

Ciuttiog about for a nice convenient name 
for the telephone, the Germans have at lust 
hit upon " DoppelstahlbU-thzuugenspric' 

An Eastern paper jutimates that Treasurer 
Spinner acquiied bis habit of profauity 
while learniiig to read his own writing. 

An Omaha obituary says: "He was a 
splendid penman, a systematic hook-keeper 
and a systematic drinker." It explains 

Don't neglect vour penmanship. A man 
in New York got ■$(;. 001) from a banker for 
being a good writer. It is not yet known 
how many years he will get. 

A teacher of penmanstiip propounds to 
bis affianced pupil and answers the following 
conundrum : When will there be only twen- 
ty-five letters in the alphabet 'i When U and 

"Aunie, dear, if I should attempt to write 
Cupid, why could I not get beyond the first 
syllable?" Anna gave it up, whereupon 
William said. " Because when I come to C u, 
of course 1 caunot go auy fui-ther." 

on the card itself it is alt right. If a persou 
pastes a printed slip ou a card the size 
postal card and putt" the card and slip i 
open envelope the government will carry 
card, slip and envelope for a cent, yet 
charges six cents for carrying a postal card 
and slip without the envelope. — Free l 

Ames's Compendium of Practical and 

Ornamental Penmanship. 
We have compiled below a few of the 
multitude of fiiitteriug notices and com- 
mendations bestowed by the press and pro- 
fessiona! p njien upon this work. Few 
works have been equally fortunate either 
in winuiny favor or fiuding patrons. Near- 
ly one-halt of a large edition is already 
sold, and but httlw more thau five months 
have elapsed since its publication. In 
iuslance has it. to our knowledge, received 
an adverse criticism. We feel fully 
Hinted m saying that no other work upou 
penmanship ever published so fully n 
the desire of the professional and 
istpeuman. It not only furnishes him a 
greater number and variety of alpliabets 
and practical examples lor flourishing, but 
maoycomplicated designs for engrossingaud 
other purposes of displayed penmanship 

and iufuriued him that he would like to have 
something from bis pen, whereupon the ' 
farmer fient him a pig and chargid him $U.7ri 

A merchant of a certain city, who died I 
suddenly, left in his desk a letter to one of 
his correspondents. His sagaoioue clerk, a I 
sou of Erin, seeing it necessary to send the | 

Shorthand:— Hill ' 

John ( 

Mass. I 

Its equivaleut in long hand ; 

John Underbill, j 

Audover, \ 

MassaehusettK. [ 

Longer hand— spelling softly, psought- 

leigh, and Turr-~ "'-■' ^ ■ — - 

ter explained as 

Phth (; 

n phthisis) is T 
olo (as in colonel) is UR 
gn tusingnat) is N 
yrrh (as in myrrh) is ER. 
A writer in the St. Paul Preet tells a new 
story of Horace Greeley. Horace once 
wrote a note to a brother editor in New York 
whose writing was equally illegible with his 
own. The recipient of the note not being 
able to read it, returz^ed it by the same mes- 
senger to Mr. Greeley for elucidation. Sup- 
posing it to be an answer to his own note 
Mr. Greeley looked over it, but Hkeft-JRc w«s 
unable to read it, and said to the boy 
take it back. Whaf ^- " 
mean?" "Yes, sir," 
just what be says." 

A good writer, who gets things down fine, j 
can put several thousand words on a postal I 
card, and the coat is a cent ; but if he pastes I 
a printed slip containing a single word on the 
card the expense is six cents ; one paid for ' 

aUty.— /Vttr C. ( 
piibUsaed. It me 

atirm tiling.— /Vv/. I). L. 

uabk worli. II greaUy ex- 
loaK-Pfo/. r. R.Houtk- 

r oplulOD. I c 

I tlinit I BDUcipated, 
■Q. C CtinTwn, liouUi 

lea) department ^r 

subject ever prodnce 

Tht ftft.han'« Utip. 

It gives UH all the old chirographic effects and m 
abaresqaes mil fliid u much aa ho Is likely to mast 

ahowu all through the work.— PiiifwA^rj' irfrWj/. 

For terms, see Penman's supply, and pi 
mium lists in other columns. 


Plirenoloffical Journal 

Standard Works on Phrenolos:y, Physiog- 
nomy and Hygiene. 

The Penman's Help. 

<r devoted hi the a 

Toledo* Ion 

—non.llamUt'm FMi. ei-Secretury of State. Waehlug- 

,/.,«. Thomas a. Branxiette. ex-flovernor of Kont"ok7 
greui abUity »nd real goulHB.— ffo». Edtran'i Pietr,- 

PiMunanahlp mxl . 

maiiship at reasonable rates. Visiting Carda 25c. per 
Dt-aigna 2Se. Addre«B nnlfl "-ept. 1, W. E. DENNI8, 

feping preferred. BRYAKT k STBATTON 

Free ! Free ! ! Free ! 

rasE, "The Champion MuaciUa 


Distinctive Features 



upou mov»l)I« •ltp«. 

wblob U9 n-i 

1 ImproTod ciMilflutloD o 
)«t>itl in gronpn h«vlDK com 
totter for prmotlcc. 
r lotlcra are Uniiht u object 

ijtyle of writing BiilUlili 

} glTOD for wrlllDg wltbout guide 
irupriDted with great dlBtflictDP»i, 

iio»o who Unvo boim wcddo< 
(-•(.ootfully iLvltod 10 cssmlne I 
II rvupnolN. may bo called a "m 
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VOL. II. NO. 5. 





My first Writing School. 


Twenty-five years ago, on a dull, cold 
November evening, I entered the little 

village of W , in the State of Maine. 

I had travelled on foot from Boston, 
through the heart of New England, pick- 
ing up a stray job here and there, but 
meeting with no particular success iu my 
favorite art. Now, footsore, tired, dis- 
appointed and alnaost discouraged, I 
tramped through the principal street of 
this pretty, rural hamlet, almost ourBing 
the snug little homes and happy, frisking 
children, that only made my own lot seem 
so doubly hard. But these bitter feelings 
could not last long. My better heart rose 
up and thrust them out ; and whistling a 
gay air, I made my way into tbe parlors of 
the neat village inn. There were the 
usual number of loungei-s aud hangers on, 
grouped around the little rubicund, con- 
Bequentiftl stove, which one always asso- 
ciates with the waiting-room of a country 
hotel. As I entered, a tall, typical Yankee 
was entertaining the wide-mouthed crowd 
Willi some ehi'ice tid-bit of gossip. Of 
course I could not help listening, and this 
is what I heard : 

"My Phoebe Aun hearu Jack Bibbin's 
Mari' telliu' Hod Smith's hired gal that 
Suo Alien hearn from Ann Hotchius that 

Bqiiire Hill's b. '-school darter come 

home yesterday, ' so homesick she couldn't 
stay no longer,' she says; but Ann Hotch- 
ins says ■ tliat's all a sham, she come home 
to see young Bl.ike , that's what she come 
home for.' " 

*' Yea," broke iu another voice, '• and I 
see young Blake hangin' round Squire 
Hill's hedge to-night, I <lid, an' a-flirtiu" 
his haudkercliief thiouKh a hole in the 

"What's agin' young Blake?" inquired 
ft dirty, unkempt, bush-bearded fellow, 
who had t.iken his scat on tlie hearlh of 
tlie little stove, and whose tlireadbure back 
was already giving signs of ignition. 

"What's agin' him?" cried the first 
speaker. " Why, he's the toughest young 
buck out o' jail. He was one as helped 
carry off Judge Parker's gal m the s( 
mage they had over at Painesville, tit 
the dance. He's fooled more nor twenty 
gals iu these parts, with his quirted moi 
tache an' big gray eyes. 'Member Bel: 
da Cobb, what's dead ? Wall, he flung 
more clods on her coffin tlian ever the 
ton did." 

Just then the big, clanging supper bell 
pealed through the halls, and the little 
group broke up. Making my way into the 
dingy dining room, I took my seat 
with the landlord and his family, a 
laborers and attaches, and one trans 
guest like myself. His appearance struck 
me very forcibly. He was strikingly hand- 
some, well-built, easy and cool iu his man- 
ners, gentlemanly in his dress, and pos- 
sessed the most beautiful pair of great gray 
eyes I ever saw. My landlord evidently 
dared not say his tongue was his own ir 
the presence of this lordly guest, aud every^ 
one seemed fairlv to adore this proud 
Greek god. Some deference, of cours 
was paid to myself, us being the only oth. 
guest the house could boast ; but it wi 
very easy to see that the elegant Blake, (or 
such I took him to be, was the sun arc 
which I was expected to revolve, iu ( 
pany with all other luminaries, both great 
and small. Supper passed. My fellow 
guest had only favored me with a casual 
glance as I entered, and yet I could tell by 
his manner that he was uncomfortably 
conscious of my pretence. Without cere- 
mony, he left the table as soon as he had 
finished his supper ; aud that was the last 
I saw of him, until the events which I am 
about to relikte transpired. 

I had engaged the little school-house for 
Wednesday aud Saturday afternoons. 
Thero were two good blackboards there, 
with plenty of clean, white chalk, and I 
was in my element, especially since I had 
a prospering class of ten under my imme- 
diate supervision. It was the second 
Saturday after my arrival, and I was just 

liating my interested class into the 
mysteries of the Spencerian capital ele- 

nts, when a timid tap at the door in- 
terrupted me in the midst of my work. I 
descended from my platform aud answered 
the knock. Ye Gods ! what a glory broke 
pou my dazzled eye-s, as I opened the 
door! Only a girl, but what a face ! In 
plexion like a hly, with just the faint- 
est suggestion of a dusty rose-leaf rubbed 
i or thrice over its pale petals. Then 
iround tins oval whiteness such an 
aureole of unruly gold, and a-top of all tbe 
daintiest little bird's-wing hat, with a silver 
clasp catching up a handful of gauzy rib- 
bons. Then tbe features of the maid 
Grecian and delicate, with a pair of the 
deepest sea-blue eyes to light them up ! 
Ah ! it was a visiou that I shall never for- 
get. And I must have stood there en- 
tranced for a long time, while the sweet 
face blushed under my devouring eyes ■ 
but at le-iyth, recovering my wonted po- 
liteness, I courteously requested the young 
-ady to walk in, and surrendered to her 

the only comfortable chair in the rocu 
that used by the teacher during recitati 
hours. She said that she had heard of my 
wonderful skill in the penman's art. an 
had been impelled by her own love of tli 
beautiful to come and see some of the 
wonders of modern penmanship. I 
afraid that my poor pupils lost the benefit 
of that afternoon's lesson, for from thn 
o'clock until five, I did nothing but ga; 
down into those bright, beautiful eyes, ai 
dash my inspired crayon over tbe ebon 
tablet. I surprised myself. Surely, I had 
never before dreamed of, much less e 
some of the rare forms which flowed from 
my hand. Perhaps it was the spell of 
beauty which informed my heart and found 
its expresbioD iu every thought and motion, 
The afternoon waned ; and when Wn 
dingy little school-room grew weird anr 
dusk, I flung aside my crayon, dismissed 
my pupils, and ofiVred to escort my fair 
guest to her home. Out into the twilight 
world we passed, her little arm in mine, 
and those ethereal, gauzy ribbons flutter- 
iug in my face like an evening midt. Out 
over the hill she led me, across the stretch 
A Uwland beyond, and then up again to 
tbe great stone mansion on the opposite 
slope. There we parted, and I even veu' 
tured to hold her tiny hand in mine for a 
brief moment, as I bade her goi)d-Dight. 
Then she turned and tripped lightly up 
the broad pathway, till the gathering 
shades hid her from my sight. 

So this angel was the Squire's "hoardln'- 
bouse darter ?" My heart tohl me this 
much, and more, that I tried to hush. My 
whole being was a-tiugle with the most de- 
lightful sensations. I had never before re- 
alized what I had so often read in my fa- 
vorite French authors, that love was the 
strongest and most subtle electricity in the 
realm of matter. Still feeling the pressure 
of her arm in mine, and thrilling with the 
remembrance of her presence, I turned 
my steps toward the village. 

The days flew on. Both Blake and Miss 
Hill had become members of my writing 
class, aud although I never had the plea- 
of escorting her home, that pleasant 
duty devolving upon him whom I had not 
presumption enough to call my rivnl, stiU 
those sunny afternoons in tbe old school- 
1 were ideally happy to me ; for could 
I not feast my eyes upon her marvellous 
beauty, and did not her cheeks glow with 
muder and enthusiasm, as I sketclu'd upo 
he board tlie most feathery and delicate 
and bird-like outlines my inspiration and 
my ait could produce ? Blake, too, super- 
is as he was, under ordinary circum- 
ses, could not withstand the euthu 
1 of his fair companion and tbe true 
spirit of art. Often I could trace a sudden 
flash of admiration and respect in his face, 
) sat breathlessly watching the rapid 
je of my crayon. But the in^tunt that 
tbe lesson was finished, aud tbe dark board 
cleansed of its flowing burden, the old 
pride came upon him, and, without so 
much as deigning me a glauce, he would 
draw Miss Hill's orm within Lis own, and 
lead her, gazing so archly and happily up 
into his matchless face, from the room. 

It was Saturday night, cloudy, cold and 
%vrapped about with a stygian mantle of 
blackness. I had retired, but a great iiu- 
rest kept me tossing and awake. Finally 
I arose, drew on my outer g.trments, wrap- 
ped myself in a huge comforter, aii<l went 
forth -nto the night. There was no wind, 
and all was as still as death. Far away. I 
could hear the swift, faint roll of carnage 
wheels on the frozen road. Bending my 
steps toward the school-house, I was sur- 
prised to see a sudden flash of light illu- 
minate the windows, and then die as sud- 
denly away. What did it mean ? Was 
the building on fire ? I hastened my steps, 
aud came panting up to the door. It was 
unlocked aud ajar. I flung it open, passed 
through the small aute-ioom, aud entered 
the school room. All was dark, dark as 
the grave ; but out of the mysterious depths 
came a gruff, low voice : 

"Softer, chum ; have you got her ?" 

Tnanks to my ready wits, I comprehen- 
ed the situation in a momeut, and decided 
on the course I would pursue. Muffling 
my face with my comforter, I replied, 

"Yes, she's in the carnage; but how 
about the dasli ?" 

" Oh, that's all right, wait a moment, 
till I fasten down thiij board again, and I 
will be with you." 

This opportunity for withdrawal wat just 
what I had been waiting for; so, without 
wiistiug farther words, I retreated through 
the entry, aud had just reached tbe door, 
when a sudden thought struck me. Quick- 
ly returning to the main room, I muttered 

" Where did you lay the key ? Some one 
has locked us in." 

A hissing oath followed this barefaced 
statement of mine, and then my unknown 
companiou in the darkness replied, 

" On the corner of the table next the 

In a moment the little metal treasure 
was ill my liaud, and, piisaing swiftly 
through the hall, I swung the great oak 
door on its hinges aud htcked the villain 
in. At that instant a swi:t-rolIing carriage 
stopped at the gate, and a man descended 
from within, throwing a hitcb-weight, at- 
tached to tbe bit of his horse, into tbe road. 
I crouchi-d in the shadow, and stole away 
along the side of Ihe school-house. Tbe 
mau came directly to the door, and tried 
it. I could liFar his muttered curses, as 
he fnuud It locked. Then he sprang off 
the steps and began to tug at the nearest 
window-sosh. Now was my chance. Oare- 
fnlly circling in the intense gloom, I pass- 
ed niiind him, and sprang for the team. 
Outi glaui-e at its contents told me all. I 
threw iu the bitch weijiht, jumped to the 
seat, and sent the impatient steed off at a 
thundering pace. There was a shout, a 
pistol shot, and a crashing of glass, but we 
3 off 

drove directly to Squire Hill's, roused 
the f.imily, delivered up my fair aud faint- 
g passenger, and then drove madly away 
to the village for help. Within halt an 
hour, a score of determined men were on 
the track of the two villians. We caught 
them, just at daylight, in a piece of woods 


OD Sqoire Hill'n farm. One of tbem car- 
ried a valise in which was found ten thnuK- 
BD(1 dollani in money and some valiioble 
papera and jewelry. A »eurcb reveHlt-d 
the fact limt Squire Hiir« dealt Imd l.eCD 
robbed aometime previoiihly, bat all traces 
of the theft M cleverly coDcealed, thiit 
even the Squire hininelf had not uotictd 
anything ui.iitnal in the disposition of hia 
papers or bill-. Hi« dmighter afterwards 
confeMHed thnt nhe hud ndmitted young 
Blake to a privat© interview, and that, in 
seeming anger, he hud left the room, and, 
as she eupposecl, the IiuitBe. But it was 
all plain enough now ; and her love for 
bim was turned into loathing and fear. 
The robbers and would-be abductora were 
conveyed to the county jail, and, as I sup- 
pose, suflfered the full penalties ol the Uw. 
But I hhall never forget the little old 
Bohool-house whore I first met my ehnrai- 
iog wife, Dor tho.>4e sunny aftemooiis, 
when, looking into her glorione eyes, I 
taught, or Ined to teach, my first writing 

Hodesty and TruthfiUneM among Pen- 

We were plad to nee in the July isaue of 
the Jol'unal an answer to the article on 
•'Modesty among Pi-nroen." 

We rather expected more, but we are 
pleased that Mr. Kibbe lias wielded his 
pen and expressed himself in favor of re- 
form, and sorry that he has wasted so 
much paper in criticising our article. 

Wo like opposition, however, as it is the 
inciting power to refoiuo. Carlyle says, 
*' I don't like to talk much with people 
who always agree with me. It is amusing 
to coquette with an echo a little while, but 
oneeoon tires of it." 

We do not wish to quibble with Mr. 
Eibbe on small points, but would like to 
state why we wrote the article in the man- 
ner in which it was written, and why we 
think it better than ii mildly written 
article, aud also to correct some of his 
criticipms. Perhaps the reason we like 
our own style of writing tlie article better 
than onother was, because we wrote it our- 
selves ; at least we are inclined to beheve 
that we could not write upon that subject 
with any less pluiuuess or vehemence. 

We olways, however, try to keep within 
the bounds of propriety. The practical 
use of the stylo was to excite attention, 
incite opposition and so circulate the sub- 

Mr. Kibbe will acknowledge that tlie 
style of the article attracted his attention, 
and to such a degree that he wrote an arti- 
cle upon it. 

Now, if the article had been writteu iu 
a smooth, buttery style, giving the reader 
a mild impression that some penman did 
not advertise iu just a proper way, there 
would be fifty chances to cue that Mr. K. 
would not have been moved to write an 
article and advocate himself as a fnemi to 
reform. In such a case the reform would 
fall flat and the article be forgotten, per- 
haps even by those for whose benefit it was 
intended. Now the l)all is rolling, and we 
earnestly hope it will not stop untd tlie re- 
form is complete. 

Mr. K. informs us that we have cited 
among our examples of professional pen- 
men three who have advertised in the 
manner attitcked by 
nnt of the fact, and 
or did it. So are wt 
that some of thesi> a 
art of peumauNhip 
professional geutleu 
oontd we know, you know. We will have 
to take Mr. E.'s word for it. 

The idea, however, that these profess- 
ional gentlemen should be attacked instead 
of their pupils we think erroneous. Does 
a writing teacher instruct his pupils how 
to swim, or to write ? Is it any part of hia 
busiuess to teach his pupils how to adver- 
tise ? Does be look lor the fruit of his 
labors iu the pupil's umuuer of advertising 
or in hia penmanship ? The fruit of the 
tree by which it is known iu this case, 

We were ignor- 
I sorry they do it, 
[iioraut of the fact 
irtisers studied tlie 
iliT of these 
mentioned. How 

therefore, is not advertising, but penman- 

In Mr. K-'s next observation he overlooks 
the point intended, which was the fact 
that the best card-writer in the U. S. ought 
to. and would command a higher price for 
bis work than others, aud split hairs upon 
a matter of a few ceut«, whrch doe>i not iii- 
teri'sl lis or concern the subject of reform. 
It watt not our intention to be personal in 
noting advertisements ; but as Mr. K. has 
been »o bold as to attack the editor, in 
person, we will be excused in lining the 
seme title. We beg the editor's pardon 
for overlooking his iidvertisement and for 
not placing it among the model advertise- 
ments. We were at a loss to know whether 
Mr. K. is ID earnest concerning this adver 
tisement or not. If it were not that he 
says, " we soberly propose," we would cer- 
tainly think him joking. He probably is 
in earnest, as he e^ideutly refers to the 
editor when he affirms that one of the 
professional penmen cit*d iu our own arti- 
cle as patterns, "advertises to do every 
variety of penwork in the most perfect 
manner." We will endeavor to show Mr. 
K. that the editor's advertisement is legiti- 
mate, proper and withiu the bouuds of 
modesty and trnthfulunss. In the tirst 
place he does not say, "/ execute iu a 
most perfect manner," &c., as one of the 
advertisers did. The omission of that im- 
portant "I" relieves the advertisement of 
personal assumption, to a large degree. 
He does not affirm that he does the best 
work ever executed with a pen, nor does 
he claim to do the best work in the United 
States, nor does he assert that he sends 
out better work than any other penman. 
These were some of the statements we at- 
tacked iu our article His advertisements, 
moreover, are not only accompanied by a 
specimen of his work, but by such flatter- 
ing testimonials and high encomiums from 
officials, and gentlemen in high position as 
to cause his own statements to appear very 

That, as we remarked iu our former 
article, is a proper, legitimate and accept- 
able way of advertising. It seems strange 
that penmen have adopted iu any degree 
this bragging manner of advertising. It 
seems to have been gt'owiug on the pro- 
fession imperceptibly ; no one knows how 
or why, and that too in the face of the 
fact, that of all professions or businesses 
wheie we ought not to expect to tind it, 
thire it is, A merchant may advertise hia 
goods iu a most extravagant way ; be may 
advertise to sell cheaper than any other 
house, and keep the best goods iu the city. 
Very well, if he has the capital to back 
such an assertion, there is nothing to carp 
at iu his advertisement, for the reason 
that the goods are not his own workman- 
ship, and he can laud their good qualities 
to tlie skies without the least conceit. But 
when the business of advertising penman- 
ship is considered, where the peumuu sells 
his owu workmanship, one would natur- 
ally look for more moderate language, to 
say the least. We do not doubt but that 
some of these penman would be too modest 
tu make the as^ertioub while in converea- 
tion witli their friends, that they make in 
advertising. Theiefore, they do them- 
selves a wrong by misrepresenting their 
real character to the public. Some also 
may advertise thus becuusa others do it, 
when in any other case they would not 
think of praising iheir owu work. We 
liojie we have made ourselves understood, 
aud leave the subject to the consideration 
of those whom it interests. W. L. G. 

Remember 1 

That the teacher or author of writing or 
book-keeping, wlio fails to attend the con- 
vention on the 6lh iusL, misses a golden 
opportunity for enriching his mind by the 
best experience aud thoughts of the ablest 
representatives of his profession. No simi- 
lar or equal opportunity for comparing 
and receiving new thoughts bos ever 
[ been presented. Gome one ; come uU. 

Progress of Practical Education. 


The notable aud increasing interest in 
relation to peunjauship, is among tlie hope- 
ful signs of the limeM. A larce number of 
our classical and scientifi'^ institutious of 
learning ure introducing the comuierciid 
brunches into their coui-se of instruction, 
and penmanship is, of course, one of the 
prominent features of the course. The 
public demand has had much to d.j with 
this, and to the good sense of the people 
we can always look for hope and eneourage- 
meut iu all that pertains to that which is 
practical aud useful at all tiroes, while high- 
toned nobodies are satisfied with nothing 
but what pertains to the musty antiquities 
of the past, and exceedingly shocked at 
the practical branches, lest they might, in 
some way, interfere with their moi'.sback 
ideas of the fossils of past ages. Happily 
for the progress of education, which is 
moving forward m it* grand triumphal 
power, tliat the popular demands aud re- 
quirements of the people are for a mure 
useful course of instruction, aud t)iat grand 
old maxim, "Teac/i your boys that which they 
will practice when they become jneii," ia, in- 
stead of beiug a dead letter, a living, 
glowing reality. But white progress iu this 
direction is not wliat it should be iu all re- 
spects, the last report of the Commissioner 
of Education shows it to be notably on 
the increase, and in this we see much to 
encourage the friends of progress and prac- 
tical and sensible education everywhere. 
Another very encouraging point is, that 
the Commissioner of Education, Gen. John 
Eaton, of Washington, is the true friend 
of such education, and everywhere through- 
out his most admirable annual educational 
reports, be speaks with unqualified praise 
of our Commercial Colleges, and the great 
good beiug accomplished by them. A 
comparison of the first report issued by 
the bureau of education in J876, and the 
last report issued, will show the most grati- 
fying and wonderful improvement in prac- 
tical educational progress, and I hereby, in 
behalf of our Commerjiul Colleges, take 
this occasion to extend to Gen. Eaton our 
most sincere thanks in behalf of the fra- 
ternity. I feel warranted in so doing aud 
believe that this action will receive the 
hearty concurrence of the brethren and 
friends of practical education everywhere, 
and I for oue cannot but feel that we have 
good rL^ason to congratulate ourselves up(»u 
the fact, that we iiave at the helm of Edu- 
cution in this nation, " The right man in tlw 
right place." 

Failure in Teaching. 

Considerable has been said during the 
past ibree or four years abouc success and 
failure in teaching penmanship ; and we 
are inclined to believe that there is room 
for more to be said on the same subject, 
and that too without wearing it thread-bare. 
The opinion seems to point to a 
common cause of fadure, and that is unfit- 
ness for the duty of teaching. We believe 
that, to succeed in any undertaking it is 
necessary to tho oughly qualify ourselves 
for that particular thing, gain all the in- 
formation we possibly can, aud in short 
terms fit oiiraelvea for the work we would 
do. But how few teachers of penmanship 
are tlius prepared to do their work, espe- 
cially the young teacbere.who, having com- 
pleted a course of penmanship in from 
three to six months, and with a good hand- 
writing and the ability to flourish, start 
out and expect to become famous at once. 
Piobably in nine cases out of ten they have 
no more ideas on the methods of teaching 
than when they commenced the course. 
Their teacher's aim was to turn out good 
penmen, and to do this the pupil must 
keep at work and little time is left for in- 
struction on the more important subject, 
" The Method of Teaching." 

If the penmanship departments of our 
Business Colleges were conducted on the 
plan of normal schools, requiring gradu- 
ates to practice teaching under the eye of 

a good teacher, we would soon hear lei 
about failure and more about success i 
teaching penmanship. CRrriQUE. 

Editor Penman's Art Journal. 

Early in the agitation of the subject of a 
penmen's convention, there were shrewd 
ones who had never been and could not be 
deceived, and knew that private interests 
were at the bottom of the movement. 
They had, too. a lurking notion that a con- 
vention might be of advantage to them 
personally. But these same did not put a 
noble shoulder to the wheel and endeavor 
to push the whole allair into a worthy posi- 
tion. They waited until the convention 
became a fact aud were constrained by the 
necessity of preserving their identity to 
move. It should not be intimated that the 
shrewdness alluded to, is akin to jealousy, 
or self-sufficiency or any other monster. 
But there is — not seems to be — here and 
there among the members of the craft a 
distrustful soul who bus not learned liber- 
ality, and who probably sees an axe on the 
shoulder of every delegate to this ccnven- 
tion, and who, if he attends, will do so 
mainly to absorb and not dispense infor- 
mation. A very large majority of those 
who will be present seem eager to meet 
their ftieuds. Their letters tell of an in- 
terest in the convention, which is apart 
from that of proprietorship. It is a frater- 
nal interest. 

It is essentially good that teachers and 
siiperinteudeDts iu the common schools 
have interested themselves iu the conven- 
tion. They sensibly regard " practical 
education " as popular education. The 
idea underlying this movement is novel. 
It tends to revive consideration of the es- 
sentials of education. This is not to be a 
writing-master's convention, nor a meeting 
of business college men merely. Business 
college education is not and should not be 
the limit of *' practical " education It is 
a cause for mutual congratulation, that the 
power of representatives of common school 
education is apparently to be felt at this 
meeting. There can be no wide ground 
between common school and commercial 
educators, although their spheres ure nec- 
essarily distinct. There should exist be- 
tween them a sense of dependence, such 
as the conditions really warrant. There 
should be fellowship and co-operation. 
The influence of certain active charlatans 
in commercial education has weakened 
and even alienated the respect for this 
specialty, of some decent educators ; aud 
it ia to be hoped that the action of this 
convention will mark the beginning of a 
restoration of confidence and right rela- 
tions among all classes of teachers. 

Wu. Allen Miller. 

Gen. Sherman is a very versitile man. But 
B day or two since he wan talking patriotism 
to the West Pointers; yesterday he formed 
tho principal attraction at Princeton, where, 
among other things, he touched upon the 
much-mojted topic of the rchitiuiis of sci- 
ence tu reh^iuu. Among other things he 

Tell me not that science is antagonistic to 
religion. Science is but the knowledge of 
nature aud nature's laws, and he who penet- 
rates farthest into the book of nature must 
be convinced of tho i:fii;' o wisdom and 

beneficence of the Creati,r I must realize 

the littlenees of human intellect in compari- 
son. That religion which checks human 
knowledge, and, by torturing the meaning 
of words, attempts to circumscribe it by 
artilicial metes and bounds, is not divine, 
but is mere priestcraft. It is of the earth 
earthy— a very tyrant— and emanates from 
the baser part of human nature. The God 
who made the spheres and balanced them in 
space is a great God. He invites man to 
penetrate His mysteries and laws ns far us 
his limited intellect can reach, but wisely 
makes eaeh step in the proxies-, of devilop- 
mentso difficult that new knowledge shall 
not come by chance, hut only as the result 
of patient toil and labor, to which all men 
are Aoouici^.— Elizabeth Daily Journal. 


fTIie follcnrtog beaatlful poem, by : 

e'en u I spoVe, tbe n 

' me, rtpplluR past, 

nrl rower puUi 
« gilded awiftif 

oaugUttbe breeze; 
bebela her never more. 

The English Angular Hand. 

Dmingtbe past few years there basbeen, 
among youug ladies of tbe so-cailt-d better 
c1b,"8 of society, a growing tendency to 
adopt a style of writing which witb all its 
crudity, its inelegance, ita illegibility and 
its consequent hideooBDeBs, is, wben ac- 
quired, destined to bo ranked among one's 

Thia imported heteroclitical nondescript 
was tirst nursed by a few young-lady re- 
presentatives of tbe first families, and after- 
ward dandled by others of the same slation 
in life, and thus it became exdustfe, and 
was prouounced "tony," "nobby," "just 
lovely," " too pretty for anything," etc., 
etc., eto. An experience of several yenrs, 
however, as teacher of other specialties, 
where ihm band is tbe prevailing one, con- 
vinces uiu that it is not its toniness, its 
nobbiness, its loveliness, its too-pretty-for- 
aiiytliiugufss. that causes the infatuation, 
but its exclusiveDess, and that only. 

I interview parties pecuniarily interested 
in the introduction of tbifl fystem (properly 
speaking, iil)sence of system) of writing, 
and they affirm that " being formed upon 
tbe principle of the angle instead of the 
ellipse, it can be written with far greater 
degree of ease and rapidity than the oval 
hand." Now the teacher of penmanship 
is aware tliat tbe most difficult thing for 
himsfU to acquire, or to impart to others 
is ability to make straight lines. And we 
do uot forget the straight line made by 
Appellee, wbi(;b, although drawn more than 
two thoiis.iud years ago, still keeps his name 
bright oil history's page, when nearly all 
else coiieerning him has long since been 
forgotten. And not only are most pupils 
uatiirally disposed to make curved lines 
instead of straight, but also to make those 
curves of greater breadth than is found in 
any modem engraved modfl.s of practical 
writing. And in regard to rapidity of 
execution being in favor of tbe angular 
baud, it is sufficient answer that if it be so, 
there invariably results a greater loss of 
legibility than gain in rapitUty, And the 
lady or gentleman who can write one 
hundred words in three minutes and 
"make nothing of it," would do well to 
take double the time and make something 
of it liy writing legibly ; for, I hold it 
morally wrong for one person to gain time 
by rapid unintelligible writing, when il 
shall occasion unnecessary loss of time to 
the pt'itiou for whom such writing was in- 
tended. But it is entirely unnei*essary lo 
enter into an extended argument to prove 
that legibility or ease of execution are not 
on the side of angulir writing as doubtle-'i.s 
tbe facts are already conceded. 

Another element of good writing.not un- 
worthy a certain degree of attention is 
uot found to any ahuming extent in the ' 

handwriting under consideration. I refer 
to beauty of form. Of course in writing, 
viewed solely as a means of conveying in- 
telligence, this element is of minor impor- 
tance and should not be permitted to ap- 
pear, if in any measure it may interfere 
with any of the essentials of practical 
writing. But will it interfere with the 
progress of a pupU to give a model for 
imitation, posseting this characteristic 
The experience of many of my readers will 
warrant a negative answer. They will 
member practicing after copies set by 
teachers with no qualification for the work 
and subsequently after the beautiful mod 
els of a master, and they do not forget it 
was easier to imitate the latter than the 
former. The mind and hand are instinc 
tively drawn toward beauty, and although 
the mind in its ideal may fall short of ab- 
solute perfection in detail, and tbe baud 
be faulty in it.s portrayal of the mental 
conception, yet the tendency of all un- 
biased practice is toward beauty and ex- 

Should we look abroad, outside the 
sphere of penmanship, we note that the 
highest ideals of beauty of form are 
found in straight lines or tlieir unit 
any angle, but in cuived lines. Examine 
the works of the artist the sculptor oi 
artificer iu ancient or modern times in proof 
of this assertion. Yea, let us look higher for 
our authority. Throughout the whole realm 
of nature we see a preference shown to 
curved lines. Our earth in its entirety, its 
animate and inanimate objects, the heav- 
enly bodies and tbe paths through which 
tbey move are all examples of curved lines. 
Where, then, may we find a plausible reason 
for adopting tbe English angular hand, 
and where may we find it« precedenc. We 
have gazed with rapture upon tbe countless 
worldH, ever moving on in limitless space, 
we have looked upon earth and its myriad 
objects, have studied the works of earth's 
gifted SODS and daughters, and yet we find 
no suggestion of such a hand. Can it liave 
originfded below ? 
Most of the youug ladies who drift to 
igular writing have previously learned to 
■ite a fair hand, that is to say, a legible 
baud not wholly devoid of beauty, aud the 
jourse pursued by their teacher in award- 
ug prizes for improvement is somewhat 
imusing. It is, briefly, this: At tbe begin- 
ning of the year each pupil writes a speci- 
men of her penmanship, and at the close, 
another. Now it not unfrequently hap- 
pens that some of the first specimens pos- 
ese real merit, and this must of course be 
liminated in order to attain to excellence 
3 the exclusive hand, aud in proportion to 
the sacrifice of merit so ia the premium 
awarded, the larger the sacrifice the larger 
the premium. 

When square months, zigzag noses, 

straight hiiir, heads acute angles, trunks 

pyramidal, and limbs elongated parallelo 

pipedons are thought " just lovely," then 

ill have arrived in all its glory the milieu - 

lum of angularity, and then would I feel- 

gly sing. 

Penstook . 

Easiness Brevity. 

The follomng, laid to be from the com- 

iiercial column of a western piper, purports 

o l>e the reply of a New Yorker to the pre- 

eptor of his bob, who wrote to ask his pref- 

rence iu the prescribed course of his studies : 


"December 1. 1877. 

"Sir : Yours to h'd & cent's noted. Don't 

rant my sou to study strn'my. Twon't pay. 

No ships mo'g to Btars, and no prospect of 

it. All bo8h, if 'twont help trade. Also, 

■top Latin A Greek. Eoy'll pick up such 

L'tn words as petit larceny A delirium trem- 

ene, Ac. soon ■uoiigh her in Gold b'd. 

I'm bullish on 'rithmfk and sp'k and T'k 
Bome stock m Gr'm'r too, but I can mak« 
money "nough without L'tn and G% etc. 
No use. I'm memb' Sfk Exc'g, Cham' Com', 

DaboUs Arithm't 

short of etook 

Pat my boy throagh on margins, con 
Dr., Cr., ct. pr. ct., cl'r house, Railr'ds, and 
Gov'ts yourself and go short on y'r Gr'k 
and Lt'n, etc., etc. Their best md'ize for the 
Btreel — always iu dem'd here. I mean Dr. 
A Cr., etc. WLen term ends please ship boy 
A B'ks by N. Y. C. or H. R. A. with B' 

L'dg in bat, cons'g'a to B'd &t. 

Draw sight d'ft for bill. Money easy— stk's 
A short int'rs't cov'rd. Shall I get you long 
on 100 L. S., at G7? Boy's tnition do for 

Exc'nge e'sy. Yours etc." 

Writing and Printing Inks. 

Li our last number we published a very 
interesting and most reliable article on writ- 
ing and writing materials, and that the train 
iif thought thus started might he coulinoed 
we have taken some pains in looking up the 
subject of inks. Prior to the discovery of 
writing or printing inks, purely mechanical 
methods of writing were necessary, of which 
the hieroglyphics found on Egyptian obe- 
lisks, temples aud other monuments, and the 
eugraved plates of lead, bronze and iron sus- 
j>ended in public works of arts, are samples. 
The Chinese first used for ink the sticky, 
vificid juice from a wounded tree, but this, 
on account of hardening soon after being 
collected, was repla^ied by the mucilaginous 
juice of plauts mixed with some mineral 
dust. During the third century lampblack 
was ground up with glue or gelatine made 
from the skin of the buffalo or the swim- 
ming bladdt^r^i of large fish until it formed a 
thick paste of a homogeneous character, and 
it was separated into little cflkes and dried. 
Very little is definitely known of the com- 
position of the inks used by the ancients, 
but it is generally conceded that the use of 
the stylus indicates also the use of carbon 
inks, nut unlike, probably, tbe China or In- 
dia ink, which is still the almost exclusive 
atrameutal substance used amoug the Chi- 
nese and other Asiatic people. The use of 
iron sails is certainly very ancient. Pliny, 
Dioscorides and other ancient writers give 
evidence, however, that carbon in the form 
of lampblack was the essential constituent 
of ancient inks. There were three epochs 
in Europe ond adjoining countries of this art. 
First. Papyrus, about two thousand years 
before the Christian era, with carbon ink, 
such as was used in China and India. 

Second. Parchment, with ink made by 
boiling down the lees of wine, 

Third. Paper, with nutgalls and iron salts 
as a writing fiuid. 

Ink iu those days was manufactured as at 

present from crushed nutgalls with a salt of 

, generally a sulphate. In ll!7rt logwood 

substituted for nutgalls, and for other 

colors different dyestuffs. 

In the seventeenth century cochineal, car- 
ine and Brazil wood were used. 
In tbe eighteenth century bine ink was 
made from Prussian blue, which had been 
/a before as a pigment and dye. 
18(10 analine or coal tar colors were ap- 
plied in this urt, aud ink may be made of al- 
auy desired color, and tbe variety, rich- 
and permanency of colored inks have 
been greatly increased by their application. 
L'he brilliant violet ink ie a sample of this 

In lH7i the most valuable of these came 
nto notice, the soluble analine black, which 
s a portable ink, water being added to the 
dry powder when the ink is required. 

Copying inks are only common inks eon- 
ntrated, with the addition of more gum or 
sugar, or a portion of glycerine. 

Sympathetic inks are those fluids which 
when used to write upon paper are invisible 
ntil brought out by the heat or the iuflu- 
ace of some chemical agent, Tannin leaves 
o sign of writing until brushed over with a 
ilution of iron. The juice of certain trees, 
hich is sticky encugh to hold fine lamp- 
black when sifted over the writing. Even 
(mentioned by Ovid) will develop visi- 
ble characters by beating the paper, or even 
by dusting it over with some dark powder. 
In li;.");i litharge (oxide of leadj dissolved 
vinegar was used, which, when moistened 
th a solution of lime and orpiment, boiled 
together, became apparent. 

The metal cobalt is remarkable for tbe fine 
bloish-green tint it develops on pnper writ- 
ten with a solution of its chloride, while the 
acetate of cobalt develops pink when held to 
the fire. These all, however, leave some 
trace on the paper, so that a close inspection 
will show tbe writing, at least iu part. 

In India a vegetable juice is used as an in- 
delible ink, and in the cloths of mummiea 
examined in London the marks were thouKbt 
to have been produced by the nitrate of sil- 
ver, the article which we, the intro- 
duction of which into England took place m 
1810 to 1820. The lost form of indelible 
ink— analine black, formed on tbe surface of 
the cloth — became known in 1SG7. 

About the close of the seventh century 
printing commenced in China. This neces- 
sitated a change in the inks, the watery 
solution spreading over the paper. To ob- 
viate 1 his evil an ink was made by mixing 
tbe lampblack with a drying oil instead of 
thickened water. The art came into Europe 
in the fifteenth century. 

The early printers used charcoal and chalk, 
and later little rods of alloy of tin and lead 
for outlining, but it was not until irxJf, that 
the modern tilack lead pencil, made of the 
plumbago or graphite, from the Cumberland 
mines in England, came in use. In Ky.") 
this article was first ground and moulded 
into regular forms. In 184+ solid blocks 
were formed of this powder by moistening 
and pressure, which were afterwards cut into 
the requisite strips for pencils. — Oet/er's 

The Metric System Illustrated. 

The following example will show the im- 
mense advantaj^e of the metric system over 
the old, in all calculations. Let us assume 
that the centimeter corresponds to our inch, 
whde the myriameter is equal to about 6.2 
of our miles. Reduce 1264385 centimeters 
to myriameters. Now since each denomina- 
tion contains ten of the next lower, all we 
have to do is to point off successively one 
figure for each denomination (equivalent to 
dividing by ten,) thus : 

1,2,6,4.3.8,.5 equal to 

1 myriameter, 2 kilometers, 6 hectometers, 

4 dekameters, 3 meters, • decimeters, and 

5 centimeters, or equal to 1.264385 myria- 

Now. put in contrast with this brief and 

simple operation, the process necessary in a 

corresponding reduction under the system 

now in use. Reduce 1264385 inches to miI«H. 



3)108032 plus 1 inch. 

'.i)36010plus 2 feet. 

40)G.")47plua 1^ yard. 

8)163 plus 27 rods. 

20 plus 3 furlongs 
20 mileF, li furlongs, 27 rods, H yards, 

2 feet, and 1 inch — Answer. 

To complete the illustration, let us reverse 
the problem. It is required to reduce 1 
myriameter, '2 kilometers, (i hectometers, 
4 dekameters, 3 meters. 8 decimeters, and 

6 centimeters to centimeters. The opera- 
tion ia performed by simply setting down 
these numbers in their order, thus : 

1264385 centimeters.— jlnawer. 

Reduce 20 miles, 3 furlongs, 37 rodw, Ij 

yards, 2 feet, and 1 inch to inches. The 

operation under the present system is as 

follows : 

i/d. Ji. in. 



1264385 inohoB.— Answer. 
With such a comparison of the two systems 
before us there can be no doubt which has 
the advantage in facility and brevity.— j^du- 
etitivnal News Olenner. 


utloni, Mcb of wh 

Ob are tmong th 


of penmimblp ever publlRbed, viz. 


ureof ProgreeB. 


The Mirnase Cort' 



: KQRKMHlDg esc 



For three oamea 

ftDd $3 we wUl 


OantentilAl Wctwre 

•lie aSsiO liiohe 

(, retsl 

For ■tx name* ft 

ud fO we will f 


WlUlamh k Pkckart 

■■ Oiildo. rotnilB 

Tor »3. 

For twelve ■.ibBO 

will 8 

of Aniea' Ooiu)i(<Ddlum of Omkmc 

tol Pe 

prjoe tS. The »n 

ne bouml lu gilt will b 

eighteen niibnorlbe 

s tturt flH, price 


For twelve nnmi 

1 aod m, wp w 

1 forw 

of WUllaiDi h pBi'l 

ard'H Oema ol Pe 


All oommnuloatloiiB deilgued fo 
Abt JonnMAL nhould bo addreeai 
publlcalloQ, 305 Broadway, Now Yor 

The JouitnALwlll bolHHUcdasnei 
the flrat of CBoh mouth. Matter d< 
lion muat be reoolved on or before < 

nomlttaucoa should bo b; poet-o 
reglBtored letter. Money luoloaod 

Olve your nam 



»"" <"■ 







The September Number 
Of the JoDBNAL will be one of unusual 
iutoi'eHt nud importauce to all its read- 
en, aa it will contain a report of 
tbo pioceediiiBs o[ tUe Penmen's Con- 
vention, to he beld at Packard's Col- 
lege Hall, New York, beginning August 
6lb. Addresaes and etis^iys are prom- 
ised fioui u Tery large number of tlie 
most able and prominent teacbera and au- 
tbora, not only iu every department of 
penmanship, but iu all the commercial 
brancbeB. To tbose who cannot attend 
the convention the Journal will be inval- 
uable ; to those who do attend it will be 
of scarcely less value, as au aid to preserve, 
by refresliing their memory, regarding 
tbo many good thiugs which will be beard 
there, too numerous to be all treasured 
even in the most oapacioua store-house of 
the miud. We trust, however, that the 
anticipation of reading such a report as 
we oau give, doing our best, will nut warrant 
the absence of a single person who is en- 
titled by the tenos of the notice and invita- 
tion to bo present, for wore they to read 
in the Jouhnal every word uttered during 
the convention they would come far short 
of receiving the full spirit and advantage 
that, it is to be hoped, will be derived by 
every one pre«pnt, viz. , a personal acquai q t- 
Ruce and esUblisbiug a spirit of unity, 
A feeling of mutual and brotberly respect 
and sympathy whi^ has not hitherto 
isted among teachers of writing aud 
pretseutatives of buuicebS colleges to the 
extent that it has in most other profee- 
sicna. In fact there seems to have existed 

rather an unptearaot and hurtful antBgon- 
ism. We cannot see any reason why this 
should be more than among other teacb- 
era and institutions — certainly, the higher 
the plain occupied the greater the aggre- 
gate respect and esteem commanded on 
the part of teachers of writing and busi- 
Dees colleges, tlie more liberal will be the 
patronage and honor bestowed by a well- 
Eerved and appreciative public. This can 
be accomplished only by united, earnest 
and conscientious effort upon the part of 
all engaged in these occupations, not only 

individually acquit themselves houor- 
bly ou all occasions, but to see that no 
rorthy capable fellow teacher suffers un- 
just reproach, or even fails to get due cre- 
dit at their bauds. 

The Convention. 

We feel that we cauuot urge too strongly 
upon the attentiou of all parties interested, 
the very great importance of attending 
tion of teucbers of writing and 
aercial branches, on August 6, 
at Packard's Business College. Many 
iiaicatioDS have been received from 
those who ought to attend, saying that as 
they expected to see all matters of inter- 
est before the convention fully reported 
through the columns of the Journal, or 
other form, tliey did not deem it 
very important tliat they should attend . 
This is a great mistake. Suppose all should 
who would furnish 
to be reported. AU 
re personally inter- 
responsible for the 
tion — numbers will 
add much to the interest and enthusiasm 
of the occasiou. We feel assured beyoud 

1 doubt, tliat there will be no luck of able 
ipeakers and writers, aud a goodly number 
of the live working teachers will be pres- 
ent, but the more the merrier. Besides no 

eport can possibly be given that will con- 
vey the real spirit and inspiration to be de- 
rived from being present. Again, we re- 
peat that no thinking, working teacher cau 
afford to be absent; come if you have to 
borrow the money to pay expenses, it will 
be a good investment. 

Experience teaches many unpleasant 
lessons ; one that it has taugl.t us is tliat as 
a rule it is unsafe to send the Journal or 
other article of value to parties who send 
orders on postal-cards, or otlierwise, with 
fair prombses unaccompanied by the cash. 
Having taken that lesson, we hereby an- 
nounce that hereafter no notice whatever 
will be tixken of orders for merchandize, 
advertising, or subbcriptious to the Jour- 
nal unaccompanied by the cash. 

Fayaon's German Copy Books. 

■H & CO., 

the matters of interts 
should feel that they 

Lccess of the 

We have taken great pleasure in exam- 
iniug this new writing series by one of the 
authors of Piiyson, Dunton & Scnbnei'a 
popular system of penmanship. 

A concise and comprehensive course is 
comprised in five books only. The artistic 
character of the copies, and the superiority 
of the engraviuc:, are especially noticeable. 
The grading is methodical, rapid and pro- 
gressive, adapting the system for use in 
any school or college in the country. One 
only needs to examine these books to see 
what method has accomplished in Qermaii 
penmanship. The author's carefnl analy- 
sis and classification of strongly 
characteristic German letters has made it 
an easy task to learn to write them. Au 
attractive chart of the alpbahet, present- 
ing the standard and current styles of let- 
ters, aud illustrating the analysis and 
classification forms the central design ou 
the covers. 

This is accompanied by a coudeuf^ed 
and thorough explanation of the letters in 
both German and Englisli. 

The higher numbers include a fine prac- 
tice on the characteristic combinations of 
the language, extracts from standard Ger- 
man authors, and a complete business 

drill-book. It has been the evident aim 
of the author to present a business style 
of German penmanship. 

The greatest simplicity and uniformity 
are present in the lower books of the se- 
ries, while in the book of commercial 
forms a great variety of current styles is 
ntroduced. Tlie spirit and beauty of the 
German writing are finely brought out, 
ind will be appreciated by penmen. As 
L school series, this work is of standard 
?alue, and will strongly commend itself to 

Appleton's New Departure in Writing 
It will be observed by an advertisement 
m another column that Messrs. Appleton 
& Co. are publishing a new series of writ- 
ing books, the copies for which are ar- 
ranged upon an essentially new plan, and 
which we think commendable. The co- 
pies, instead of being printed at the top 
of each page are upon separate and move- 
able slips, whicli enables the learner to 
e his copy down the page to follow and 
leal his lines of practice. This is a 
se we have long practised and advo- 
cated. The copies are systematic, well 
graded, and finely engraved. The system 
and method cannot fail of becoming popu - 
lar, aud being extensively used. 

Book Slates for Use in Schools. 

The N. Y. Silicate Book State Co. are now 
manuracturiug for use iu schools the most 
unique, convenient, and useful book-slate 
we have ever examined. Each slate con- 
tains eight marking pages, 4jx7 inches, 
equal to a Oxl-l stone slate; two pages being 
ruled for writing and spelling exercises. 
This slate is conveniently carried inside 
any ordinary school book. They have only 
to bn seen to be desired. For students of 
book-keeping in business colleges and else- 
where, these slates would be peculiarly 
useful. See advertisement in another 

Spencerian Revised. 
We invite attention to an advertisement 
of the house of Ivisun, Blakemau, Taylor & 
Co., ou another page, anaouncing as ready 
for sale the revised series of the popular 
Spencerian copy-books. These books we 
have examined, and find them all tbat 
could be desired for copy-books by any 
teacher of writing. In system, gradation, 
perfection of letters, graceful combinatioua, 
and engraving tliey are perfect. 

Bryant's New Series of Book*keeping. 

All teachers of book-keeping, and ac- 
countants, wishing practical aud inter- 
esting guides to the science aud mystery of 
book-keeping sbould read Mr. Bryant's ad- 
vertisement in aiiothir culumu. 

All Persons attending the Convention 
Are respectfully invited to visit our ofBce, 
at 205 Broadway, and examine the very 
largo collection of penmanship thereon ex- 

Business College Items. 

F^'eyich's College Joitrnal, Boston, Mass., 
is received. It is a well edited, well print- 
ed, and « very readable sheet. 

Jos. Foeller, Jr.. Ashland, Pa., sends a 
)>Lotogiaph of a very skillfully designed 
and executed Family Record. 

We are indebted to Mr. James S. War- 
ring, of Piermont, N. Y., for a Photo-litho- 
graphed copy of a set of resolutions re- 
cently engrossed by him. The design is 
skillful and in good taste, and the execu- 
tion very creditable. 

McCreary & Shields, proprietors of the 
Utica, N. Y.. Business College, announct 
through our advertising columns the es 
tablishment of a Pe?iniQn's Art School ii 
connection with their college. This new 
department wilt be conducted by Prof. H. 
W- Kibbe, who is widely and favorably 
, kuown as a very skillful and accomplished 

penmen. Few penmen in onr circle of 
acquaintance are better qualified to con- 
duct such a school than Prof. Eibbe. A 
fine specimen engraved in /aesimile from 
hii flourishing is given on the 6th page of 
this Journal. 

The Jacksonville, 111.. Business CoUege 
Joitriinl, for 1878, is received. It ia a model 
of good taste and neatness. The college 
is reported by the Jacksonville Journal as 
in a most prosperous condition, 286 stu- 
dents having been enrolled during the 
past year. 

C. E. Cady has become the sole proprie- 
tor of the Cady, Willson and Walworth 
Business College, cor, 14th st., University 
Place, this city. Mr. Cady has won an 
enviable reputation among those who knew 
him as an earnest, conscientious and com- 
petent Instructor. If his success is com- 
mensurate with his own merit, it will be 

The September number of the Journal as 
a medium of advertising. 

Owing to the report of the convention 
which will be published as full as is prac- 
tical in the September number of the Jour- 
nal, we shall print and circulate a large 
extra and special edition, which will render 
it exceptionally valuable as a medium of 
advertising. Copy should be in our hands 
as early asthe20tli, aud cannot be received 
later than the 25th inst. See terms in first 
column of the 4th page ; no deviations will 
be made either in price or terms of pay- 
Messrs. Ivisou, Blukeman, Taylor & Co., 
138 and 140 Grand street, extend a cor- 
dial invitation to teachers and others in 
attendance upon the Penmen's Convention 
to call and examine their centennial ex- 
hibit of Spencerian penmanship. 

Renewal of Subscriptions. 
Subscribers who desire to continue to 
receive the Journal sbould not fail to re- 
new their subscriptions, as the Journal will 
iu all cases be discontinued at tbe end of 
the period for wbioh the subscription is 


Harvey G. Eastman, proprietor of the 
Eastman Business College, Potighkeepsie, 
N. Y., died at Denver. Col., June 13th. 

Back Numbers 
of the Journal cpu be supplied, beginning 
ivitb No. 6. No prior number can be fur- 

J. H. Grouse, Memphis, N. Y., encloaes in 
a gracefully written letter several specimens 
of card writing, 

A handsomely written letter has been re- 
ceived and placed in our sorap book from R. 
S. Bon>all, Salera, Ohio. 

Charles D. Bigelow, Springville, N. Y., 
sends a gem of off-hand flourishing, and sev- 
eral elegantly-written cards. 

E. P. Holley, Porrestville, Conn., sends a 
variety of speoimensof plain and ornamental 
card writing which are well executed. 

F. M. Johnson, a pupil at the Gem City 
Business CoUege. Quincy. IU., sends with 
his subscription to the Journal a fine collec- 
tion of card writing. 

P. B. Hardin, Union Star, Ky., sends a 
gracefully-wri- ' ■ ' ' 

areskillfnlly t 

A. N Palmer, a pnpil at Gaskell's But-i- 
ness College, Mancliester, N. H.. sendi 
some very creditable specimens of flourished 
cards and some good practical writing. 

We have received from the Ulica, N. Y., 
Business College a very elegant specimen of 
penmanship engraved in fac-simile from the 
pen work of H. W. Kibbe. It is well de- 
signed aud superbly executed. The original 
pen-work, however, greatly excels the Utho- 


E. L. Burnett, fonnerly of Elmira, N. Y.. 
i« DOW teaching penmanship al the La Crosse, 
Wis.. Buflinees College. He favors us with 
Beveral Rpecimens of his fioniiBhing and 
writing, which are not often excelled, 

F. B. Smith, formerly tencher of penman- 
ship at the RocheBter BnsineHs University, 
ban Bince the let of June been engaged iu 
Sadler'H BuBiness College, BaUimore, Md. 
ProfcBsor Smith JHsn accomplished penman 
and a snccessful teacher. 

Frank Tryon, the celebrated dmmmer-boy 
of Port Hudson, who has attained considerable 
and wide-spread prominence as a penman, 
especially in New York and 

M. M. H., Portland. Oregon.— Yonr writ- 
ing is very good; it wants uniformity, and 
you lack freedom of movement. You should 
exercise considerably on the fore-arm move- 

E. B., Stockton, Cal.— You write an easy, 
leigible bund. Your most conspicuous fault 
is in your too straight connecting lines bud 
round open turns at the bottom of your u a 
find m's, which give your writing a loose, un 
finished appearance. 

ot shorthand (phonography) have an injur- 
iffect on a person's longhand ?—Criti- 
e. Answer — 1. Probably A. S. Manson, of 
pton. Mass, bfti the largest collection of 
rks upon penmanship ; the number we do 
not know. 2. It is impossible to fix any de- 

to ability, induaty, and other circumstances 
of the pupil ; one" should not consider himself 
qualified until he can not only write a good 
hand, but readily analyze all the letters, and 
should be Rgood cnticof form to enable him 
promptly and surely to point out the precise 
point of failure on the part of his pupil. :) 
and 4. We cannot answer, n. Yes: we think 
it hardly posfiible for a person to be a rapid 
shorthand and skillful longhand writer at 
the same time. 

Letter from Prof. Packard. 

To the Editor of the Penman's Art Journal. 
De^r Sib : — It gratifies me to know, 
from the report of the committee, that the 
long-talked of "Penman's Convention," is 
in passe, and will soon be in esse. I have 
somehow felt, from the beginDiDg, that this 
Id be BO, and my impression baa come 
from the strong sense I have bad of the 
yiecfssiti/, to say nothing of the importance 
of such a gathering. It woe inevitable 
that at some time not far in the distance 
the worker.t in our specialty should come 
together. Aside from any interest I may 
have bad in the decision of the committee, 
I have felt also, that the appropriate place 
for'sueb a meeting was in this city, and the 
best time that upon winch the committee 
has agreed Of course the month of Au 
gust 18 not in many respects the most an 

their worthy livee, and report at head- 
qaarters, but who could have predicted 
that such eminent pioneers as R. M, Bart- 
LETT, of Cincinnati, Jonathan Jones, of 
St. Louis, Iba Mathew. of Detroit, and 
others of that order, would see so clearly 
what we saw, but did not dare to express, 
that without them the convention could 
not be, in the largest sense, a success. 
And when to this list are added such live 
contemporaries as Robert and Henry Spen- 
cer, E. G. Folsom and J. C. Bryant, there 
seems nothing farther to be said. It will 
indeed, be a treat which the younger mem- 
bers of our profession could hardly have 
hoped for to meet in council, the veri/ men 
wbo gave the first impetus to what has 
grown to be one ot the most vital and far 
reaching aroougour educational specialties. 

The opportunity ia one that may never 
again occur, and whoever misses it, from 
mere indifference, will have cause for last- 
ing regret. 

So far as I am individually concerned, I 
desire to timuk the committee for accept- 
ing my offer of accommodations, and to 
assure those who may need the assurance 
that I will gladly do all within my power 
to vindicate the choice. 

The gratification I feel is sincere, and 
the assurance withiu me that the results of 
the gathering will more than justify the 
impulse which has called it into being, is 
too strong to find expression. 
Very truly yoars, 

S. S. Packard. 

G. G., Lexington, Mo. — You write a 
good h&ud for business. Your capitals are 
too large, and the loop letters too long ; you 
evidently have a g3od movement, and with 
careful study and practice of writing you 
can become a very good writer. 

T. E. P., Paterson, N. J.— Your writing 
is correct in form, very legible, but in lack- 
ing in grace and ease of movement. I judge 
that you u^-e principally the finger movement : 
you should practice the fore-arm or muscu- 
lar movement, and drill considerably in exer- 
cises for movement. 

S. M. C, Medora, 111. —Yon evidently 
have the basis for a superior style of writ- 
ing — a good movement and" tolerably 
well-formed letters. Your writing is too 
angular, and the connecting lines to.) 
straight. With proper instruction and care 
on your part in piaoticing you could not 
fail of becoming an accomplished writer. 

1- Who has the largest Hbrary of works on 
penmausbip. and how many volumes does it 
cuDiain? 2. How much time, according to 
your estimation, should be spent in prepar- 
ing to teach penmanship? By this I mean 
the time used in practice and study on pen- 
manship ;(. Wbo is most proficient at 
black-board work ? 4. Who is the most ra- 
pid penman, and what is his speed? 5. Does 

spicions season for sojourning iu a metro- 
politan city ; but in respect to comfort, 
during the "heated term," 1 doubt if any 
city in this country can hold out such in- 
ducements as can New York ; and I am 
very sure that nowhere in this city or else- 
where can there be found better ventilated 
or more comfortable rooms than those 
upon which the committee has settled. 
Besides, at no season of the year would 
tliere be an equal chance to secure the at- 
tendance of representative teachers. For 
be it understood, that at last, even Busi- 
ness Colleges are beginning to follow the 
abrogation of "perpetual scholarships," 
by the equally sensible abrogation of 
" perpetual ses.<iion8." 

The responses which your committee 
have received, much as I felt the impor- 
tance and predicted the success of the 
movemeiit, have taken me by surprise. I 
expected, of course, that the young and 
active workei-s in the ranks would collect 
their dues, gather up the credentials of 

The Journal as a Meditun of Advertising. 

The present large circulation of the 
Journal, reaching, as it does, a very large 
majority of all the teachers of writing and 
bookkeeping in the country, renders it a 
most efifective medium for advertising books, 
merchandise and materials desired iu those 



By J. C Brvant, M. D., Preaident of the 

Bryant & Stratton Buffalo Business 

College for twenty years past, 

and the originator of the 

Actual Business Course 

used so extensively 

in the Bryant 

& Stratton 




Sehool Book-Keeping'. 

1 single and Double Entry; simple and prnotical; 

EleiiieiitJiry JBook-Keepiiig 

)ouble Entry, und Illustration of Single Entry. 

Coiiiiiiercial Book-Keepinie:. 

Donble and Single Entry, and nsed extcQelvely in 
J2.0 ). 

Comitine:-Hoti8e Book-Keeping. 

With complotr Beta iu Uancfaotdbino a»d Mod 
slve work ever published. A perfect illustration of 

Popular Series. 

Tbc Popiilori 

Teachers seeking situations, and persona 
desiring to employ teachers will find the 
columns of the Jodrnal an effective me- 

The fact that no advertisement not in 
line with the objects of the Journal are so- 
licited, and quite a limited number of others 
are desired, renders it doubly valuable to 
the few who do advertise. 

The September number of the Journal 
Will be one of unusual interest and attrac- 
tiveness ; it will alone be worth the price of 
a year's subscription. Specimen copie.'* sent 
on receipt of 10c. ; no copies will be sent 
free, so save your postal cards. 

Buttalii, N. V. 


Foundation of Good Feamamhlp. 

It in ft fttct acknowledged bj all good 
t«AclierB of ponmniDiibip, that a tlioroagh 
drill upon the principles and movetneDta 
ix absolatet^r De^eioukry to all who would 
become eofiy. gracefal and iikillful peDmao. 
Yot how troe it it thftt a large proportion 
of the ATerage claMen, in writing, detest 
■ach practice, and it ii Hometimes very 
hard to make them see the ase of euch ex- 
ercises antil the; have become sufficiently 
advanced to see the practicability and im- 
portance. There is among young persons 
at Bchool generally, a great amount of en- 
ergy and impatience to proceed with any 
nodertaking with the utmost hnste, and an 
eagerncfw to have done with it ba bood as 
possible. I need not tell the experienced 
teacher of penmanship that nothing 
more fatal to securing; a good huiid-whting 
than this reckleim impatience. And of 
nothing, is that trite old maxim, " that 
haste makes waste," more literally true 
than of persons who expect to secure a 
good hand-writing in a few lessonn upon 
the Lightning Calculators' principle. 
While it is true that we live in an age of 
steam and electricity, and that the age de- 
mands rapid penmauHhip, it is also true 
that the age demands more legible pen- 
manship than the illegible scrawls that are 
constantly emanating from persons whose 
training in youth, in this particular, has 
been grievously neglected. The truth of 
the matter is, that, the nge does not demand 
nnythinrj from anyhodi/ but whit theij can 
do wall. And one of the first grand essen- 
tials of good writing in a tliorough long- 
continued, persistent practice upon the 
principles and the various movements. 
They are to penmanship what a good per 
munont foundation is to a building. Noth- 
ing is more necessary for any teacher who 
would succeed with his class than to look 
well to a moat systematic practice upon 
these foundation elemente, however much 
his pupils may despise it. Among the thous- 
ands of pupils that I have had under my 
instruction, I have never kuuwu one who 
peraovered in his practice on the founda- 
tion elements, but what made a passable 
penman, white those who shirked and 
could not be made to give proper atten- 
tion were almost invariably poor penman. 

HAERiSDunn, Pa, July 2, 1878. 

For the Penman's Art Journal. 

Mr, Editor : While attending as a dele- 
gate, the lute meeting of tlie Genernl Sy- 
nod of tlio Reformed Church in the U. S. 
at Lanco-ster, Pa.. I dropped into the Key- 
stone Business Ciillege, one day, and had 
the plensure of making the acquaintance 
of Prof. J. C. Miller, whom I found not 
only a perfeet gentleman, but also one of 
the most accomplished penmen. The 
Prof. Hhowed me a copy of joyir jonrual, 
of whose publication I was ignorant, and, 
having always hud a fondness for tine pen- 
monship, I at once made up my mind to 
subscribe for it, and olso recommend it to 

Praf. M. had the kindness to show me 
quite a number of samples of his own pen, 
pencil, and crayon drawing, which are 
truly maiTelloua specimens of art. Up- 
wards of 90 square feet of crayon drawings 
(on black surface) is a novelty, I believe, 
in business colleges. " You are welcome," 
is executed after J. U. Williams' style of 
lettering, drawing and flourishing. It re- 
presents Pa. Cost of Arms, beautifully em- 
bellished with lettering and flourishing. A 
life size antelope (also in crayon) exliibits 
wonderful skill in luiimal drawing ; also 
antelope with pen in ink, as laige as lift-, is 
surprisingly natural and beautiful This 
liuit, with rt large spread eagle, *.how super- 
ior akitl in off-hand flourishing. Another 
charming apeeimeu, aud in my estimation 
the master effort of Prof. M., was shown 
me. I allude to " Sweet Home." being a 
/iiC'Simil" of the piece found in Williams 
& Packard's Gems, though somewhat larg- 

er, and for delicacy of touch and beauty, 
equal to a 6ne steel engraving. A large 
specimen in pencil representing Madison 
Square, N. Y. , and resembling a fine litho- 
graph, was also shown me. This not only 
represents the principal hotels, business 
houses, churches, and private residences 
adjacent to, and bordering on the square, 
but alHO that life, stir and business activity 
to bo seen on so public a thoroughfare. To 
prevent this communication from getting 
too long, I omit any reference to quite a 
number of specimens of portraits and land- 
scape, pen and crayon sketches, exhibiting 
a proficiency in the art really surpris-ng. 

The Prof, also showed and explained to 
me a series of plain and ornamental copies, 
graded and systematically arranged with a 
view of having them photo-engraved. 
These, in my opinion, would prove very 
useful to all seeking improvement in pen- 

When I first saw Williams & Packard's 
gems, I could not persuade myself that the 
pen, unassisted by the graver to rectify de- 
fects, could produce such beautiful concep- 
tions as those contained in that work, but 
since I had the pleasure of examining Prof. 
Miller's productions, I am convinced of my 
error. W. H. S. 

Btreet. The letter was taken there, and it 
was found that they had a clerk in their em- 
ploy whose name was N. P. Benson. The 
letter belonged to him. In such casea the 
Post Office always asks the letter-carrier for 
the envelope, and it is then pasted in th« 

Here is another: A letter was addressed 
to " Mr. richard fichjfiois, No- 18 ander st." 
It wae found to be directed to "Dick & Fitz- 
gerald, No. IS Ann street." The writer evi- 
dently thought it discourteous to address a 
man with whom he was not acquainted by 
the famihor nome of Dick, and tran<iformed 
it into Richard, and also chauged Fitzgerald 
into a form more pleasing to his fancy. 

"Cairor Knives Naeaw street," was found 
to mean Currier & Ives, Nassau street. 

"Miss Garey Aner ford New York 178 
tamison street," turned out to be Miss Geor- 
gians Ford, 178 Thompson street. 

Another letter was addressed in this way: 
"New York City, New York State of the U. 
S. to the eDitor J. Douglass the eDiter AND 
proprietor," The ingenuity of the clerks 
ond officials exerted itself for a long while 
until some one suggested that it might mean 
J. Dougall, the editor of the Witnaa. And 
BO it did. 

A missive wae sent to "Mrs. McGowen, 
46 4sid« stretrt." This being interpreted 
meant 46 Forsyth 

/fJ/i [Mau^-/^. 

Addresses Which Puzzle the Letter- 

Another addition to the collection of cari- 
osities of the New York Post Office is being 
made. It consists of a scrap-book contain- 
ing a collection of obscure addresses which 
the ingenuity of the officials of the depart- 
ment has succeeded in interpreting. The 
collection was begun about two months ago, 
and already numbere some two hundred curi- 
ous addresses. 

As might be supposed, o large nuraber of 
these letters are uudeliverable. The ad- 

tortod that to find the persons to whom the 
letters are directed would be a work even 
greater than to decipher Egyptian hiero- 
glyphics. To the latter there is at least a 
key which may bo discovered; to the former 
there is absolutely no clue. 

The largest number of curious addrosaea 
in the Post Office scrap-book are remarkable 
solely for their excniciatingly bad writing. 
There are others, however, betraying the 
singular carelessness or ignorance of people 
who write letters. 

A letter was received at the Post Office ad- 
dressed to "N. P. Benson, 307, 309, and .HU, 
N. T." The letter wandered from on© sta- 
tion to another until a station-master recol- 
lected that the firm of Whit6eld, Powers A 
Co., occupied Nos. 307, 309, and 311 Cana! 

A German wrote to his friends in Father^ 
land, inclosing his card so as to prevent all 
mutilation of the address should they write 
to him. In due time an answer arrived, and 
this is the way in which it was addressed : 
"Bought of J. Weil, No. I02i Greene street. 
Poultry &. vegetables always on hand. De- 
hvered Free of Charge. New York. Nort 

Here is an address which stamps the writer 
a genius at distortion : "Mr John Weiss Roc 
Mounb Hophester State avenue Neew York 
Nord America." The deciphering skill of 
the officials of the Inquiry Department made 
the address read thus: "Mr. John Weiss, 
Mount Hope avenue, Rochester, State New 
York, North America." An epistle addressed 
to "Philip Schoester Zilvirziti America," was 
intended for an individual in Silver City, 
Nevada. Another, addressed to ' 'August 
Kletthe in Sauth Rent Stat in die Anah Nort 
America," upon being interpreted meani 
"August Kletthe, South Bend, State of Indi- 
ana, North America," 

A letter addressed to "Mrs. Balkham, 
Hubbard Street, Lost House, Opposite Dis- 
tillery, America, West," leaves considerable 
doubt in what part of the country that last 
house and the distillery in question are lo- 

Here are some superscriptions which would 
lead one to think that the senders of the let- 

ters had inclosed the address and written 
the letter outside ; "I Tar not ca to osk Wey 
Wother for cho iutensto in New Yorok Nort. 
e. [I dare not go to ask my mother, for she 
intends to— in New York, North America.] 
Please eeud by mail to Inverdale Post Olfice 
George Nosil Nord America," which leaves 
no end of freedom to the imagination of th« 
Post Office officials. 

"Miss Lizzie Primrose No. 33 North 12th 
Corner Gimmour old house is taken already." 

Besides these are numerous other quaint 
addresses in the scrap-book, and hundreds 
like them are received daily. It is remark- 
able that the officials in the Post Office suc- 
ceed in bringing most of them to their prop- 
er addresses. Such as the three last-men- 
tioned are of course uudeliverable, and are 
sent to the Dead Letter Office, where in 
course of time they are destroyed.— TV. Y. 

The Perfected Type Writer, 

Advertised by Messrs. Fiiirbanks & Co., in 
iinother column, is one of the most useful 
as it is fast becoming most popular inven- 
tions of the age. The Rev. Lyman Ab- 
bott says : " What a sewing machine is to 
the wife, the type-writer 's to tlie husband 
— married, they make a happy couple, and 
a well furnished household. 

President of Soule's Bryant & Stratton, 
Business College. Philadelphia, and is one 
of the mast accomplished and skillful 
writers and teachers in the country. 

Sulem, Ohio, is a very gi-aceful writer and 
experienced tpHcher. See his card below. 







r aukini! t»elre c 
ville, Onondaga Co 

akin. WELLS 





>illPS, lOWO. 

.. TESCHER 0> 
epiiig, b.. )en Mc 


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Send for sample acd oiroutar. 

Perfected Type-Writer. 

[ The Typ-'-Wrltpr has now Lcei 

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■rfully adapted tu the wuDte of the public, 

IllPttora; aWo portable roarhiueB. 


^ely by the 

26 John Street. New Yorl 



Accounts, with Arithmetical Problems, 


S. S. PACKARD, PnbUsher, 


pies by I. 

FL0UKI8HINO EVER EXECUTED ; not alilhoaraph. 


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CRHAlty n«ilii(.utPrluelralonhpColle(rK, and knou-n 
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InpraciicftllimlneM wnUnn, Hie writing !■ uot what 
IB iinowu 08 a-copj-haud ■' but simple, free, bUBlnces 



Common School EdiUon do preaa) will bt 

Commercial Edition, DonWe and Single En- 
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mal and Hiuh Si-liools, and BiisiuoflB CollegeH. IBO 

Vagoa; Hnt), -nv^. H.„.,.l .-nr-P. $2.00, 

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Distinctive Features 



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by a model lett* 
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D. APPLETON & CU., Publishers, 

.149 & 551 Broadway, New York. 

What Everybody Wants. 

It Is LQSODiOua 
-Him.HamilUm 1 

IS«™S,\"i"S„"S;^'.'''''°«' '''°'*'«' ""'' ""'■' GAZE liiNTiER ' : BEHOID ! ! ! ' '''''"' ^^"'^'^ Company Book-Keeping, 

A "::u::. 

PHIA, 1876, TO THE 




PayaoQ, Dunton h Sorlbner'BCopy-Booka.ISNoe. 

Fayaon, Diiaton k Scrlbner's Primary Trating- 

Booka, Nob, 1 and 2, per dozen 80 

Payeon, Dunton A Scribner's Primary Short 

Payeon. bunton & Bcrlbner'a New MoniiaVof 
Penmanahip u 

Payeon, Dunton ft Sorlbner'a' Now Sheet Tabieto, 
persot,flNoB l cO 


Large (for Regular Copy-Book), per hundred 3 20 


German Copy-Books (by J. W. Payaou, of P., 


McVfcar'e American Spelling Blank (new), per 
twenty per cent, additional to pay the poatage. 

Potter, Ainsworth& Co. 

35 Washington St., 35 Park Plaue, 

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A Book-KeepinR. et"^"X**Lbte (u ™I!ih iV-nmal? 
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k (Writing more daahiog t! 

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for 8UcU, and address Flourlahed {in colorsi, 40o.. 

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r. LADIES' iSEniES. 

I. The Shorter Coiirm 

No. 3 coiiUlui tbe fl 
No. 4, III arrftaRomi 

No. AoontalD» 13 p 
of ODpltala 

No. 6. fn urrBimenit 

No. O 1-2, 

No. 7 ooQt 

iDttreIr New Serlei, ■nd coqbIi 
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r appllcftttou, in the fi 

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No. 4 11 
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yy, aud the ' 

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Bxcrclac HcrlcH. Nos. 10, 11 sud 12. By mall, 9 oenls 

Nob. 10 and 1 1 oouUlu a groat variety of lugouioui 

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IT. BualDosa Svrlra. Nos. 6 and 7. By mall, 13 cent 

and 0. The copies In this bi 

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T. Lndloa* Sorloa. 

uae of 8penc«rlan Copy-BookB. 

Apencorian Key. A atandard textbook on Penmauablp. for tbt 

penm«n. Cloth, llluatratod, 176 pages. By maU, SI.30. 
Bprocertan 4'hnria of WrliloK. 47 CharU ; sold separately o 

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Mentthe appearanecaf Superior Blacbbom 

APPEARS BV ITSELF, with analysis and prii 
>laaud IpoD lettt-ra b«iug a foot in hlgbl. and tb 


138 and 140 Grand Street, New York. 

^mplo eet and agent's olrcu 
D. L. MC7»$SE1,MAN, 

BiieluesB College, Quincy, 

Stimpson's U. S. Treasury Gold Pens. 

1 1 anything else. Capltnl not req 



lathe time. Costly outfit and terms 
TRDE & CO., Aneiista, Maine. 



ii written on the beat Bristol ca 



red card a 

a complete price-Ual. Addrees I'HAS 
SprlDRvllle. N. Y. 



Forged. Disguised & Anonymous Writing 



pon receiving a superior i 


,mes' Compendium of On 

practical writing, | 

super sup. Ind. Ink, pr stk, 3 00 

: n gross In g Pena for lettering, per doz 

^row Quill Pon, very fine, for drawing, per doz,, 
>ixon'B .\merlcan Qraplilte Lead PeaoUs, very 



Box 434a. N.y. 

Congdon'e Normal Byatem of Flotiristiing ... 

Sponge Rubber, 2x3 iu„ very saperior, per piece. 
U you want a tcrap-hook that will fill yon with 

Dunsi. T, Akks, 

SEND 10c. for aampte 

expected, {900 and up< 

Put>ltslie<l IHontlily, at SOS Broad-way, 4'or « 1 .OO per "year. 


YOL. 11. NO. 6. 

t'KAItn>8 DU8INE8S COLI.EtiB. 




Business Education. 

Whatever may be the idea of a student in 
•tndying a subject, whether bis efforts art 
Buggested by oapiice, or are made in obedi. 
ence to a discreetly laid general plan, auc 
without refipect to the subject Etudied, twc 
results are secureii — the on© special, the other 
general. Not only does be possess himself 
of the particular special information upon 
whiob he labors, but beyond this the mere 
porformance of the mental labor implied in 
the effort of studying, generates mental vig*- 
or. The study of all subjects will alike yield 
the first result, that is, possession of the spe- 
cial information sought, but with regard to 
the second, whilst all will secure it in some 
degree others will secure a still more health- 
ful and effective discipline of the mind than 

The value of a study must, however, be 
measured conjointly by both results. By the 
first to oscertaiu the dollar and cent power 
of the Information itself and by the last to 
dutermiue the mental vigor and discipline 
oommuuicafed in the effort by the effort. 

This meaaurement is nevertheless qualiHed 
by a consideration not yet referred to, which, 
I cannot be safely omitted, whose influence, 
though not direct, is diffused so considerably 
as to be important, that of estimating what 
is contributed by a subject to one's general 
nsefulueas. The bounds of such an occasion 
as the present are too confined to permit the 
dotailod measurement of everj' branch even 
of an ordinary common bcUuoI education, 
and wo shall be compelled to content our- 
selves with the application of the measures 
of value here established to one or two of the 
moat familiar subjects of teaching. 

.Take, for instance, the study of writing. 
Measure it by the value of the information or 
ability acquired by a diligent and intel- 
ligent Reeking of such information and it 
ranks among the most valuable of studie.': for 
it, of itself, and by itself, constitutes a means 
of liTcUhood, yet so far as the second result 
is concerned, that of securing mental disci- 
pline, it ia scarcely to be named, the degree 

of advantage in that particular being so lov 
Yet it again rises in importance when il 
effect upon the general usefulness of a person 
is contemplated, for who of the worst write 
among an intelligent audience will not alh 
that to write well is no inconsiderable acco: 
plisbment. The subject of Grammar, on t 
contrary, when measured by the business v 
ae of the information secured is iuconsidei 
ble, for without it, fortunes are made and wi 
it, fortunes are lost and conditions of poverty 
are continued. The trader is understood 
when he offers his wares cheaply, though thi 
offer may be couched in ungrammatical Ian 
guage, whilst the collegiately educated mer 
chant is fully impressed with the honesty o 
the customer paying a bill though the King' 
English may be murdered iu the languag< 
accompanying the cash. But when we con 
aider the mental discipline secured by il 
study, and the general intelligeuce resulting 
therefrom, grammar deservedly takes very 
high rank. Until recently all our education- 
al plans and eyatems have regarded subjects 
with regard lo their effect on the mind and 
their influence upon the general intelligence 
of the student to the exclusion of an ex- 
amination of the dollar and cent value of the 
information itself. Now the tendency of the 
age is to consider every branch of educatii 
in this light without counting its value 
other respects. The popular move is in t 
right direction but goes too far- 

If A is to be an engineer he can well afford 
to drop Latin and Greek, for more Geometry 
and Algebra, anatomical drawing for per- 
spective and mechanical draughting ; but to 
enable him successfully to prosecute such 
studies as will fit him to be au engineer, o 
to practice that calling with credit, ai 
amount of general education must first b( 
possessed which will at least place him upon 
the plane of the average general intelligence 
of society, and hia mind must have been sc 
disciplined by studies whose effect is power- 
ful in that direction, as to enable him tc 
prosecute effectively the special studies nec- 
essary for hia profession. When au educa- 
tion results from such principles its possessor 
is not only generally educated and specially 
fitted for some established calling of life, but 
he also has that very desirable information 
of knowing how to atiidi/ any 
which fancy or interest may suggest, for 
" knowledge is orderly, all parts materially 
supporting and lying iu the mind iu the nat- 
ural order, so that they all become united into 
a solid whole, easily remembered and easily 
proved." I do not know but that I am pre- 
pared to claim that man a.s the best educated 
whose mind is best disciplined without re- 
ference to the bulk of the information pos. 
sessed. I can atleast claim him to be the best 
capacitated for teaching. 

The thoughts here presented have been 
suggested by a close observation of the wants 
of our communities and a thorough personal 
identification with widely different education- 
al systems, and I will now summarily state 

Let our children receive, as by the old sys- 
tem, a general stock of information made up 
of divers branches. 

until they have reached the plane of the aver- 
age general intelligence of society, then har- 
monizing with the tendencies of the day, let 
uB form some general idea of the meana of 
livelihood which the child is adapted to or 
will follow at the age of maturity, and build 

upon the foundation of general intelligence 
already secured an education specially fitting 
him for the proposed vocation. Let the pros- 
pective lawyer then atteud a law school, 
the prospective physician dissect, the future 
business man attend the Business College. 

Business College ! What a misnomer that 
would have seemed to the old school men. 
How it would have shocked Plato, who pro- 
nounced the trade of a shop keeper to be a 
degradation to a freeman, and wished it pun- 
ished as a crime. The institutions themselves 
would probably have been mobbed, among 
the Bceotiana who excluded for ten years 
from all office in the State those who had 
defiled themselves with commerce, but now 
what is more successful or more respectable? 
The demand for the mere learned is decreas- 
ing, that for the practical and useful isin- 
creaning, and the practical and useful are 
demauded alone, detached from every thing 
else. And is there not a justification for this 
popular movement ? Using the wordutilita- 
rlan in its broadest sense as noting anything 
which in any manner contributes to happi- 
ness, we may say in general terms education 
in improving in proportion as it becomes 
utilitarian. It is improving in proportion as 
it renders men more fitted to avail themselves 
of the properties of natural agents in the 
production ol wealth, and at the same time 
fits them to enjoy refined pleasure, and to 
seize on all the opportunities for promoting 
their own or others happiness which are pre- 
sented in life. 

Now one of the moat important requisites 
of happiness is to have freedom of choice. 

not to be forced to u 
tasteful pursuits as 
ments of those which 

[interesting and dis- 
issential accompani. 
.re useful and agreea- 
rge will be a chemist, 
then is to study such 
titic investigation as will 
able him to solve the chemical probli 
which will be presented to him, in his future 
career. It is a matter of comparatively 
or importance to him that the differential of 
the sine of an arc is equal to the same fraction 
of the differential of the arc itself, that the 
cosine of the same arc is of the radius, or that 
in the year 835 Egbert, King of England, de- 
feated the Danes at the battle of Hengstone 
Hill. He may in his hours of leisure and re- 
creation find amusement in facts like these, 
and the pleasure they produce may justify 
their acquisition, but apart from gratifying 
individual peculiarities of taste, they are not 
likely to be productive to him of any valua- 
ble results. Why should he bo forced to learn 
them tht-n ? Why should they be included 
in a course of studies, every part of which 
he must go through with, or none atoll? 
Jamea will be a merchant, he desires to be- 
come acquainted with generally adopted bus- 
inesH forms, usages of trade and the pecn- 
liarities and distribution of the commodities 
with which he expects to deal, and he is anx* 
ious for opportunities to practice ordinary 
calculations, so as to become a facile and ac- 
curate accountant. Samuel will be a lawyer, 
he wishes to study the constitution, and us- 
ages of courts of law, the growth and pres- 
of the government of his country, 
and for purposes of comparison, those of 
countries. He will be likely to have 
nfiuence in reforming or modifying the 
laws, and therefore he wishes to know what 
principles eminent thinkers have adopted as 
the foundations of their syatems of juriepru- 

dence and to what general end they have tend- 
ed in their labors and recommendations. 

Recognizing the demands of the hour and 
conforming to them, let the special prep- 
aration for a known vocation be made prac- 
tical iu the largest sense, let it, if possible, 
embrace a drill in the duties of the position 
itself so that the time spent in securing this 
special adaptation may be literally an appren- 
ticeship in the work connected with the pos- 
ition. Let the Business College not content 
itself with teaching book-keeping, to prac- 
tice which but one of a large number in a 
store is required, but let there be goods 
bought and goods sold, let the customs which 
have grown up in business be taught, not by 
precept, but place your students where they 
can and do perform business itself. Com- 
paratively slight would be the advantages of 
business colleges if a technical knowledge of 
accounts was all that they furnished. When 
legitimately managed and fully equipped 
they yield a business education comprising 
the manner of transacting business, when, 
how and what the eorrflct, energetic 
and careful business man should do in 
every conceivable variety of position quali- 
fied by every sort of circumstance, the legal 
relations of a merchant to the maker, drawer, 
and payer of a check, note, or draft, the 
usage of banks, the obligations of the buyer 
and seller, all the multifarious, but well regu- 
lated movements and duties of those who 
trade, and the most approved method of 
securing protection from fraud, counterfeit 
money, etc. 

Beyond this they can detach from a course 
of Business Education such branches as ar- 
ithmetic, penmanship and letter writing, and 
by reason of the principle of individual 
instruction they can in a desirable manner 
teach those who are deficient therein from 
whatever untoward circumstance iu early life. 

That they ahould be managed as well as 
taught by professional teachers, in suoh an 
audience as this I need not take time to 
prove^that Litigants employ professional 
lawyers, religionists resort to theologians, 
the sick seek physicians, that learners should 
seek professional teachers, are quite truisms 

That Business Colleges are sometinies 
managed by business men and some few by 
adventurers yet, I will not attempt to deny, 
but an easy explanation of this is found in 
the fact that these colleges are recently de- 
vised means for supplying the mercantile 
community with educated help, and in nov- 
elties adventurers are the first to move. 
They perform the skirmish duty for the 
business men who attentively observe the 
points developed, and when satisfied that re- 
muneration is certain to follow, in a business 
sense, quietly move on and command the 
situation. Teachers, practical, professional 
teachers, timidly and distrustfully en- 
gage in business operations, and well ascer- 
ned must be the legitimacy of the 
dertaking to justify the declination of a 
fixed, regular paid salary in favor of the 
hazards of business. Yet in an educational 
n, how necessary that the teacher 
should be there armed with the absolute 
power of proprietorship. How emphatically 
do the interests of students require the gen- 
eralizations which the trained teacher makes 
and the systematic arrangement of the in- 
formation to be taught which the science of 
teaching involves. 


BoaineM CoIleg» bsTe, boirever, passed 
Ihe poriod of eiperiment*! Bchools. end 
risen into that of permanent and recognized 
injtitalioD* of the mercantile community. 
Their gradaaUii are preferred for biisineee 
pnrposea to rnich an eitent o?6r Ihone of 
inatitulionH imparting general edncation, 
that $fiOn and $50 per annam are fair aver- 
agea of the salarieB paid in the two casea ; 
the epocial hnsinean knowledge command. 
ing a figure «o superior in the marta of 
trade, where all valqeH are determined. 

Who then nhould have s buainesa educa- 
tion ? Nuturally answered— those who trans- 
act buiiineHH. And who doen not ? How oft- 
en IB the lawyer in the practice of bin pro. 
feasion required to audit books of account? 
And bow frequently does the phyBician fail 
to secure a bill in coniequence of the want 
of system in biM books, or want of regular 
buHinPHH cuHtoma and habitfi in prepariu^j 
and presenting billa? Those controlling 
money thrit may be do more actively em- 
ployed than Mlugginhly drawing its interest, 
need a record of their transactions, and in- 
formation concerning businoss customs, 
forms ond affaira, and can insure safety to 
themselves and posseaions, only in books of 
account regularly and systematically kept, 
Noaystomof education consiets go largely 
of what the Germans call the "bread and 
butter soiencoH," nor is there any system eo 
immediately ronumerative. Judged by the 
money viilue. it commands the number of 
persons needing it, or the Kmall amount of 
time required for its acquisition, it is at 
once dflHirablo, economical and useful. 

I apprehend that the book-keepers who 
were the earlicHt to engage their talents in 
Buch institntions, never in the exercise of a 
lively imnginntion sew n larger field of use- 
fulneas for tbese enterprises, than comprised 
those occupying inferior positions in busi- 
ness, who wished tu coiumaud higher and 
more profitable ones together with the gen- 
eral vUiHH who were in any way connected 
with buflincsA, either as proprietors or assist- 
ants, to whom n kuuwiedye of accounts is 
essential, but since those early days the 
prmciplu of educating specifically for the 
suppo^ed future of the pupil, bus become so 
deeply seated in the public mind as to re- 
quire such a modification of the business 
college as would permit it to sustain such a 
relation to tlin mercantile community as the 
medical college sustains to the practice of 
medicine— tbot of giving apeoific informa- 
tion to be ustid in a specified widk of life. 
As the mental vigor and previous education 
of the medicid graduate largely determine 
his tiQiciency as a physician, so those same 
ciroumstonces will largely determine the 
efficiency and success of the book-keeper 
gradtuitod at a business college. As the 
uewly fiedged medical graduate is not au old 
and oxporieiiced physician full of years and 
honor, so the uewly graduated book-keeper 
is not the peer of the gray-haired old clerk 
who has, year after year, settled the cash 
and l^truck the balance of the ledger of bis 
employers. But old men die and young 
oues grow up to toko their places, and the 
old carry with them to their grave all tbeii 
valuable experiuece, and it dies with them. 
The young cannot get it from them. Tht 
best and most that ihey oau do is to equij 
themselves with that sort of education which 
will make Iht'ui eligble to enter npou the 
practice of their calling, be it medical or 
commercial, and thus society is protected 
in book-keeping by processes parallel to 
those which protect it from the quack in 

Tbo theory that an individual should slow- 
ly road up medicine in some pbysician'a 
office, luid quietly accompany the doctor in 
bis round of practice, and thus become a 
man of medicine, has given way to the medi- 
cal college, with its trained lecturers, dis- 
secting rooms and eloborate apparatus, and 
who so bold as to doubt the wisdom of the 
change. Associate with the medical college 
persoual coutact with the busiuess of the 
practicing physician, if you please, it will 
help, but who dare assail the necessity of 
the collegiate course of lectures. So we are 
witnessing other methods of acquiring a 
business education beside the long and illy- 
paid apprenticeship in the counting house, 
costing years of routine dnty without the 
refreshing oontaot of a reason for aught w 

do, and comparatively speaking witbo 

■e- The Science of Accounts and its Corol- 

gersto I 

th its 

trained teachers full of busiuess eiperience, 
department and graded courae 
will educate thoroaglily and 
economically, those who design entering the 
connting house. Having held a position in 
a business house prior to engaging one's at- 
tention in a course of business studies, will 
secure a better understanding of the teach- 
ing exactly as a year or two's study in a 
physician's office will secure a better under- 
standing of the medical lecture. 

But besides thosa whose immediate needs 
called the business college into existence, 
there aie three large clasBes to whom it is 
fast becoming a necessity. Those who 
have completed the elementary English 
studies, and who wish to engage in busi- 
ne'is ; those neglectful of early opportuni- 
ties and until now unable to bear the ex- 
pense of their tuition, and all classes and 
conditions of society needing a rapid, legible 
hand-writing, either for buf^iuess or as an 
accomplishment. In the preparation of pu- 
pils for bnainess one soon learns the import- 
ance of pressing writing on the attention of 
bis students. No business niau in seeking an 
employee is indifferent to the applicant's 
handwriting, let the employer write however 
cnrelessly he may. A good easy business 
band is the surest passport to favor in the 
counting house,aud will win in every contest 
against every circumstance where the contes- 
tants are stronger.; to the employer. Facile 
computation, solid ability as a book-keeper 
are needed to retain the position won, but 
excellence in the writing, which can at once 
be executed and shown, secures the opportu- 
nity in which to display one's other merits. 
And to such an extent is the disposition to 
lany subjects heretofore stran- 
commou school carried, that as 
ymology, Thysiology and Con- 
stitution, are added, less and less attention is 
being given to reading and writing, which 
lamentably suffer in the public schools of 
our city, and in such of the country ones as 
have caught the city notion of congregating 
more studies in a plain English education. 

Thostt two circumstances, the one showing 
how much the young aspi 
honors needs an easy,legible writing, and the 
other showing how little opportunity he 
has in the ordinary educational institution* 
to obtain it, have been so marked that a Busi. 
ness College, disregarding the importance of 
this branch and failing to secure a first-class 
teacher making this subject a specialty, will 
sink in popular estimation, however excellent 
in its other provisions. There would be lit- 
tle need of such an undertaking as this, thai 
of explaining what is meant by business edu. 
cation, could a new thing be ushered into ex- 
isteuoe with all the improvements suggested 
by time and free from the follies of youth, 
but men are not bom as men but as infants, 
and time is needed to develop the manly 
form and perfect judgment, so there has 
been required time to slough off the preten- 
tious ideas and check the wild schemes ol 
those who started out in the now field of ed- 
ucating specially for business, knowing not 
where to tread. More or less apprehension has 
ated in the popular mind in the past 
ig flaming circulars parading a uni- 
:ourse of study to be taught for a 
lount of money, and to be fmiahed 
in the unprecedented period of from eight 
to twelve weeks, — a wondrous economy of 
both time and money, but so suggestive of 
economy in these essentials of time and mon- 
ey that we would recommend a still further 
economizing by withholding all of one's time 
and money from such a monstrous and ab- 
surb proposal. As the child does many fool- 
ish things of which the man is honestly 
ashamed, when the child has become a man so 
there have been many 
circulars. Nay, many m 
some quarters, descriptiv 
ucation which the profe: 

laries, in Uental and Moral 

A Science," saya Prof. Perry, "is the 
body of exact definitions and sound princi- 
ples educed from, and applied to a single 
class of facts or phenomena." The science 
counts answers precisely to this defini- 
It is both inductive and deduntive. 
Its principles are educed from and applied 
to the phenomena of the busincBS world. 
It begins with value which is the underlying 
fact of business and accounts. Book-keep- 
ing is keeping trace of something and that is 
value. Value is our starting point. What, 
then, is value ? Here Political Economy 
3s to our aid, and is to the science of ac- 
ts what geometry is to astronomy. M. 
Baetial says: "Value is the exchange of 
jervices." Prof. Perry gives a similar 
definition. It is often called a "purchasing 
T," Anything that has power to pur- 
i something is value. Mr. Folsom calls 
an exchangeable service;" since it is 
service that exchanges. A clear con- 
on uf value is essential to a scientific 
of accounts. It becomes, indeed, the 
Aviadne clew to both e 
Very little study will 



u an ordinary 
ena yield only 
nodity, claim. 

three classes of val 

ce. These compose all business trans- 
na. which are only equations of these 
1 values perpetually exchanging against 
each other and which it is the function of 
double-entry to keep trace of. Why, then, 
is it so difficult to learn accounts and keep 
them ? Simply because value and its modes 
of exchange are not understood. Even 
Prof. Perry of Williams College, one of our 
most eminent economists, appears to be a lit- 
tle astray on one point, which is very mis- 
leading, especially in accounts. He claims 
that " value in use " is not a "value in ex- 
change." This is a mistake, because this 
" value in use" is the service value which 
keeps the balance of exchange in business 

vacuum than co 

mmerce an inequality of ex- 

change. Take 

transactions, which are the 

four great sonr 

es of the increase of wealth 

If we receive w 

ges, or profits, or interest 

or rent, we give 

in each case, an equivalen 

service ; and so of all trans 

On this thei 


. value 



J of a busiuess ed- 
sioual teacher and 
n may heartily re- 
se let a dii 

of the 

gret. bnt if such be the 
ting public refuse its endorsen 
manifest absurdities and shows 
oism. and it will slink away fn 
whichit at oncedishonors and misrepn 

Back Numbers 
of the JoDBSAL cen be supplied, beginning 

or rent we give " value in use," which Prof. 
Perry says is not a " value in exchange." It 
was this point that gave rise to the great de- 
bate in the convention. Mr. Folsom claimed 
that, in legitimate business transactions, all 
exchanges are egnalities. This Mr. Packard 
conceded, in his "Advance Sheets to Uni- 
versal Book-keeping," to be true '"theoreti- 
cally," but nut "practically." He says; 
"Theoretically a transaction is an equal ex- 
change of valuable things;" but "practi- 
cally, however, in every case of exchange 
which results in a gain, the value of the 
thing received must be greater than that of 
the thing given ; and in cases where the re- 
sult is a loss, the value of the thing given 
must be greater than that ot the thing re- 
ceived. " This Mr. Folsom regards very 
strange economics, and still stranger ethics! 
all wealth, on this theory, is acquired, 
1 the principle of quid jyro quo, but on 
that of something for nothing ! Indeed, Mr, 
Packard uses tbese very words in a marginal 
lote of his "advance sheets," where, in 
ipeaking of rendering "a service for a com- 
modity," he says he has in fact received 
ethiug for nothing." The same idea, 
is carried out in his definitions of loss 
aud gain. For, he says: "In every case of 
exchange which results in a gain, the value 
of the thing received must be greater than 
that of the thing given ; and in cases where 
the result is a l08», the value of the thing 
given must be greater than that of the thing 
received." This error, observe, springs from 
his having ignored the law of equality, in 
the exchange of values in all business trans- 
actions. Overlooking the service value, as 
the key-stone in the arch of business ex- 
changes, it is not strange that he should con- 
clude that there is a difference between 
values received and given in thoi^e transac- 
tions in which gain and loss originate. On 
his theory, some transactions have this 
equality of values exchanged, and others 
have not. But the theory is not borne out 
in business transactions; since none did 
ever occur, and none can occur, which can- 
not be explained by the law of equality of 
exchange. Nature never more abhora a 

underlies loss and gain. What is 
gain? According to Mr. Packard, it is the 
difference of values exchanged. Mr. Folsom 
defines them as follows: Qain it recnving 
pay for our services ; loss is paying for 
othfrs' aernicft, tchicft are not again exchange- 
able. These definitions comport with the 
universal law of equality of business ex- 

Again, Prof. Perry reduces all exchanges 
to six cases ; but Mr. Folsom makes out nine, 
which he calls equations, for the reason that 
all exchanges are equalities, These are all 
explained in his Logic of Accounts. Prof. 
Perry does not call his six cases of ex-bauge 
equations, because, probably, he, like Mr. 
Packard, must have au inequality in those 
cases, in which loss and gain occur. In- 
deed, Prof. Perry does say, in his most ad- 
mirable treatise on Political Economy, that 
" the difference between the estimate of what 
is received aud the estimate of what is given 
is the measure of the gain of exchange ;" so 
is it, of course, the loss of exchange. Hence, 
Prof. Perry aud Mr. Packard are in accord 
in their views of exchange ; but both are 

Mr. Folsom not only makes out nine equa- 
tions of exchange, under which he places alt 
business transactions, but be demonstrates, 
in his " Logic," thirteen results of exchange, 
as shown by double-entry ledgers. From 
these relations he draws corollaries in men- 
tal and moral philosophy. Man exists in 
three realms— financial, intellectual, moral. 
In the first, loss and gain are the potential 
facts; in the second, error and truth; in 
the third wrong ond right. The difference 
of these couplets, in either realm, determines 
the status. In finance, a man may be sol- 
vent, insolvent, neither; in knowledge and 
morals, he may be the same; and, in all, the 
principle of equality is at the basis. In 
every case of loss and gain, which varies 
financial status, there is, nevertheless, 
equality of values exchanged. So, too. in 
all cases of error and truth this equality is 
at work. In fact, truth is tfie equation of 
ideas and objects, and error a supposed equa- 
tion. This gives us a test of truth and error. 
Formerly, some thought the world was flat; 


in the other, truth. Magel- 
gated the earth, and the 
objective fact was found, by experiment, to 
agree with the subjective idea ; hence, truth 
becomes the equation of idea and object ; 
while error, a supposed equation. This is 
true of any theory of knowledge. It is true, 
even, of Rev. Joseph Cook's four teats of 
knowledge — instinct, intuition, experiment, 
syllogism ; which he makes the four quad- 
rants of the circle of human knowledge. 

But these financial relations become pecu- 
liarly illustrative of moral relations. Man 
becomes morally solvent, insolvent, aud 
neither; through his right and wrong doings. 
There is, therefore, in the very nature of 
things, up and down in moral as well as in 
financial relations; for, he who perpetually 
does more wrong than right, is as certainly 
on the descent to the moral hells, as he who 
effects continually more loss than gain, is 
on the downward road to financial ruin. 
Man cannot escape his relations. There it; a 
right course; there is a wrong course; the 
former carries him up. the latter down, in 
the moral scale. Moral standing is the dif- 
ference of his wrongs and rights of a hfe. 
Theodore Parker used to say: "Every fall 
is a fall upwards." But this is not the teach- 
ing of either financial or ethical relatione. 
As there is financial insolvency, so is there 
moral insolvency, and every man must take 
of his status in either case. 
DDUst be conceded that, in 

the consequ' 

double-entry accounts, we have no mean 
science, which, while it minutely interpreta 
all financial exchanges, throws, also, great 
light upon mental and moral relations. 

TUe fact that no rtdvertisement not in 
line with the dbjects of the JouRNALare so- 
licited, aud quite a limited number of others 
it doubly valunblo to 


Writmg and Science. 

e ro.ln. 

lei »ll our IJklI* In odi 

HOD ror |TreBt«r good to 

moT freely (five, where 

•nee was, Ibough jet to 

m.gUlj i>l»n 

a ilogle flower b&d rouD 

WD to icience, unlmproT 

But oil liolougiUK 10 Ibe harp swatee 

In eympathy wilt tbat which oIti^b the «ou 

i6,lli<^!oflr gilded apire, 
r glory darting through 

td wlien art more fully grown, 
mowlcdge WQlUng m the mint, 

.■ over Whole bixughted naliono e 
irighl iiurora'B lights streak fron 

aorulng iwibyUl breaking liy dej 

M Itght waa Bought b 

every ateii, a higher sphere 

:>rkmaa6hip of 'highest merit telle) 
t<ihed with Flickinger'B and that of 

ind PbelpR, the highest honor'a du 

• glowing lights are known by d 


alworth— Ughls of 

And daUy -|"»1 ite blase of kno 

vledge btghe 





The elms, whose anclBUt glory « 


Thognldfcu mapieB, sweetest of 
Through which tUo nofteal gold 

u tinges fal 

Tht. gUded cloudH at'eve in sun 


The alatoly ouka, with upreadiug 

The plnea, with spiral tops that 
Beyond the sphere iissigued the 
The waters rUipling down the gc 

linge dyed. 

Tbosp aUra thuugh eel, their light »it 

a their fnilt. 

tagic skill Impart, 

itenp by them prepared aecend, 

, Moore, McBride, Moutgomeri 
each, to beautify the scene. 

.n, MuBser, Taylor, Warner, ea 
ightnesB to the glowing^fire. 

The Spencer souh, thtirgen'roua light togivt 

But who by words of praise can elevate? 
Or truthfully, perfection underrate ? 

Can pluck a hue, or to ita beauty add 7 

Ah these their works, which plainly, loudly sj 

And proudly c 


d plan, 

conjecture, wrcmgfully coucede; 
jng In the paths by others tried 
urva as lights, our wuadriug feet to guide. 

r liberty iu words 
ton^e of Hghtnin 

soul deUght, 

lenigbted men t 

e unsought, 
imely spoke, 

perfect models will ine 
bandwriting. There h 
inseparably connected ' 
thod. First, it suppret 
The second strong ohj 
is that it calls for 

Methods of Teaching Femnanship. 

The following is au abstract of the very 
able aud practical address delivered before 
the Penmaa's Convention : 

Handwriting is not au accomplishment for 
the few, but a necessity for all, and hence 
how it is best taught is a practical Issue in 
practical education. There are four methods 
of teaching penmanship, which are widely 
different from each other, and which compre- 
hend all those having any hold on oar mod- 
ern educatioual system. The first, we shall 
diBtingiiish as the imitative; the second, 
as the movement ; the third, as the natural ; 
and the fourth, as the autilytic methods. 

The imitative method in not a modern pro- 
duct, bnt still has a strong lease of life. Its 
central idea is that writing is a purely imita- 
tive art, and that the constant repetition of 
itably produce good 
B four main defects 
ilhthe imitative me- 
fs all individuality. 
nion to this method 
special thought on the 
part of the pupil, and does not strengthen 
or bring out independent effort. It has no 
educating foivo. The third objection is that 
it furnishes the pupil with no tools for criti- 
cism or comparison, and hence with no ade- 
quate guide to the construction of the letters 
and the improvement of his handwriting. 
The fourth objection is that it requires none 
of that vigorous energy of teaching, impera- 
tively deuiauded in other branches of educa- 
tion. This is the one only branch, which 
is supposed ti) require no teaching. And 
this false idea that the art of penman- 
ship can be self-taught depending upon imi- 
tation rather than instruction, has rained up 
a large corps of incomjirttent teachers, to 
guide an army of uninstructed pupils into the 
blind acquisitiuD of some sort of handwrit- 

The fundamental theory of the movem«nt 
method isthat all theform^of script writing, 
arbitrary and complex, are but the results 
of certain movements of the hand and arm. 
And the natural deduction is, that if the mus- 
fully developed and carefully trained 
ment, the rapid and easy execution of 
thescript letters will flow therefrom as a mat- 
ourse. That the written forms are the 
results of certain laws of movement, none 
will deny. But movement in penmanship ia 
and of necessity must be absolutely snbser- 
form. This will be apparent if we 
the identity of each of our written 
signs. It is the individual characters of the 
forms, and not the movement, which pre- 
ns the identity of the letters. The 
pupils must have a definite objective point 
hicb to aim, namely, the visible forms of 
the copy. And having been given the cor- 
rect position, and general direction of move- 
ment in making the particular form, the only 
way by which he can educate the muscles, 
and cultivate the movement, is by continued 
and intelligent practice of the form whether 
it be a movement exercise or a letter. 

We come now to the youngest child of 
modem thonght in penmanship, the natural 
method. As the child learns to walk, by 
walking ; and to speak, by speaking ; hence 
he should learn to write, by writing. The 
first spoken words of the child are feeble 
and incoherent. As he practices his mother- 
tongue, his articulation improves, and 
thoagh entirely unconscious of the mauy 
processes involved, he learns to speak — he 
can express bis thought. The first written 
words of the child will be in like manner 
feeble and illegible, but as be practices the 
script character, he will learn by degrees 
to master it, until it will become as natural 
and easy to write hia thoughts as to speak 

Let US look at the conditions, and see if 
the same method can be employed in both 
cases. Speaking does not require the use of 
a foreign instrument, Imt only the play of 
natural organs, and is therefore an almost 
instinctive process . one that is begun with 
the first dawn of intelligence, before the 
child learns to walk, much less to handle 
tools. Writing, on the other hand, demands 
the use of a wholly foreign instrument and 
materials, and is, and must be, a second step 
in education. The child can very easily 
learn to speak the simple idioms of the lan- 
guage. The elementary processes of speech 
are executed unconsciously by the child, al- 
most from the very beginning. The ele- 
mentary processes of writing are so many 
obvious difficulties, which the child cannot 
escape from. The pen or pencil is not a 
voluble and pliant instrument like the 
tongue, nor is the arbitrary action of the 
hand at all instinctive. It requires, at the 
start.and for a long time thereafter, perfect- 
ly conscious effort to make these written 
signs. The pupil must consciously guide 
the pen for every part of every letter. It is 
only when these arbitrary processes have 
become naturalized by practice, that writing 
becomes the intuitive messenger of thought. 
The natural method precludes all possibility 
of a graded aud progressive system. The 
expression of the simplest idea in writing 
must involve many complicated forms, and 
the consequence is that the pupil is thrown 
right into deep water before he learns to 

The analytic method interprets the science 
of penmanship, and reduces all its forms to a 
beautiful symmetry, order, and progressive- 
ness. The growth and development of the 
analytic method have waited upon slow and 
labored processes; its principles, half con- 
ceived, have been but gradually wrought 
into truthful symmetry ; but all past effort 
in penmanship has tended thus gradually 
but surely towards the modern scientific 
treatment of the script forms. The analytic 
method does not elaborate beautiful theory 
of the alphabet, of no practical value ; but 
it goes back of the muscular action in pro- 
ducing the letter to the mind, and asks, 
what is the conception there ? Is every pact 
clear and distinct to the mental vision? 
The first step iu the analytic method ia to 





has also an important function in applying 
knowledge to practice, and measuring re- 
sults. Here are the three great educating 
powers in this art : Knowledge, informing 
and guiding ; Execution, doing the work; 
and Criticism, pointing backward to error, 
and forward to progress. The analytic 
method is not a drowsy one, inviting to 
apathy. It brings life, light, and energy 
into penmanship, and stirs up the sleepers. 
Thought directs practice. Every line is an 
interpretation of an idea, and the mind 
thinks out what the hand executes. 

At this present time, educational methods 
must stand the test of experience. No rhe- 
torical theories, if found wanting in prac- 
tice, can set aside her verdict ; among so 
many conflicting methods, she atone will 
maintain the educational balance, proving 
what is weighty. 

Renewal of Subscriptions. 

Subscribers who desire to continne to 
■eceive the Journal shoolil not fail to re- 
jew their subscriptions, as the Journal will 
II nil cases be discontinued at the end of 
the period for which the subscription ia 


PaMlahcid Mraiblr k* •I'OO per T«iir. 

D. T. AMES, Znrrom aud PKormtxtox, 

309 BroMlnrt V*w York. 

Slocla oop1«i of JouBWAL Mot oD receipt of (m 

e«nU. (I]>««lii)«> ooplM farnlahrd to Ag^n'' ''**• 


I Colnmn tlfl'w IMOO »5 M flM O 

H ;; »W *gg ^JJ ^g 

llnch(131l'nM).:; 180 8 30 "00 Via 

I Una*, 24 word*. U I 38 3 » 3 W 

Ad»prtl«ftm«it" for ooe •od lhr«p months. p«j«lil 

In »d«iioe: for all oionth* tnd one ywr, p«y»l)l. 

lUArtcrlj Id idMnce. No dfvl»tl.m Iron) the mbov 

nlM. n*«<Ung ni»tiCT, 30 cenH por Hup. 


v/f hop*' 10 njBketh* JoimHAL •olijeCTMtlnKdii' 

ro >ny poriKin ■cndltig thHr own and at 
[IIP >■ lubKrlben, IndoalnR t'J wo will mall t 

llio aeDdor, a copy of either nl the followliig 

ponmaiKhlp ever pnbliibed, viz. : 

nOBnlcnntolPlOtureofProgrMa... 30x38 In 

o IXird'B PTDjcr ISiSi " 

MnrrlBRD Gertlfloate 18x23 " 

e Family IlMord 18«22 " 

IicolmcD MhcctHof F,ii(troi»lnB eoebllxl* " 
lOODo.ntlfulHcrollCnrda, IRdHTerouldealg 

I'or Ibrcp oamee and 13 we wlU forward tbi 
ntoiinlnl Picture, rIep 38s40 lochea, retollB fo: 
for all namoa and W we will forward a c( 
lllama k I^ackard'a Oiilde, retolla for f3.»>. 

Auiea' Oompondlum nf Ofiiamontiil Penma 
M liS. The aamn bound In gilt will be bo 
hU>on Bubacrlbera and f 18. prico $7,60. 
ror twelve namoa and »13, we wUl forward) 

iboiild bo by poat-offlco 
r. Money Inoloaed In 


The Journal and Bnsmess Education. 

It will lie observed by our report giren 
in another cohimu, of the recent ''Pen- 
men'H Convention," thut u permnnent or- 
Riiniziition to be liuown as the "Business 
CuUeRO Teachers ami Penmen's Associa- 
tion," wtia effected, aud tlint a resohition 
was unanimonely piiSHed that the Penman's 
Aht JoOTtNAL be recognized as the official 
organ of the Association . Now, this does not 
mean that the Journal, in the future, is 
to be any the less n penman's paper, but 
that it will take a more general and active 
intereHt in alt those Hubjecta which are rec- 
ognized ail belonging to a practical bnsi- 
ne-ss education, aud which constitute the 
course of instruction in a well-ordered 
bimineHii college. 

At the present time the profession of 
penmanship can scan^ely be sttid to exist 
outside and iudependent of business col- 
leges. There is not cue peuniaii in twenty 
who has not been, or who does not hope 
nt soiui* time to be associated with a busi- 
ness college, while of the great army of 
skillful clerks and accouutunta tUronghout 
the country, there is a very small percent- 
age who have not acquired their skill in 
ouw of those institutions. The modern 
professor of penmanship who is qualiBed 
to teach nothing else, will gain little honor 
or success; indeed other qualifications ore 
indispensable, their very lack indicate to 
all sensible persons a fatal defect in the 
ubility, industry or judgment of the single 
idea professor. We would, therefore, 
.say to all young men who ore striving to 
become skillful writers, do not lose sight 

of other qualifications Deceasary to render 
its acquisition of value to yoa. 

If you desire to employ it profitably in 
bneiDOSB, a knowledge of acooauts, with 
correct grammar, and spelling will greatly 
enhance your opportunity for doing so. 
If it is your purpose to become a teacher, 
the ability to instruct in other commercial 
branches will open scores of desirable 
positions which would be closed to one 
who can teach, however skillfully, writing 
alone. We shall advocate earnestly and 
to the beat of our ability the jast claims of 
all commercial branches, and all meritori- 
ous business colleges. 

The association which has just been 
formed, has long been needed, to consoli- 
date and crystallize the cause, and pro- 
mote the interest of commercial edncatiou. 
Business colleges and their teachers have 
heretofore failed to command the degree 
of public confidence and esteem to which 
they were entitled ; largely from the want 
of a united and harmonious effort, to 
place themselves properly and justly be^ 
fore the public; and perhaps more largely 
from the fact that a few noisy cone* 
mountebanks have constantly disgusted 
the intelligent public with their extra- 
gant and false claims trumpted abroad 
through the instrumentality of brass bands, 
monstrous bragging circulars thrown almost 
broadcast, and such other multitudinous 
dodges and tricks as had previously been 
tolerated only by circuses and showmen, 
while the more modest, sensible and gen- 
uine workers in the profession, have not 
been known or appreciated outside of the 
circle of their patronage. Thus a single 
mountebank and charlatan, by his greati 
energy and persistence in thrusting himself 
before the pubhc, hii.s done more to lower 
the public estimate of business colleges 
than scores of conscientious, earnest, capa- 
ble and successful workers could do for 
their support and elevation. It is through 
the instrumentality of the nssociatiou just 
formed, which shall bring annually into 
council the reputable teachers and man- 
agers of these institutions, and the medium 
of the Journal, that this false impression 
on the part of the public is to be corrected, 
and business colleges and their teachers 
attain to their proper and honorable posi- 
tion in the grand educational system of 
this country. 

PemnansMp, Books, &c.. Exhibited at 
the Convention. 

A large hall adjoiniup; the one in which 
the convention assembled, was especiallv 
arranged for and devoted to the use of 
parties desiring to exhibit specimens of 
penmanship, books, charts, or other school 

Among the numerous specimens of pen- 
manship the most conspicuous for their 
size and excellence, were two specimens 
of the collection executed by L. P. Spen- 
cer and H. W. Flickinger, and exhibited 
at the centennial by Ivison, Blakeman, 
Taylor & Co. These specimens, for deli- 
cacy and accuracy of the work, artistic 
beauty and perfection of design, have no 
equal in this country. A fine collection 
consisting of drawing, writing and flourish- 
ing, was exhibited by H. C. Kendall, of 
Boston. Several large sheets of very skill- 
ful lettering and flourishing, executed by 
H. W. Kibbe of Utica, N. Y., were ex- 
hibited by Prof. McCreary, of the Utica 
Business College. A copy of the Lord's 
Prayer, beautifully written by W. E. Den- 
nis, in large round-hand, was exhibited by 
H. C. Wright, of Brooklyn. A large sheet 
of engrossing, executed in attractive style 
was forwarded for exhibition by John 
McCarthy, of Washington, D. C. A. 
R. DnntoB, of Boston, exhibited several 
proof sheets of a new book on writing 
which he is now preparing for pu'dication; 
which indicated in their, grace and 
attractive forms of letters and combina- 
tions, that he still wields a master's pen. 
Copies of "Ames' Compendium of Practi- 
cal and Ornamental Penmanship," together 

with several pages of the original pen and 
ink copy, from which some of the moat 
elaborate pages of the work was printed 
by lithography ; also a large album in 
which was presented an extensive variety 
of original pen work, together with photo- 
graphic copies of engrossing andother miscel- 
laneous work executed by Mr. Ames, was on 
exhibition. J.H.Barlow,HudsonCity, N.J., 
one of the veterans of the art in New York, 
exhibited an extensive, rare and interesting 
collection of ancient works on penmanship. 
Some of these were between two and three 
hondred years old, in various languages, 
French, German, Portugese, English, ic, 
and showing the art as practiced by the 
old masters : such as Seddon, Ayres, 
Cocker, Ventura, Tompkins, &c. Another 
object of inteieat was to be noticed in Mr. 
Packard's office, by the hand of Mr. Bar- 
low, called " T/ie American CeiUenninl." 
A work of vast labor and exquisite skill, 
for which a medal and diploma was award- 
ed at the Art Exposition of Philadelphia. 
But the exhibit which attracted most at- 
tention from all present, was a large scrap 
book, in which wiis presented all of the 
attractive letters and specimens, that have 
been received at the office of the Journal, 
for notices and comment, since its first 
publication. Among the books exhibited 
were a series of text books on book-keep- 
ing by J. C. Bryant, of Buffalo, N. Y. 
Also works upon the same subject by Ira 
Mayhcw, Detroit. Mich.; H. W.Ellsworth, 
New York ; J. W. Van Sickle, of Spring- 
field, Ohio, and the Bryant & Stratton se- 
ries written by S. S. Packard, and publish- 
ed by Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 
New York. Of copy books the Spenceriau, 
Payt-ou, DuntoD & Scribucr, and Ellsworth 
series were exhibited. An extensive va- 
riety of superior black-boards were pre- 
sented for use and exhibition by the N. 
Y. Silicate Slate Co., 191 Fulton street. 
New York, 

Renewal of SuhEcription. 

Several subscribers, whose Journal was 
discontinued at the expiration of their 
term of subscription, have written to us, 
expressing surprise, and in some instances 
great dissatisfaction, that we should have 
so little confidence in them, as to discon- 
tinue the Journal — simply because they 
had neglected to renew tlie subscription. 
One, even saying that if we could not trust 
him for one dollar, and had struck his 
name from our list, he would not trouble 
us to replace it. These parties seem to 
regard the stopping of their paper as a 
personal matter, and as evidence that we 
are unwilliug to trust them for the small 
sum of one dollar. No inference could be 
more erroneous. The fact is, that the 
name of each stood upon our subscription 
list among thousands of others, and simply 
as a necessary aud proper business arrange- 
ment, we instructed our clerk to notify by 
postal-card each subscriber when his sub- 
scription would expire, and to discontinue 
the paper to all whose subscription was not 
renewed, and we stated that such would 
be the case in the columns of the Journal. 
For us pereoually to perform a labor ol ao 
great detail is quite impossible, and it is 
therefore from necessity assigned to a clerk 
who simply obeys ins true I ion, having no 
knowledge or license by wlitcb he can ais- 
criminate among dL'liuqueul subscribers. 
In each instance referred to above, we were 
ourselves obliged to consult our register 
to learn whether the subscriptions were re- 
newed, or tht; Juuknal discoutinued. We 
can hardly understand how any one, who, 
having had due notice of the time when 
his subscription would expire and has 
neglected to renew the same, can expect 
us to know that it is merely an oversight 
on his part, and make him an exception 
by continuing to mail his paper. How are 
we to know that he even desires it ? to say 
nothing of his wilhngness or abihty to 
pay for it. 

We have never claimed to be omniscient, 
and never sapposed that any subscriber 

would do c 

3 regard as, 
but since it seems otherwise, we hasten to 
correct any such error by saying that our 
knowledge of the desires of patrons ex- 
tends only so far as they have been by 
them expressed, and that the best aud 
only satisfactory evidence we can have 
that the Journal is desired, is a direct 
statement to that effect, accompanied with 
the proper amount of cash. 

Proceedings of the Convention. 
In reply to the many inquiries, if a full 
report of all the proceedings of the Con- 
vention would be published in pamphlet 
form, we would say that that matter was 
left entirely to the discretion of the execu- 
tive committee who, we understand, have 
decided not to issue such a report. We 
shall therefore do the best we can to present 
all matters of interest through the present 
and future numbers of the Journal. In the 
present number, besides a general report of 
the proceedings will be found, in full, the 
able and admirably written poem by W. A. 
Talbott ; and the address upon " Business 
Education *' by Thomas May Peirce, Presi- 
dent of the Union Business CoUege, Phila- 
delphia, which deserves to be carefully read 
and considered by every person, in any 
manner interested in the cause of busi- 
ness education. It is the most sound, 
logical and convincing statement of the nec- 
essity for, and utility of, a special aud prac- 
tical training of young men for business, 
that we have ever heard or read. We also 
give abstracts of the paper on teaching 
writing by J. W. Payson, and E. G. Fol- 
som's profound aud masterly address upon 
the Science of Accounts and their Corollar- 
ies iu Mental and Moral Philosophy, toge- 
ther with several other items of interest. 

Practical LeBsons in Writing. 
In the next issue of the Journal we 
shall give the first of a very practical se- 
ries of lessons in writing, prepared by 
Prof. J. W. Payson, an associate author 
of the Payson, Dunton and Scribner popu- 
lar system of copy books. These lessons 
will be appropriately illustrated with cuts, 
and will present the whole subject in 
a form and manner so ingenins and attrac- 
tive us to command the interest and great- 
ly aid all earnest pupils and teachers of 
writing. Indeed, we feci that we cannot 
commend these lessons too highly. That 
Prof. Payson is a thorough master of his 
art and subject, no one who hsteued to 
his most excellent essay (an abstract of 
which is given iu another column), upon 
writing before the late Penmen's Conven- 
tion, can doubt. These lessuue have beeu 
published m the Primary Teacher, pub- 
lished iu Boston by T. W, Bickneil, and 
have everywhere elicited the highest praise. 

Regular Issue of the Journal. 

Many persons who have from some cause 
failed to receive certain numbers of the 
Journal have written to know if it has sus- 
pended or if it has been regularly issued. 
We wish it distinctly understood, that with 
theexception of the month of August, 1877, 
the Journal has beeu printed and mailed to 
every subscriber upon our list during the 
first week of every month, and should we 
be blessed with Ufe and healili.itwilUooon- 
tiuiie to be mailed, and suli.stMbers who at 
any lime fail, to receive Ihe Journal by 
the 15th of tbe month are requested to noti- 
fy us of that fact, that we may discover, 
and remove the cause of the failure. 

The Special Attention 
of teachers, card writers, authors, and pro- 
prietors of business colleges is invited to 
the advantage of inserting a standing busi- 
ness card of three lines in the first column 
of the Journal. Its circulation is now so 
large and extensive as to reach, more or 
less, the neighborhood of all persons iu 
theUnitedStateaorCanada. The charge is 
smaU.aud can hardly fail of being many 
times repaid. 


A Convention of Western Penmen. 

We notice in the June namber of the 
Penman's Help (wbicb, by tbe way, is the 
latest Dumber received) that sevfral partiea 
M ■ advocating a convention of Western 
►enmen, to be held during the hohdaja. 
Jy all means. letBucb a convention be held. 
*eDmen cud not come together too often 
r become too thoroughly acquainted with 
each other. If possible, we should be happy 
to attend such a convention, but with us 
the holiday Keaaon is the time, above all 
others, that overburdens as with work. We 
however, watch any movement in that 
liiectioD witli a great degree of interest 
od favor. Let our western brethren assem- 
ble, have their says and essays and adjourn 
to join in a grand united nalumal conven- 
tion at Cleveland, O., in Angnst neit. 


only encouraging but highly 
gratifying to receive such Hubatantial 

that given by Prof. Soule in the 
following letter, that the Journal and its 
efforts in behalf of practical education is 
being appreciated and acknowledged by 
representative teachers. 


Philadelphia, Aug. 26, '78 

My Deab Ames : — At 

the last meeting of the 

BnBiness College Teaoh- 

rora' and Penmen's Abbo- 

OlatioD, held in New York, 

mber that 

made a few remarks on 

^^ 'hat I deemed the duty of 

lOllege principals and 

inmen in the support of 

inr paper. I then felt 

id still feel, that yoor 

Torts to entablish a jour- 

il devoted to onr interests 

tnd which will lie tbe or 

m of the association 

^LOnld receive hearty and 

tteral aid from every 

BnainesB College Itenu. 

Col. Scale, President of Soule's Com- 
uercial College, New Orleans, La., is 
ipendiog his vacation in Europe. 

E. P. Heald's Business College Jourmd, 
San Francisco, Cal., is tbe most interest- 
ing and readable college paper that finds 
its way into our sanctum. 

The prospectus of Peirce's Union Busi- 
ness College, Philadelphia, in keeping 
with the institution it represents, is a prac- 
tical, business like statement of what 
patrons desire to know. 

The Gem City Business College, Quincy, 
111,, D. L. Musselman. principal, has a 
re-union and a reception on September 
3. We regret not being able to ac- 
cept an invitation to be present. 

Henry C. Wright's Catalogue and Col- 
lege Journal for 1878-9, is received. Both 
are models of good taste, and common 
sense in advertising. The specimens of pen- 
manship presented in the ciitalogue, from 
tlie pen of W. E. Dennis, are superb. 

G. W. Brown has become the sole pro- 
prietor of the Jacksonville, 111., Business 
I College, and will be assisted in the 

perity for that institution during the past 
year ; over five hundred pupils having 
been in attendance. 

A Beantifdl and Valuable Freminm. 

Until further notice we will mail to each 
ew subscriber, and others renewing their 
subscription with the first copy of the 
JooRNAL, a copy of The Lord's Prayer, 19 x 
24. This is a facsimile copy of one of the 
most artistic, beautiful, and perfect works 
that we have ever executed with the pen ; 
beside displaying the text of the Prayer in 
highly ornate and perfect lettering, there 
are represented ten of the moat important 
scenes in the life of Christ, topetlier with 
the ten commandments. The original pen 
and ink copy of this picture was executed 
by us on an order from the publisher, Mr. 
G. M. Allen, for which he paid us five b 
dred dollars in cash. Copies the same t 
and quality, as we now offer free as a pre^ 
mium to every new subscriber and n 
al, he sold through agents for one dollar. 
This premium alone is well worth the 
entire cost of a year's subscription to the 
JoDKNAi.. Wantofspace forbids a moi 
tended description at present. 

To the Business College Teachers and 
Penmen of the U. S. and Canadas. 
The uudersij^ned duly olucted members 
of the Executive Committee of the " Bus- 
iness College Teachers' and Penmen's As- 
socmtuiu," liiiving been authorized to ad- 
mit us cliiuter members of the Association, 
all who are eligible to membership, and 
who pay the dues of 1878 (S5). on or be- 
fore Ootober 1st next, hereby notify those 
whom it may 
to either of the 
receive prompt 

L. L.Si'f 

H. C. Sr 


that communication 
I on the above subject wil! 

,i.UE, Kingston, Pa. 
.NCEB. WasbingtoD, D.C. 
Iat pEracE, Philadeli)liia. 
E^xeciUive Committee. 

by I. J. Woodworth and H. B. 
Chicken. Mr, Chicken graduated with 
J. E. Soule, and is an accomplished writer 
and teacher, 

T. B. Stowell has become proprietor of 
the Providence Business College, formerly 
owned and conducted by W. W. Warner. 
Mr. Stowell is a graduate of the State 
Normal School of Mass, ; he is a skillful, ex- 
perienced and popular teacher, and will 
undoubtedly win favor and success in his 
new position. 

The Annual Catalogue and college paper 
issued by H. E, Hibbard, Principal of thi 
" Bryant A Stratton Commercial School," 
Boston, has been received. Both are in ex- 
■ cellent taste and tell of remarkable pros- 

We will close by giving two among bun 
dreds of complimentary notices it has re- 
ceived from the press and lovers of art. 
Elizabeth, N, J., Daily Journal. 

April 21, 1876. 
" It is a curious and wonderful production 
of the pen, and deserves a place in every 
home in our land." 

Dnily Standardy Syracuse, N. 7. 

April 24. 1876. 
" Prof. Ames has wrought oat many a no- 
ble, and many an artistic dasign, but never 
did he essay, and never did he execute a 
more worthy or noble design than tbe Lord's 
Prayer. The whole work is a master piece 
of ingenuity and taste. We are confident that 
no illostrated copy of tho prayer was ever orig- 
inated which will compare favorably either 
' in taste, skill or excellence of execution," 



By J, C Bryant, M. D.. President of the 

Bryant & Stratton Buffalo Business 

College for twenty years past, 

and the originator of the 

Actual Business Coui'se 

used so extensively 

in the Bryant 

& Stratton 



Coinitioii School Book-Keeping. 

Elementary Book-Keeping. 

Gouimercial Book-Keepiug. 

[•hta book Ifl a continuation of tbe Elementar; 
itlon, enlarged, for Scboota of bigber grades 
uble and Single Entry, and need exteDslvoly li 

Coiiiitlng-House Book-Keeping. 

rhc Manufacturing and Banking SotH are 
: prominent hnuineBB and banking bouBca 
ic Commercial edition, 

u Manpfac 

' colors; 

Popular Series. 

Tbe Popularity of thl»t Series of Practical 
Tcxt-Booka has become "World-WMe." 

Tboy are now iwod by tbe beat Soboola i 
nesfl CollegCB in nearly oil the States nnd thi 

China. Tbey are commended in tbe higli 


Buffalo, K. Y. 


The Convention. 

* Fannant tothecircnlarof invitation iwnied 
hj tfae preliminary committee in Jnn« 
Uat, neailf one hundred t«Bcbfr« of writing 
And commercial branches aHeemMed at Fack- 
ard'H Collego Hall, in this citj, on Aiigast 
e The convention was called to order by 
William Allen Miller, cbainnnn of the com. 
mittee, who invited L. L. Kprai^e, of Kings- 
ton, Pa., to preside as temporary chairman. 
Af t«r a brief and able address the chairman 
antiounced the convention to be in readiness 
for the transaction of bunineAS. 

On motion of S. S. Packard, the Hon. Ira 
Mayhew, of Ortroit. Mich., wiih iiaaoimoaBly 
elected PreHident of the roorention. Aflera 
few well cboKon rflmarks by Ihe President. 
tfao organization was completed by electing 
D. T. Am«, of New York City. Secretary ; 
J. W. Vanfliokle, A.M., M.D.. Springfield, 
Ohio, l«t Vice President, and H. C. Spencer, 
Wanhington, D.C., 2d Vice Presidentn. Wm. 
Allen Miller, L. L.Bpragne, E G. Folsom, C.L. 
Hiller and S. 8. Packard were appointed a 
committee to prepare and pronent a pro- 
gramme for the order of exercises dnring 
the wesHion. 

On reqaost of the committee for instruc- 
tion regarding the duration of the convention 
and itH hours of seasion, a motion was made 
by Henry C. Wright, and carried, that the 
convention continue in session four days and 
bold daily aettftions from to 12 a.m., and 
from 12.S0 to 3 p.m. Amotion was made by 
H, E. Hibbard. of Boston, oud corried. that 
while waitingfor the report of the committee 
CD programme, the roll be called and ench 
person in responding to his name, rise in his 
plaop, and give a brief hisiory of himself and 
hiH present oociipatiou, which being done 
proved to be not only very interesting but a 
very pleasing method of introducing each in- 
Jividual to the convention. After calling 
the roll the committee on programme pre- 
sented their report and the convention wos 
adjourned to 2 p. m. The afternoon session 
was opened by an able and interesting ad- 
dress of welcome from Prof. Z. Kichards, 
Waithington, D. C, to whom theconvention 
tendered a (inanimoua vote of thanks. 

Vice-President Van Sickle was then called 
to the chair, and au addresn was delivered by 
the President, Hon. Ira Mnyhew, upon the 
Bubjoct of " Bnsinefis Colleges and their 
place in our syfiteui of education." On mo- 
tion of Mr. Hibbard a unanimous vote of 
thiuikn was tendered to Mr. Mayhew for this 
very able ond luslructive address. 

Motion was then made by Mr. Hibbard, 
that the exercises be opened Wednesday 
morning at nine o'clock, by a practical 
lesson in writing, to be given by the 
person who should be selected by ballot 
from the members of the convention. Hen- 
ry C. Spencer receiving the largest number 
of votes, was announced as the teacher. 

At 9 o. m. Wednesday, the convention was 
organized into a writing class by Mr. Spen- 
cer, who occupied an hour aud a half in giv- 
ing a very interesting and iuatnictive lesaou' 
illustrative of the beat methods of teaching 
writing, in which he strongly advocjited the 
muaoular or foreorm movement and sitting 
loft aide to the desk by the pupil. 

After this lesson, L. L. Sprague addressed 
the convention upon the subject of Business 
Correspondence, his well chosen lauguage.apt 
illustrations, pointed and humorous anecdotes 
nerved to render this one of the most pleas- 
ing and valuable addresses before the con- 
vention. It was followed by a spirited discus- 
aioQ by Messrs. H. C. Spencer. Packard. 
Oranger, Folsom. McCreary.Shattuck. Hunt, 
Peirce. Sprague. Soule. and Stoelzel. At 
the opening of the afternoon session, S. S. his peculiarly happy manner, gave 
a history of the life and work of John D. 
Willioma. He was, aoid Mr. Packard, one of 
the most earnoat. skillful workers he had ev- 
•r known, most exacting of good work from 
his pupils, severe but just, in his criticisms, 
aud one of the most open, fronb. and liberal 
men he had ever met. Mr. Packard's ad- 
dress was followed by remarks from William 
Doff, H. C. Spencer, and W. A. Miller, all of 
whom were pnpils or associates of Mr. Wil- 
liauis, and gave many interesting reminis- 
cences of his life and character. The ad- 
dress of Mr. Packard will be given in full in 
a future number of the Jocbsal. 

The following tfllegram from H. B. Bry- 
ant, one of the fonndera of the Bryant and 
Stratton chain of colleges, to the Pre-ident 
of the convention was read by the Secretary. 

Chioaoo, August 7, 1878. 
Pbesidext or Penmen's Conventiox. 

Greeting and good fellowship to you all. 
May much good result from yonr delibera- 
tions, aud practical education, never more pop- 
ular than to-day, be strengthened and advan- 
ced by the valued papers and discussions 
*b«t will be presented. Should Chicago be 
named for the next meeting, rest of^ured the 
compliment would be duly appreciated, 

H. B. Bbtant. 

Prof. A. B.Dunton, of Boston, then occu. 
pied an hour, during which he illustrated in a 
very apt and enthusiastic manner his method 
of instructing classes in writing, be advoca- 
ted the forearm or elbow movement and sit- 
ting with the right side to the desk. 

Prof. Geo. H. Shattuck followed Mr. 
Dunton with a very interesting and practi- 
cal paper upon the best methods of teaching 
primary penmanship. 

1 nble 


read by Frof. H. W. Ellsworth entitled "Writ- 
ing iu Public Schools." A vote of thanks was 
then tendered to Profs. Spencer. Duntout 
Shattuck, and Ellsworth, for their interesting 
nud instructive l.-ssons and papers on teaching 

On motion of J. E. Soule, a committee of 
five consisting of J. E. Soule, S. S. Packard, 
L. L. Sprague, Thomas A. Peirce, and W. 
A, Miller were then appointed by the chair, 
to devise and report, on the following day, 
II plan for a permanent organization and de- 
fraying the expenses of the convention. 

A motion was then made and carried that 
on Thursday evening the members assem- 
ble in the hall of the convention, and spend 
(he evening for the extending of ocquaint- 
nnce and in social intercourse. MisceDane- 
ou8 remarks were made by Messrs. Miller. 
Van Sickle, Meads, Ames, Duff, Cooper, Mc- 
Cool, Mayhew and Sprague, when the con- 
vention adjourned to Thursday, !) a.m. 

At the opening of the exercises, Thursday, 
a poem which will be found in another col- 
umn entitled " Writing and Science," 
written by W. A. Talbott, of Albany, was 
read by Mr. McCreary. A profound and able 
address was then delivered by E. G- Folsom 
of Albany, upon "The Science of Accounts 
and its Corollaries in Mental ond Moral Phil- 
osophy," an animated discussion followed 
upon Mr. Folsom's paper. The committee on 
permanent organization aud finance then 
reported the following preamble and articles 
of association, which after brief discussion 
were unanimously adopted. 

The duties of the President. Vice President. 
Secretary and Treasurer shall be snch as are 
ordinarily performed by such officers. The 
Executive Committee shall have charge of 
the business matters of the Association, such 
as the anditing of all bills, the revision of 
proceedings for publication, the calling of 
special meetings, the preparation of a pro- 
gramme of exercises, for all meetings end 
generally to perform any duty not otherwise 
provided for by these articles of association. 

Meetings shall be held annually, during 
the vacation period, at such time and place 
as the association shall have designated at 
thelatt preceding annual meeting. 

Each member shall pay annually at the 
opening of each annual meeting to the Treas- 
urer the sum of jive dollars. Failure to pay 
at or before the time specified shall have the 
force of an accepted resignation, 


Fifteen members shall 

In all other mat 
governed by the 
ing's Manual." 

Any of these articles may be amended by a 
vote of three-fourths of the members present 
»t any meeting. 

The articles of association having been 
adopted, the convention proceeded to the 
election of the following officers for the en- 
suing year. S. S. Packard of New York, 
President; Hon. Ira Mayhew Detroit, Mich., 
Vice Prea.; J. E. Soule, 1-hiladelphia, Se. 
tary; Charles Claghorn, Brooklyn, Treasu; 
and L. L. Sprague, Kingston, Pa., H. 
Spencer, Washington, D. C, and Thomas 
May Peirce, Philadelphia, Executive Corn- 
By an almost unanimous vote, the associa- 
tion accepted the invitation of P. R. Spen- 
cer to hold the next convention in the rooms 
of his business college, Cleveland, Ohio, on 
the first Tuesday in August. 1W79. 

The following resolutions were then pre- 
sented and unanimously adopted: 

Rfsolvfd, That the thanks of this associa- 
for the able, 
which they 

Forasmuch as there are a large number of 
Business Colleges in the United States with 
on attendance as great as that of the Normal 
Schools, and as there seems to be a want of 
clearnesi in the public mind as to the mis- 
sion of these Colleges and the place they oc- 
cupy in the educational field, it is agreed by 
the following proprietors, principals and 
teachers in Business Colleges and authors 
and teachers of penmanship, to organize an 
association to be known as the 

the object of which shall be to promote fel- 
lowship and fraternity among the teachers, 
to draw together in social feeling and inter- 
course the employer ond employed, thus giv- 
ing tlie employer a personal acquaintance 
with those adapted to help him in his work, 
and to the employed u personal knowledge 
of those likely to need his services, to canvass 
and discuss methods of teaching and courses 
of study, and generally to promote the cause 
and elevate the standard of business edaca- 


Any one engaged in teaching or qualified 
to teach any branch of business College ed- 
ucation is eligible to membership, and may 
become a member by a vote of three-fourths 
of the members present at any regular meet- 

The oflBcera of the association shall be a 
President, Vice President, Treasurer. Secre- 
tary, aud an Executive Committee of throe, 
to be elected annually and berve until their 
duly appointed. 

duties which 
the success of 

faithful, and efficient mann 
have performed their labori< 
have so largely contributed 
the convention. 

Remlned, That the thanks are eminently 
due the publiaher of the Penman's Art Joub- 
NAL for his hearty co-operation in the move- 
ment for a Penmen's Convention. 

Resolved, That the sincere thanks of this 
association are hereby extended to Mr. S. S. 
Packard, who has so kindly furnished a room 
for its use ond for his earnest efforts in ren- 
dering our stay here both pleasant and prof- 

Heaolved, That the thanks of this associa- 
tion are extended to the retiring officers for 
the able manner in which they have perform- 
ed their duties. 

At the opening of the afternoon session a 
paper upon " Claims of the Study of Book- 
keeping," was read by J. W. Van Sickle, A. 
M., M. D., Springfield, Ohio. Ashort Poem 
termed " An Interlude," was read by J. H. 
Lansley, Ph. D., Elizabeth, N. J. A very 
able and practical address was then delivered 
upon the subject of • * Business Education" by 
Thomas May Peirce, of Philadelphia. A very 
instructive and practical address was then 
dehvered by H. H. Bowman, upon the 
subject of Commercial Law. After some 
discussion and miscedaneons remarks, 
the session closed at 4.30 P. M. 

At eight o'clock P. M. , a large 
the members assembled in tht 
lighted halls, and passed the ev« 
cial intercourse and private di 
various topics of interest connected with 
their professions. Altogether this proved 
one of the most interesting and valuable 
meetings of the entire session of the con- 

imber of 

J. W- Payson. upon "Methods of Teaching 
Writing." On motion of Mr. Peirce. a vote 
of thanks was tendered Prof. Payson for his 
remarkably able and interesting paper. 

The Hon. Ira Mayhew being about to 
retire from the convention, occupied a short 
time in a parting and deeply interesting ad- 
dress, at the close of which, on motion of 
Mr. Peirce, a committee consisting of Messrs. 
Peirce, Spragne andSouIc, were appointed to 
draft a minnte expressive of the very high ap- 
precation of the convention of the services 
rendered it, and to business education bythe 
Hon. Ira Mayhew. An interestingpaper pre- 
pared by Lyman Spencer, upon the life and 
services of his father, P. R. Spencer, was 
then read by Wm. Allen Miller. 

On motion of Mr. Sprague a vote of thanks 
was tendered to L. P. Spencer for the pre- 
paration of so admirable an essay, and to Mr. 
Miller for the excellent manner in which he 
had read the same. 

A vote of thanks was then unanimously 
tendered to A. H. Hinuion. for the very ele- 
gant manner in which he had written the 
names of the members of the conven- 
tion upon the black boards, and he was also 
invited to occupy twenty-five minutes in 
giving a practical illustration at Ihe black 
boord, of his method of instructing classes 
in writing ; in this exercise Mr. Hinuian dis- 
played not only remarkable skill and facility 
in black board writing, but he developed the 
most thoroughly original, practical and ef- 
fective method that was presented to the 
convention, for interesting the pupil, and 
at the same time enabling him to criticise his 
own writing, and ascertain wherein it lacked 
the desired excellence. After some compli- 
mentary remarks Mr. Hunt offered the fol- 
lowing resolution, which was unanimously 

Resolved, That the thanks of this associa- 
tion be tendered to Mr, A. H. Hinman, of 
for his excellent lecture on Writing. 

embodying subtle 

ideas and suggestions emii 

the class-room, calculated! 

lently practical in 

the taste and eye of the pupil. 

The following resolution was then offered 
by Mr. Claghorn, which, after being strongly 
commended by Messrs. Sprague, Van Sickle 
Peirce, Palmer. Bhickmau. and Packard, was 
unanimously adopted : 

Whereas: Business Colleges are under no 
more obligation to provide employment to 
their graduates than Medical Colleges are 
to furnish patients to every holder of 
their diplomas, or Polytechnic Colleges to 
secure immediate and lucrative employment 
for their fledgeling engineers, and, 

Whereas: Business Colleges and all other 
technical schools and institutions should 
impart to their students a caieful and com- 
plete preparation in the duties of the special 
vocation that they have particularized as the 
object of their application and study; there- 

Resolved, That this Association ea 
nd emphatically condemns any circii 
ued by any Business College promit 


That this association recom- 
mend that the course of study in Business 
Colleges shall comprise at least penmanship, 
arithmetic, book-keeping, commercial law 
and correspondence, and that this associa- 
tion regards most favorably the growing dis- 

progress of the student 


Where/i8, The planof seUing "li 
ships," or giving tuition through i 

e for 



opening of the se.seion Friday 
morning. Mr- Mayhew stated that he had in 
an adjoining room his centennial exhibits of 
writing and book-keeping from his college, 
which he had been especially urged to pre- 
sent to the convention, and by a vote of the 
convention Mr. Mayhew was invited to pre- 
sent them with exi>lanations. After 
the close of Mr. Mayhew's remarks. W. H. 
Payson read a paper prepared by his father, 

o „ ,, of dol- 

. 'hich plan was adopted by Bu.siness 
Colleges at their inception, rests upon such 
-1 unhusinessUke principle— the giving of 

•mething in a unlimited amount ; and is so 
clearly a tax on intelligence, industry and 
application for the advantage of ignorance 
idleness and inattention; therefore 

Resolved: That this association congratu- 
lates itself that so many of its members have 

scontinued the sale of life scholarships; 
__id that the continued use of these scholar- 
ships is pernicious to the student, unpro- 
fessional to the Faculty and deoradioc to 
the College. * *■ 

A motion was then made by Mr. Peirce 
and seconded by Soule, that the Penman's 
Aai .ToPRNAi,, through whose instrumen- 
tality chiefly the convention had been 
brought together, be made and recognized i 

the official organ of the 

was unanimously carried, and the conven- 
tion then adjourned to meet on the 1st 
Tuesday of August next, at Cleveland, Ohio. 

Head the e 
f our new a. 
enewal and : 

unouncement on the fifth page 
id valuable premium, for each 
lew subscriber to the JonaNAi,. 


, N., HopkintoD, Iowa. — Your writ 
stem and precisioD, wbicti you 
(july by careful study and practii 
□d proportions of letter 

Hannibal, Mo. — Tou certainl; 
ncouraged by your present at 

i.i.-iKLabe, Mich.— Very few if 

ii iH combined with the finger, the 
beiug uBed to make the ooolracted 
id the combined movemeut for the 
id extended letters. The quality of 
r is very good. 

., (irand Valley, Pa.— Your wriling 
capitals are 

,inr:iii, the proper oui-ves are not well de- 

jipearance. It should be greatly im- 

I tnrfirst-class card writing. 

■ K., Lngrange, Ind. — Ame«' Compen- 

i-i not designed for a text book or guide 

t" I I iiij writing. It is especially designed 

rnji I'll [lied for the use of ntudentR, teachers 

IIIJ' I iiiiisiB, iu ornamental penmauKhip. and 

us H.nh in ihc most comprehensive, practical, 

and popular work publiHhed. Queslion ? 

No. 2. Ye«. 


T. J. Shnrpe is permanently located at 
Litclilield, 111. 

Mi^i-i Leota L. Weat, ColfaT. Waah. Ter., 
w lilts iiu elegant baud. 

S. U Uonsall has engaged to teach in the 
lirjiml, Stratton & Carpenter Business Col- 
lege, St. Louis, Mo., for the coming year. 

Geo. G. Steams, one of the best writers 
and tenchers in Vermont, is instructing large 
olaases in Springfield, Vt.. and Charleston. 
N. H. 

S. R. Webster, formerly of Morgan, Ohio, 
la now engaged teaching writing at Greg- 
ory nusiness College, at Newark. N. J. 
Mr. Wybster is a graduate uf P. R. Spencer's, 
an accomplished writer and teacher, and 
will undoubtedly prove a valuable assistant 




8 teftching \\ 


ool of Fort WRjoe, 



>st. if no 

the oldest, 





in teHcLing 




t 111 


«or. nnd did son 


ce 1 

1 Uln 

late oivi 

«nr. The 





writer and 


teacher, and appart-nlly good for' 

years of sucL'i'hsfnl tcuching yet. 

H. C. Clark, prc.prietor of the Forest City 
Business CoUct^e, Roikford, III., is highly 
complimented by the Itorkford Daily Reg^. 
ter, which says, "Prof. Clark is making 
every exurtion to place his institution upon 
a footing which will render it unexcelled by 
ouy business college of the west. Besides 
being a skillful penman he is a zealous work- 
er and au enthusiast iu his profession, and 
we have no doulit of his permanent success 
iuoiir midst. 

Fi.ldiug Scofleld, of B. S. and ClarVs 

I ' •- College, Newark. N. J., has just 

I from a month's excursion to Cape 

1 irthas Vineyard, and Nantucket. He 

[ileutiid fishin;,', and any amount of 

I' ■' '^li'' 'I'nj. (Mill, 111 iiud iQcreased cor- 

1'"'" ''.^ '*' I' ■ ' >'i lit of nine pounds 

"' ' ■I"'- ^^' ■ i ' ■■! bis -'quiir' will 

1^ than ever, which i 
t through the colum 
;c rap-book. 

O. A. Gflskull, of Manchester, N. H., ba^ 
Mt^iud his position as editor of the pen- 
:M,>hip department of the Home Guest, 
bill jiosiliou IS assumed by H. B. Mc- 
. II V, of Utioii, N. Y. Prof. Gaskell is en- 
iK.i to much praise for the able and suc- 
»>fiil manner in which he has conducted 
8 department of the QueM, and we 
ive no doubt that Prof. McCreary, who is 
1 able and aooomplished Iwioher, will do 

like honor to tlie position. Prof. Gaskell 
■-' revived, and published the first (and a 

vary attractive) number of the Penman's 

Oazette, which was merged about eighth 
months since in the Home Guest, of Boston. 
The Gazette will now be published quar- 

M. E. Bennett, Schenectady, N. Y., seiids 
a creditable specimen of flourishing aud 

S. R. Bonsall, Salem, 0., writes an ele- 
gant letter and inclosej. a very skillfully exe- 
cuted specimen of off-hand flourishing. 

E. L. Burnett, formerly at Elmira, for- 
wards from La Crosse, Wis., specimens of 
writing and flourishing executed iu his 
usual good style. 

J. R. Goodier,Df the Indiauapolis,Indiana, 
Business College, refreshes our remembrance 
nf him through a beautifully written and 
highly complimentary letter. 

M. Herold, the veteran penman of Cincin- 
nati, incloses a superb specimen of GermaB 
Text lettering, which we shall probably pre- 
sent in some future number of the Journal. 

A. N. Pulmer, of Manchester, N. H., in- 
closes in a well written letter, several attrac- 
tive specimens of cards and copy writing. 
Also sends a creditably executed specimen of 

W. L. White, Portland, Oregon, sends £ 
splendidly written letter for fac simile pub- 
lication in the JouBNii,, but want of space 
has forced us to delay its publication ; other 
specimens of writing, inclosed by Prof .White, 
are among the very finest we have received, 

J. M. Mehan, Nevada, Iowa, writes a very 
handsome letter in which he incloses several 
fine card specimens, and a small, though well 
flourished, bird. Says the Gazette, Prof. 
Mehan is now lecturing before teacher's in- 
stitutes iu Iowa, and is regarded as one of 
the best writers in that State. 

F. M. Johnson, a student at Gem City 
Business College, Quincy, 111., forwards the 
handsomest collection of card writing re- 
ceived during this month ; it is indeed of 

specimen of flourishing. 

Roll of the Convention, 

Below we give the names and Post Office 
address of all representatives at the Conven- 
tion, who recorded their names upon the 
roll— several neglected to do so; some such, 
we have added to the list. Many were strang- 
ers, and we are therefore obliged to omit 
their names from our list. 
S. S. Packard, SOfl Broadwav, New York. 
Wm. Allen Miller, 80r. Broadway, New York. 
J. W. Van Sickle. Springfield, Ohio. 
G- C Cannon, C3 Wash'ton st., Boston, Mass. 
L. L. Sprague, Kingston, Pa. \„ 
W. L, Dean, " " ^ 

C. E. Cady, 27 West 24th street. New York. 

C. L. Stewart, Franklin, Mass. 

A. C. Cooper, Cooper Institute, Lauderdale 

county. Miss. 
J. D. D.iy, 20r. Broadway, New York. 
W. L, Blackmau, AUeutown, Pa. 
Ira Mayhew, Detroit, Mich. 
T. H. Oaspari, Baltimore, Md. 
ThoB. H. Shields, Troy. N. Y. 
H. E Hibbard. Boston, Mass. 

A. Potter, a.5 Park place. New York 
H. C. Kendall, Boston, Mass. 
E. G. Folsom. Albany, N. Y. 

D. T. Ames, 20.i Broadway, New York 
C. E. Carhart, Fuller's Station, N. Y.y^ 

T. H. McCool. Doylestown, Pa. ^-^ \ 

Geo. Stimpson, Jr., 205 B'way, New York 

Geo. W. Latimer, Pat«iBon, N. J. 

W. H. Payson, Boston, Moss. 

P. R. Spencer. Cleveland, Ohio. 

J. T. KnausB, Easton, Pa. v 

T. D. King, 

J. F. Mooar, Boston, Mass 

W. H. Lathrop, " 

Henry Bissell, Jr., 138 Grand st,. New York 

A. R. Dunton, Camden. Maine 

C- L. Bryant. Buffalo, N. Y. 

J. I. Enright, 2U4 Fultonat., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

B. F. Kelley, 205 Broadway, New York. 
R. F. Fitz, box 5127, Boston, Mass. 
Wm. H. Duff, Pittsburg, Pa."=:: 

Geo. H. Sbattuck, 138 Grand st., New York. 

Jas. H. Lansley, Elizabeth, N. J. 

T E. Soule. Philadelphia. Pa. — — 

H !■. Wright, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

'■ v. Miller, Newark.'N. J. 

i. r. Spencer, Washington, D. C. 

\S . E. Stroetzel. Newark, N. J. 

Cbas. Ciaghorn, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

H. C. Spencer, Washington, D. C. 

Byron Horton, 80.t Broadway, New York. 

H. B. McCreary, Utica, N. Y. 

A. W. Randall, New York. 

A. H. Hinman, Detroit, Michr 

E. M. Hiintzinger, Providence, R. I. 
Z. Richards, Washington, D. 0. 

H. H. Bowman, Paterson, N. J. 
H. W. Ellsworth, 

C. P. Meads, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Thos. Mav Peirce, Philadelphia, Pa. -^ 

J. T. Granger, ?,0 University PI., New York. 

W. P. Gregory, Newark, N. J. 

R. H. Brown, 

A. W. Talhott. Albany, N. Y. 

F. 0. Young, Camden, Maine. 
Joseph Palmer, Yonkera, N, Y. 
Hiram Dixon, r.9 Broadway. New York. 
J. W. Payson, Hyde Park. Mass, 

J. L. Hunt, fill W. f'.ith St. New York\ 
A. C. Aldridge, Lima, N. Y. \ 

E. Burnett, Baltimore, Md. \l 

Mrs. John D. Williams, Brooklyn, N. yM 
J. H, Barlow, 179 Durham avenue, Hudson 

City, N. J. 
A. T. Baldwin, l",* Summit st. Brooklyn.N.Y. 
H. P. Smith, 328 Eighth St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
A. E. Mackey, Hudson, N. Y. 
E. P. Heald. San Francisco, Cal. 

i'ciy skillful ppjimau and popular 
teacher, and is one of the proprietors and 
the teacher of penmannbip at the Davenport 
Iowa Business College. 


It is not our purpose or desire 1o have 
^ny dealings whatever in inks, but we have 
J)een so anuojed by cards and letters ask- 
ing about tlie prices and kinds of ink we 
furnish, that we are led to aaj, for the iu- 
formatiou of all such writers, that we can 
send ink only by expres.s at the expense of 
tlie person ordering, on terms given in our 
supply list. 


We invite the attBution of our readers 
to the card of Mr. Clia-s. H. Havens in our 
advert'sing columns. Mr. Haverin is a 
veiy skillful engraver of modern writing, 
and his terms are moderate. We advise all 
desiring work in his tine, to send for his 
card and specimens. 



PHIA, 1876, TO THE 




Payeoii, Dunton i Scribner'sCopy-BookB.iaNoa. 
Psyaon, Duutou & Scribner's Primary Tracing- 


Spelling BInuk (new; 

Specimen copies for examiTUtUmi, 

circulars sent free on application. 

Potter, Ainsworth & Co. 



Elementary e< 

uUy defined aud illui 

Commercial i 

and Single 
cademieH. ] 
t Collegee. 


UUca, M. Y. 

. BEATTV & CO., 


A WORD tram MadaruHz teUs it aU. Iter 

Blank Cards, tl.SO (al 
Simple, 2Uc. D. 0. It. 


Distinctive Features 



br tho oopj. Forty-elitbt lloea of writtug ve Uina 
MTfld In •«>Ii book of tUi) Model 8crle«. 

i, Tbc analyala of the lot(4<ra Is greatly almpUIled 
and abridged. 

4. Tbe7 bavd an Improvod claaslflcation of letters, 
wblcb are repro"cnt<'d In itroupa huvtog c«nimou cIl- 
aienta by a tuodol luttcr for practice;. 

la aa oapnclallT 

0. Itepedal tttontlon to < 
tnoDt la required aattiebi 
tivfi movitmouU, u tangbt 
faaloD of young be|{lDi">''"> 
o»ly, la recognized. 

7. Tbey Impart a atylo ol 
day bualiiMH iiann, lDat« 

pluaatng t 



— -/ 

A ■/ ,|Us#^HE UNRIVALEt 

^^'' fsiIilCATE' 



!-if01..- tlotll 




, KsorclBM 

niinkbora Id the Sorloa. luBt«ad 


1 given for fl 

10. Tbooopleawoprlntod with great dlatinctneii, 
Du4 uro dlvoatod of all Muporlluous oruainoiit aud 
ooDfuiIng guldiNlliiea. 

JO-TfaouHO oftbc Modfl Copy-BookB cannot fall 
to aoourv groat biiuoosm In teaching ponmanahlp. and 
thoae who hnvo boi<n weddi^d to tho old mothoda are 
rORpootfiilly Invited to examine tbla aeries, whloh, lu 
all reapecta, may bo called » " moilel " ono. 

A fitll net of tho ModPl Copy-Booka, Six Numbers, 
will bo BQut, poBt-pald, to Tottobera or School-Ofllcers, 

plate liandiomely i 


Ev.ry Vanety of Pen Work Promptly Esecnted ui tlie Most Perfect Manne 
AU-, Counsel given as Expert on Hand-Writing and Accounts. 


Iluplicnics hi IJlecirotype l*lnl(-a will be sent by mall tc 
jr epeclmen circular with terma. 

Engraving i 

Indoee stamp 
» nnd Spcci. 


!■ ByOLISH « 

mail on t-tceipl o/ if5 tVH'». 
IvUon, Blaknnan. taytnr Jt Ci 
138 and 140 Grand .\t., N.r. 



-iiI^P: expt-rted. $900 und up 
^' 'id .-(-iitfl. Splendid^ 

y alpliulnt 

nalitute, box 430, Ottawa; 
erms to agenta. K. T, 




85 Outllt free, 
work, write for 



dt-signa, fae-ainillG 
eUed. $1. Sample, 
oudwuy. N. Y- 



S Series of 

CHnnii PENS 


Any of the rollowiog will bo sent, poet paid, 

Suaylor'a Oompondlum of PenmaDablp, $1 
olt'aCouipcndlum, tl i Miiaaelmau's Compi- 



Accounts, with Arithmetical Problems. 


S- S. PACKARD, Publisher. 

Artistic Penwork. 

ttf<tff-hank llourUh\ng, or Sl.oo'foi fivi< ^ . 
nicely written on One DoM^n Oards. for 2^o 
lOc. Addreos i\ V. FROST, Pvnnian, Bv\ -. ■ 


ber now ready is tbe baudaomeat paper of the 

wix iHsnmeu and aixtolinona of Ihetr wrllli^ ; i 

bi-autiftil auoclmcn of Off hand Flouriahlnit. 

ploa Am, if written tor while I have anv Whai 

O. A. OASKKLL, PabUaher, Manchester, N 

r Aoiougthp 
uUy tbati ^ount 
tot- Te"""* 0% 

he Uteat, aac; iv 

ing olBowbero. A.i...t-r, j,,.* ,.i^ 

ilud of poD-work 

.oess Collvge; williog to work cheaii 
, a youug man of prepOBBeeelDg at'- 

y^,-... : 




are B. T, Amea, 205 Broadway, N 
mens und atato aalary expected. 6-lt 


t.PhOadelphia, Pa. " ' fi-it ' 

( "'I'ffar^isl-'.^ 

n, not Daehy. but System a tically. 
as for ISe.: Circulars and Samploa 
O. HU.SSEV, AuguHta, Maine. 6-lt 

'ii^-ll^Lia^ MO 

(or twelve colors of luke (incladlng 
er, wbite, iuviBlble and Indelible) 

udaga Co., N.Y, 8-121 ' 

spnngsTiie, N. y 

r. encircled lu beautiful wreath, wiih 

. .^•rflllll'' J 

S eli^uant Copy Slips, ' 

1 O ..®?^^ il'*'" "*** ^ "tamp for aampleo of my 
±yj "elegantly wntten cards," wilb price bst. 
I 6-lt OHAS. D. BIUELOW, SprlngvUle, N. T. 

Stimpson's U. S. Treasury Gold Pens. 


anythingelse. Capital 
start you. $ia per 
by tbe iuduetrioua. M 
girls wunted everywher 




A variety of styles aud 


IT name beautlfuUy 

Forged, Diaguised & Anonymous Writing 

r houd writing, 
(Office of D. 

itry. OEORGE S 

Broadway, New York. 


GOBheets( GO fuirsetsof "copies)'.'.' .'.'.'!!.! !.".'.'.' 3 00 
100 ■ 100 " " S 00 

" 31x28 per sheets, by Express 30 

(Vbnts. drawg. paper, hot-press, inx2U in., $ 15 $1 20 

Fancy cards, birds and scrolls, \H different do- 
Windsor Ji Newton's super sup. lud. ink,' pr'stk, 2 00 
h " I 00 
Photo-EnRTovin« Co.'s India Ink, per stick l 00 

WMtelnk.per'bott'lei by eiproes!! !.'.'!. !!.'!!'. '.*i eo 
David'B Japan Ink, per pint bottle, by express., l uo 

Spencerlau No. 1, extra for floiulsblng i aS 

EngrOHslng pens for lettering, pordoz..,.!*,.'.'.! 25 
Crow QnillPeu, very fine, for drawing, per doB., 7S 
Dixon's American Graphite Lead PencilB, very 

McLee'a Alphabets .^V...'..'.'.'.'.'.'. 2 00 

Con^don's Normal System of Plounshliigli.'.'.ii BO 

Key to Spencorlan Penmauahlp* .™!l°rf ' 1 bO 

s''^^eru"c*'^'' "id Scrlbner^ Manual 1 26 

Sponge Rubberi'axa lu.,'very auporior.'per^pfc'eel ' 60 

light every tli^e'^ou'uBe it "sood'lor oS? ^cul^ 
giving full de«erlpt..,n with prieca for Mark Twain's 

cel'^ A?l*^rderV*fo^ ""'" '""" "'*'' '""' "'"" "^ 
30S Broadway, Naw'Vork 


Published IVIoiithly, at SOS Bi-oad^vay, for SI.OO pr 

. AMES, KdUor and Proprietor. 
. HELLEY, AnHOclale Editor. 


VOL. II. NO. 7. 


I^KOICGIi ST1.1IP60N, Jr., 




§ UNION nUSIN£»!<H 1-OL.L.ECiE. 

i* MAY PEIRCE, M. A., Principal, 
itb Teutb Street, PhUodelpbia. 


Business Correspondence. 

a StfJWffraphiii Hrport by J. T. Qran- 
gn; of Nnu York. 


ill uot attempt to present this subject 
■ couHitkratiou in any profound mau- 

I iiufortunately left lUl my profundity 
>■, niul beBides the Rubjt-el is not a pro- 
i>ui.', riudif I should altoiupt to treat it 
inHy. and bring out oU the details bear- 
111 Itusiness Correapoudeuce, I should 

lo liave my audience diemissed as 
lily 11-^ was that of an itinerant liistri- 
lii> wiw travelling in the north of Scot- 
At ouo place where he stopped the 
■tors of the hall told him that for a the- 
p-Tforiiiauce he eould get no audience, 
Uio people there were all fond of Sci- 
licy would come to hear a lecture upon 
any sL-ientific subject. He knew iioth- 
si'iciice, but his pockets Wfre empty, 
iiu'lhiug had to bo done, so he boldly 
I' I'd a lecture upon Chemistry, trust. 
Ins wit to carry him through. When 

II raiiu- he had a very large audioncc, 
ill II Li-ydeu-jar. a retort and some 
lIi.s 111- performed a few simple experi- 

I rfoni them; then taking a quantity of 
list, he threw it into a mortar, and be- 
stir it vigorovisly, dilating all the while 
f dangerous character of the compound 
iitiiig that he was grievously affected 

:u-t disease, and liable to drop dead at 
'lui'iit : at last he made the startling 
>ii that, shoidd be stop stirring that 
for only one second the whole build- 

II its occupants would be blown into 
In two minutes there was not a single 

i< mainiu^ in the house, except the lec- 
■aA oiwistaut who gathered the spoils and 
■I) I .-^ay that if I made this a profound 
I should deserve to be left as uncer- 
1 sly as was this pseudo scientific lee. 

iig the year 1877, there j 

i through 

the mails of the United States, nine hundi'ed 
millions of letters, (including postal curds). 
Estimating the letter- writing population of 
the country at thirty millions each peraon 
wrote one letter every ten days, or, estimating 
only one tenth of such population to be en- 
gaged in business requiring any considerable 
amount of correspondence, and there was one 
business letter per day written by each per- 
son. There go to the Dead Letter Office on 
account of deficiencies in the address, or lack 
of postage, four and a half miUions of letters, 
annually. There are twelve millions of the 
youth of this country attending school, pre- 
paring themselves for the discharge of the ac- 
tive duties of life. About one out of every 
four hundred of these attend business col- 
leges. Prom these figures we get certain 
other facts. Firsts that a very considerable 
portion of communication between man and 
man, and especially between business men is 
conducted through the medium of written 
letters. Second, there is in general a lamenta. 
ble deficiency, on the part of the people, in 
regard to letter writing. Third, that the 
utility of schools in preparing the youth of our 
country for the discharge of the active duties 
is unquestioned in the United States. Fourth: 
that business colleges in taking one out of 
every four hundred of these cannot avoid the 
responsibility of drilling most thoroughly and 
comprehensively all their students in a 
course of business correspondence. I am 
glad that my subject is Umited to business cor- 
respondence, for if not, it would be far be- 
yond the scope of a single lecture, in the time 
allotted to me here to-day. Talleyrand once 
said, that the object of speech was to conceal 
thought, and it would seem that this was also 
the object of many persons in writing letters- 
I wonder if any of these Business College Prin- 
cipals ever received a letter running in this 
gtyle. " Sir : Please take notice, I want your 
catalogue, John Jones," without any post office 
address or date. I wonder if any of you ever 
saw a letter running in this strain. 

Sir : I sit down and take my pen in band to 
let you know that 1 am well, with the excep- 
tion of a bad cold, and " hope you are enjoy, 
iug the same blessing." I have no doubt you 
have all seen just such letters. 

ave at least three divisions : 
first, mechanical construction ; second, the 
thought expressed ; third, the manner of ex- 
pressing those thoughts. Let us look for a 
few moments at the mechanical construction 
of a business letter. I am aware that there 
are a great many well authorized forms, but I 
believe that every teacher of this branch 
should be able to give one clear, well defined 
arbitrary form of business letter. Most young 
men have about as clear an idea of a business 
letter as they have of ozone, and a variety of 
forms tends to confuse them, and strengthen 
them in the notion that letter wTiting is not an 
art. The teacher's first duly therefore should 
be to convince the scholar that there is a stan- 
dard form for writing a letter, and then to 
drill him untU he is thoroughly familiar with 
it. Of course he shoidd give a logical reason 
for every feature in the letter. Having the 
correct form for a business letter, the pupil 
should be made to understand that there are 
at least two ways of executing that form. 
One way is very aptly described by Charley 
Dickens where he gives us a picture of Sam- 
uel Allen when he wrote at a table, resting upon 

two legs, a share of the time, with one foot c 
the floor, extended as far in the rear as possibl 
and the other lost in the maze of the rounds 
of his chair, Ids head reclining upon his left 
arm, and making with his tongue imaginary 
characters, to correspond with those made 
with the pen. Then, mistakes would d 
these were rubbed out with the finger, and the 
spot, inked over and wiped off with the coat- 
sleeve. The pen was plunged deeply into the 
ink-bottle and with thumb and finger, and 
clean linen on, he demonstrated, that a given 
quantity of ink will go farther than any other 
known commodity. Then some thoughts 
were too large for ordinary utterance, these 
began with capitals. The suiierscriptiou be- 
gan on the very uppermost margin of the en- 
velope, a one cent stamp adorned the upper 
left band corner, and a big blot the lower 
and this is one way of writing a business let- 
ter. Another way is to first obtain the very 
best materials in the market. We ought 
exercise Ofc much taste in selecting our 

as our clothing, they ought to be regardi 
ceiiain on indication of a person's taste a 
clothes he wears. You would not expect Hit- 
chie to execute a fine steel engraving with a cold 
chisel, I defy a man to wi-ite a perfect letter 
with poo :'hiaterial8 ; tlie spirit which inspires 
taste and tidiness is a distinguishing charac- 
teristic between civihzation and barbarism. 
Shakespeare tells us that '"the apparel oft 
proclaims the man." It is as much an a 
Tulgarity to address a soiled letter to a friend 
as to visit him in shabby clothes or dirty lin- 
en- We all understand that the materials for 
letter writing are almost a certain indication 
of the persons taste. Then let us get the 
very best materials possible. Of eoursi 
one should think of using in a business letter 
highly perfumed or colored paper or envel- 
opes. Business is too serious a reahty to ad- 
mit such trifles and most business men do not 
take any stock in men who do this. 

There are now certain sub-divisions under 
these general divisions I have named. They 
are, fir»t, penmanship ; second, orthogi*aphy ; 
third, the addi-ess of the writer ; fuurth, the 
date ; fifth, the name and address of the par- 
ty, to whom the letter is written ; sixth, the 
salutation ; seventh, the body of the letter, 
eighth, the complimentary conclusion ; ninth 
the signature. It is not necessary for me to 
explain to you each of these in detail but I 
desire to briefly refer to a few of them. First, 

The penmanship of a business letter ought 
to be as perfect as it is possible for the writer 
to make it, and no person with unimpaired 
faculties is too old to learn to write. I think 
is was Charles Fox, who when he was appoin- 
ted Secretary of State in England under King 
George, being taunted with bad penmanship 
actuallysecured the services of awriting teach- 
er to improve his hand-writing. Poor pen- 
manship should not be tnlerated for a moment 
in the exercise of business correspondence. 
In fact there is no part of the curriculum of a 
commercial college more important than pen- 
manship. Second, 

is a weakness of mine that I never coidd 

fully respect a person that coidda't spell cor- 

;tly. If a student is as old as Jlethuselah 

i. as big as a moose, he is not too old or t..o 

f to learn to spell. I have heard students 

say they could never learn to spell, but I as- 

sured them, and showed them that they had 
gone to work in a wrong direction. I think 
no commercial college is excusable for gradu- 
ating a young man who cannot spell properly. 
Another very important element in a busi- 
ness letter is the 

Very early in the course of his commercial 
studies a student should be instructed in form- 
ing a signatm-e ; not a splurgy, tangled, unin- 
telligible mass of letters, but one plain, legible, 
and always the same. and this signature should 
appear in an unvarying form on all letters, and 
on all commercial paper. I now come to the 
thought, expressed, in the expression 

It is a terse one, and one full of meaning. The 
direct inference is that we should not mix up 
extraneous affairs with business. Social and 
domestic affairs are out of place in a business 
letter. One of the best business men I ever 
knew, andoneof the most successful was cold, 
rigid, and arbitrary, in business, but in dom- 
estic affairs, away from his business, he was 
one of the kindest and most genial of men. 
Social and domestic affairs shotdd not be min- 
gled with business correspondence. If it is 
desired to communi<-ate social affairs use a 
separate «5he't of f er. In this connection 
is suggested a few words upon business cus- 
toms, Most teochers of experience in com- 
mercial branches will have noticed (unless they 
have been in the habit of giving scholars the 
fullest outline for their letters) how utterly 
ignorant they are concerning 

and relations. Young men often suppose, 
that, all that is necessary to obtain a bill of 
goods from one of the great wholesale houses, 
ia to write them a letter ordering the goods, 
stating the stotion to which they are to be 
sent, and to wind up by saying, " On receipt 
of goods, with^^illl will remit check." I con- 
ceive it to be the duty of the teacher to fully 
explain to the student everything that pertains 
to the practice of selling goods on credit, and 
I think one of the most important duties of 
the commercial teacher is to thoroughly in- 
form himself in regard to the regulations and 
customs of business houses thi'oughout the 
country. It ia no disgrace for a teacher to 
question business men of known experience 
and reputation, concerning their business cub. 
toms. I have never yet found one who was 
not willing and anxioys to communicate such 
information. The commercial teacher will 
obtam in this way some of the most practical 
and valuable information possible to obtain, 
and let us bear in mind that it is just this in- 
formation which we are paid for imparting to 
our pupils. 

After the subject for a business letter has 
been given out ; first, let there be the fullest 
discussion concerning this subject, its rela- 
to each party and all the ciroumatanoea 
bearing upon it- I prefer to do this when 
the subject of the letter is given out. In 
this way the student is given an opportunity 
for the exercise of his judgment in writing 
the letter. For instance, 

1 is an application for a situation. The 
teacher of experience, knows that some stu- 
dents will use language too egotistical ; oth- 

)o servile ; others again will not give any 
references ; others will have but httle idea of 
what is required in such a letter. The teach- 



er vUl explftiD to the etadent the relations o* 
the applicalioD to bis desired employer, gir 
ing what bebelieTesto be s clear idea of 'what 
IM wonted. Then, when the letters have been 
corrected, the teacher will criticise them be- 
fore the whole class, without, of course, giv- 
ing any names. I am aware that thiH is a very 
nice thing to do, but done judiciously, and 
with discreiion it will help to imprttn the er- 
rom of the clasM deeply upon their minils. 
Viv must remember our errors, in order to 
avoid repeating them. I beheve it will be 
found, that by a judicious Beltclion of subjects 
this plan can be made the means of imparling 
a vast amount of practical aod valuable infor. 
mation, that would not be brought before the 
clasH in auy other way. I cannot, in my 
opinion, enforce too strongly this system of 
imparliuy to Ihu class all the practical know- 
ledge we may be able to obtain concerning 
buainoHA customs and regulations. 

We take young men, comparatively igno- 
rant of thene customs and in four or five 
montliB turn them out having at Icust a fair 
elomuntary idea of the relations between 
clerk and employer, between landlord and 
tenant, principal and agent, shipper and fac- 
tor, etc., also having a fair idea of collections 
and remittances, when aod how made, and 
having an Idea of these customs and relations, 
be is a thousand fold better prepared to enter 
upon the uctivu duties of busintss life. 

Next in importance, to the thoughts express- 
ed in u busmena letter, I place the 

Firtit of all, avoid ambiguity. It ie not very 
ulcar that the person w-ishes us hapijiness who 
Huyn hu '* is well, except a bad cold, and hopes 
we are enjoying the same blessing." Cultivate 
in the student u strong, concise, direct method 
of expression. There is uo place in "business 
for that clusti of men who are forever soaring 
after tbe iuSnities, or diving after the un- 
fathomable, but who never pay cash," A true 
husiuuus man does not bke circumlocution : 
hu has no time to bsten to it, much less to read 
it. Vou cannot disgust bim quicker than by 
using long and tuugkd sentences. H&y M-bat 
you have to say in the shortest time, and in 
the fewest words. Uurd facts ore bis admira' 
tion. Facts and cash are his staples in trade. 
Having then a dear idea o^wbat we desire to 
communicate, we should express it cogently 
and concisely. There is no better mental ex- 
orcise than writing correct business letters. 1 
defy a practiced rbetoriciau to write a better 
letter than many of the letters coming from 
many of our tirbt-class business houses, limy 
are models of elegant English. We should 
bring this idea prominently before tbe class in 
the very biginumg of tuis exercise. They 
should be given to understand that they bavu 
au important duty to perform, and that wrilmg 
a business ktter is not the iudiHerent expres- 
sion of a certain number of ideas. After the 
class is well under way, let the teacher ruth- 
lessly criticise tbe diction as well as other fea- 
tures of the letter, not forgetting to give tht: 
cloas due encouragement and praise for auy 
merit. Untd a student con write a businest> 
letter without errors of orthography and grimi- 
mar, and serious en-ors of expression, ho ought 
to be required to write at least one letter a 
% oek. 1 am aware that many of our commer- 
cial coUtfjtB require busiubi^ letters in their 
business depuitments, but this sbould not dis- 
place the regular exercise. It will require a 
great deal of work and tax the teacher's inven- 
tive faculties to keep up the interest, but it 
will pay in the t-ud. Another important ele> 

No more potent element i,outside of indus- 
try) cim be foimd in the cbiiraeter of a busi- 
ness man. In fact it is a sine qua non to hie 
sucoess, and uo where ii it more necessary tu 
exercise it, than in business. It was said of 
the Duke of Marlboro' that to be deniedu favor 
by bim wus more pleasant than to have one 
granted by uuolher : he was a poor scholar 
spoke bad tugbsh, and wrote worse. Mii-a- 
beau wus one of the ugliest Frenohmeu that 
ever bved, but his poUto manners raised him 
from a position of shame and disgrace to tbe 
Presidency of the National Assembly. There 
is uo greater evidence of culture and good 
breeding than a politely written lettei under 
oircumsttmccs of great provocation. But 
pohteuess is not weakness. I would not give 
a fig for a man who did uot tire up at tbe right 
time, but the man who puts ver^- much on 

paper during the heat of passion is not a sharp 
business man. The business man's true motto 
is ■' SuatiUr in moda fortitfr in re. I think 
all will agree with me as to tbe necessity of 
politeness in business, and especially in busi- 
ness correspondence. True politeness smooths 
the rugged paths of business life. It is an 
open ffmmf^ to position and advantage. 

Another very important feature in a busi- 
ness letter is 

An unpunctuated letter looks strangely un- 
finished, and we sometimes make very bad 
work by not punctuating our sentences ; for 
instance, a newspaper man reporting a minis- 
ter as saying, " last Sabbath a lady died while 
I was preaching a sermon in a state of beastly 
intoxication." Wu should not leave tbe mat- 
ter of pimctuation to mere mechanical judg- 
ment. There ought to be clear and well de- 
fined rules governing it. 

I have now given a faint outline of my ideas 
as to what a business letter should be. It 
could not be expected of me on this occasion 
to give oil tbe features of business correspond- 
ence. I know there are many points that I 
have not touched upon, which, had I the time 
I would like to present to your notice. I could 
give you my ideas of the correct mechanical 
construction of a butsiness letter, my notions 
as to proper punctuation, of folding and of 
filing; of superscription; of the use of seal- 
ing wax and wafers ; also of postal cards, but 
you vnW find all this touched upon in your let- 
ter writing manuals. What I conceive to be 
wanted is for us all to realize howimportant is 
this branch in business education, and to apply 
ourselves more earnestly aud more systematic, 
ally to the teaching of it. We cannot have our 
classes write too many letters, nor can we imi- 
tate in teaching this science too closely 
Abraham Liucolns motto : "Keep pegging 

It is a good omen that new Manuals of Let- 
ter-writing are coming out yearly. It tells 
clearly that business correspondence has be- 
come a science, and it is worthy of a positlou 

It is through the medium of correspondence 
that the businessman obtains his thousands of 
this world's accumulations, that knowledge is 
sent broadcast over the land, hke the stream 
of sunlight piercing the gleaming of the morn- 
ing, and I ask why it is that we are able to 
communicate by written language with bo 
great facility? Why the immeasurable differ- 
ence between the Bushman of South Africa 
and the Anglo Saxou ? I answer. The Bush- 
man never saw the iuaide of a school-house; 
every Haxon has one almost within stone-throw. 
Take our schools from us and put them in 
South Africa, and the Bushman and the Saxon 
will change stations in the scale of being at no 
distiint period. Let us then, my fellow teach- 
ers, reaUze more fully our mission in tbe world, 
aud let us take courage aud go forward. 

Mr. Packard's Address. 

iPhonogiaphictillff reported by Miea Lottie 
Gentlemen of the Convention : — I am 
quite sure you are about to be disappointed in 
what I shall say to you upon the subject which 
has beeu assigued to me. It was due to you, 
aud especially to the committee, wbo assigned 
me this work, that I should have tEdten the 
requisite time to have prepared carefully a 
paper which would do justice to my subject 
and this convention. In the first place, the 
pressure of other duties made it impossible 
for me to prepare the paper, and I felt that I 
must excuse myself entirely from the task. 
Such was my intention until within the last 
few hours. It has been intimated to me that 
the neglect to present the subject iu i 
shape before the convention, would be the 
caustj of serious disappointment to some me; 
belli wbo would like to hear in detail more 
Mr. SViUiam's hfe aud work; and also to soi 
others wbo are perhaps better prepared to 
speak upon the subject than myself. I trust, 
therefore, that you will accept what I have to 
say, more as a prelude to what others may udd 
than as an attempt to treat the subject with 
any degree of fulness. In fact, as I now think 
of it, I could uot well have written about John 
D, Wdhams. It would seem too hard and 
formal for me to put down with cold ink upon 

cold paper my thoughts of this dear friend ; 
and it is only in the hope that I may be be- 
trayed into some appreciative warmth of ex- 
pression by those who surround me, and sym- 
pathize with me, that I am impelled to say 
anything at this time. Another reason why I 
feel great embarrassment in the matter is, that 
I am lacking the elementary training which 
Mr, Hunt has just spoken of as being neces- 
sary for a teacher, and especially a speaker, 
I am peculiarly unfortunate in my tempera- 
ment, and am quite likely to do even worse 
than I fear ; for I sometimes think I am tbe 
boy who " never had a piece of bread, parti- 
tuhirly large and wide, but what it fell upon 
the floor, and always on tbe buttered side. " 

Mr. Wilhams was known by me intimately 
for a number of years. He was unlike any 
other man whom I have known. He was 
peculiar in almost all respects, as real men of 
talent and genius are apt to be. He was 
simply himself, and bke no other self. In the 
first place, he was pecuharly a sincere man ; 
BO sincere that he was utterly devoid of tact. 
There was but one way for him to do a thing, 
aud that was the direct way. If be did not 
succeed thus, he failed; but he rarely ever 
failed. If he had anything to say, he said it 
without circumlocution, and without consid- 
ering the consequences. He simply struck 
' 'from the shoulder." I think he could not help 
doing what be did. He was a poor follower, 
but a splendid leader. He had the faculty of 
making what he did seem to be the best thing 
to be done. He almost always accomplished 
his purposes. He never knew weariness, but 
could work twenty hours out of twenty-foiir 
and grow fat on it. 

I cast no reflections upon auy of his disciples 
when I say that his peculiar kind of work has 
never been excelled, and that to-day the very 
best off-hand work of our best ornamental 
writers is, with very bttle variation, an imita- 
tion of Mr, Williams's designs. Itwas a know- 
ledge of this fact that ten yeai-s ago induced 
me to say to Mr. Williams '"you had better 
collect your fugitive work and put it in shape 
for an engraver, put yom- stamp upon it and 
jet it go out before the world under its proper 
yuise." And out of this suggestion grew at 
last what is known by you all as the WiUiams 
aud Packard's Gems of Penmanship. 

Before you can understand Mr, Williams's 
character, aud especially his claims to con- 
sideration, you must take into account the 
school in which he was educated. I B&y school, 
though the term may not in all respects be ap- 
propriate. When Ml*. Williams first began to 
teach, the name " Spencerian," as applied to a 
system of writing, was unknown in this coun- 
try. Not that Mr. Spencer bad not begun to 
work, or had not accompbshed some of the 
very best of his work, but his name had not 
reached much beyond his own immediate 
neighborhood. To those of us who are now 
in the field, and who pride ourselves upon being 
Spencerian writers, it may be difficult to 
understand that there ever was a time when 
the Spencerian standard of writing was un- 
known ; but others of us who were teaching 
before the era of steel pens and ruled paper, 
and who knew of no better way of conveying 
instruction than by setting a copy and teUing 
a student to imitate it, have a better sense of 
what has been accomplished by Mr. Spencer 
and his co-laborers in bringing tbe teaching 
of the art to such perfection in methods and 
apphcation. Mr. Wilhams was one of the 
very first to appreciate the beauty of the 
Spencerian writing, and one of the earhest of 
Mr. Spencer's disciples. 1 am not sure that 
be ever received instruction from Mr. Spencei 
himself, but I know he ditl of Mr, Kice who 
was one of tbe early compeers of the father 
of Spencerian writing, and that in his after 
contact with Mr. Lusk and the Spenct 
confraternity he made himself a thorough 
master of the whole subject. 

When I first knew Mr. Williams be wai 
a writer, in any sense iu which we now 
derstaud that designation. He had great faith 
in himself, and always felt that he did 
well because he did to the best of his abihty, 
aud as nearly as possible up to hisown ideals. 
He was not only an excellent critic of others, 
but quite as good a critic of himself, for be 
was always just. He had a sharp eye to de- 
tect beauty, and could alwnys see as much 
beauty in another's work as in his own. He 
was always glad to be criticised, and al^rays 
profited by any fair criticism. He had one 

great weakness ; it was his inability to keep a 
secret. It was impossible for him to conceal 
anything that be knew, and when a bright 
thought struck bim he was bke a spendthrift 
whose money is always supposed to bum o 
hole in his pocket. If a thought entered his 
mind, be acted upon it promptly, and took 
everybody into his counsel. Often through 
this infirmity, if I may so call it, he lost the 
advantage which some others gained of get- 
ting credit for his own ideas. He was as 
generous as he was just; for although he 
would never accept poor work, he was ever 
able to recognize a student's merits, and he 
could often see possibilities which were hid- 
den from less acute eyes. He was apt to 
make enemies for the moment, hut bis ene- 
mies turned to be lifelong friends. Hewould 
abuse a student roundly and stir up all tbe 
ugly feelings in him ; but in the long niu the 
student felt that Mr. Williams's abuse was 
only fealty to his own good, and then came 
the reaction which wasalwaysin Mr. Williams's 

The question has been frequently asked 
whether be did the work for which he got the 
credit, or whether his crude efforts were not 
beautified by tbe engraver. I would like to 
put that question for ever at rest. I do not 
believe that any author of writing ever put 
more perfect copies in an engraver's bauds 
than did Mr. Williams ; and I have not only 
niy own recollections in this matter, but the 
attestation of all the engravers who worked 
for him. He was most exact in all that he did 
for the engraver, and no improvement was 
ever made upon his work. In fact, I have 
been told by engravers that any attempt to 
improve upon Mr. Williams's hues was at the 
expense of grace aud beauty. I have carefully 
thought about his claims to consideration, and 
have tried as closely as possible to estimate 
him as an artist and a teacher, aud I have 
come firmly to the conclusion, that in the mat- 
ter of off-hand work, he has never had a supe- 
rior, if he has had an equal. As a teacher of 
practical writing, he will probably never stand 
so highly in the estimation of those who come 
after him ; but if any such suppose that he 
was not a thorough teacher, both of practical 
and ornamental writiug, they should at once 
amend that judgment. Taking bim all in 
all, I do not know of his superior as a teacher 
or writer, either practical or oi-namental. 

There is one thing which should be said of 
him which may be said of all true artists : he 
always knew what was to be the outcome of 
his work. Before a single mark was made 
upon the paper, he had before his mind's eye 
a correct impression of just how the work was 
to look. He made no false movements. His 
work was always laid out with utmost correct- 
ness, precision and judgment. 

I am not at all afraid, gentlemen of the con- 
vention, that the name of John D. Williams 
will ever be forgotten by the true workers in 
our art. He has so enstamped himself upon 
his time that as the years grow apace, and he 
lives only in our weakening memory and 
through his Immortal works, we shall learn 
better and better how to appreciate him and 
all he did. You may think that in mauy 
things I have said I have been extrava- 
gant iu my praise, and those of you whostaud 
at a safer distance may feel that much that I 
have uttered should have been tempered with 
more coolness of criticism ; but I have spoken 
of a very dear friend. I could not say of him 
or for him less than I have said. If, in your 
judgment, I have in any instance overrated 
his ability or his qualities, I trust that you 
will consider it as the outpouring of a gen- 
erous friendship, and a sincere attempt to 
do justice to one wbo cannot now speak for 

Regular Issue of the Journal. 
Many persons who have from some oanse 
failed to receive certain numbers of tbe 
JooRNALbave written to know if it lias sus- 
pended or if it bus been regularly issued. 
We wish it distinctly imdorfitood, that with 
the exception ofthe moutbof August, 1877, 
theJouRNALhasbeen printed and mailed to 
every subscriber upon our list during tbe 
first week of every month, and should we 
be blessed witb life and health, it will no con- 
tinue to be mailed, atd subscribers wbo at 
any time fail, to receive the Jodrnal by 
the 15th of the mouth are requested to noti- 
fy us of that fact, that we may dis 

3 thee 

I of the failure. 


Btiriness and Plenty. 

Along tbe grtt] 

Tin told by 

Tbo ttaiDga of plenty are aoaniled. 

Prollflc of wMllb mai ce 
IMn'thc right light you 

Tlion malce 

le gttloed by a gradul p 

Some boys In the Add, wl 
DlirlnyliiS on earnest a 
la ciabr'o of grMtncBB, b 

A duty iieiformed, I 

rlby employme 
nd enjoyment. 

Teaching versus Skill. 

All who have been iu the prof esaion of peu- 
nmusUip mftuy years Lave seen hundreds of 
yoting men engage in practiciug the art with 
firm resolves to excel. Many of these obtain 
cousidernble skill with the pen, but like fire 
flit'8 shiue for tba moment and vanish. Sueh 
are perhnps led into the art by the love of it, 
ftlBo with the hope of Beciiring a snccesa which 
others eeem to gain, yet in their efforts to 
gain recognition imd support, they receive so 
little eu<'Oumgement that their once bright 
hopes disappear and they abandon their 


After much thought upon the cause of such 
failureH we arc of the opinion that it lies in the 
almost universal niistako of young penmen iu 
beliaviug that success and faiae will surely 
come when superior nkill is attained. With 
eyes closed to all else they practice for the 
mastery of curves and forms, and when their 
skill will compare with that of miccessful pen- 
men they feel that the world owes and should 
reward them with Uke success. 

Were the attainment of superior skill, oiilj/ 
the price of success, there would be thousands 
iu the profession instead of hundreds. The 
highest success in this world is gained by 
those who are beat able to serve their fellow 
int^u. In peumanship those who have been 
the most famous were those who worked with 
thoir very souls to gain ability as teachers. 
Tho hundreds who remember Lusk, Spencer 
mil Williitms, well know that without their 
mill ily ability as teachers they would have 
II' .1 I- t^aiued their fame. Wluit is true of 
itirsi' lui-n has been true of all who have left 
names on the roll of fame. 

The rising penman is too apt to think that 
the difference between himself and some 
famous penman, is only the difference in skill, 
and, when flattered witli compliments to their 
Bhill. feel that they are making rapid progress 
to siieceHH, and are blind to the development 
of any ability outside of the absolute control 
of the pen. To them tie science and art of 
teaching is of small account ; yet with those 
who are achieving success which makes them 
famous, the learning of methods and develop- 
ment of ability to teach is their highest aim. 
Tlir youtig penman says, give me skill. The 
I I ui.' says, give mo a better knowledge of 
"K Mow can I teach better? We 
iliat iu the work of improving one's self 
. . iiiioher by the careful investigation of 
ir' ihinU. and evor vigorous work in the class- 
rriL>ni iini' will gain aknowledgeof the art and 
i.l'iUtv to interest othei-s in it that will be a 
py Wir in securing Ihv rocoguitiou and support 
of the public. Many look around them and 
say that the country isBtrewn with copy-books 
which supplant the work of the penman, but 
iu spite of this, we say. that the teacher who 
possesses a superior knonitdge of the art can 
convince the public that his knowledge of 
methods and ability to teach will enable liim 

to far surpass the work done by the limited 
instruction found in those books. 

The fact that the copies presented in copy- 
books excel in artistic skill need not discourage 
one or prevent success, for even the authors 
will not claim that they contain one-twentieth 
of the information, as to superior teaching, 
which they themselves possess. Then to 
those ambitious to succeed, we would say that 
success can be attained by all who will become 
superior teachers. Knowledge more than skill 
is required. Abihty to make others good pen- 
men, not merely ability as penmen, is neces- 
sary to a high degree of success. 

People sun'ound a stove because it gives off 
heat and thereby administers to them, and th® 
public flock most around the penman who is 
best able to supply them with skill. 

That the art of teaching is something de- 
serving of recognition is shown in the estab- 
lishment of Normal Schools, wherein each 
State recognizes that a person to be a teacher 
requires a special and thorough trainii 
Mere knowledge is not enough. Ability 
impart it to others is requisite to success. 

Not many months since a youog man said 
to us that nothing should stop his practice till 
he attained the skill of Lyman Spencer and 
Mr. Flickiuger. A few weeks later we learn- 
ed that this young man had been dismissed 
from his excellent position, for the reason that 
his heart was wholly wrapped up in his prac- 
tice for skill He lacked enthusiasm as a 
teacher, and took little or no interest in the 
progress of his pupils. To him skill was all, 
teaching irksome, and like hundreds of others 
who fail to serve the pubbc well, he hos van- 
ished from the profession. There ie nothing 
which drags the profession of teaching down 
like the lack of success of indifferent time- 
serving teachers. There are not a few who 
seem to think that because they write well 
they should be paid hberally to stoy in a room 
with classes of poor writers a few hours per 
day. They do not realize that they should be 
alive with enthusiasm and working with their 
brains to invent methods of illustrating topics 
and interesting pupils. To be m the presence 
of a preacher and teacher Uke Beecheristo be 
filled with ideas forced into one through a 
skill in dehvery which he has gained through 
constant earnest effort. To succeed as a 
teacher is to be ever iu earnest. Earnest in 
the work of investigating and developing 
methods, and by cheerful, ypt vigorous effort, 
make each hour one wherein one does his best 
to do all that he can for the advancement of 
his pupils. Such teachers are always wanted, 
they always succeed, while those who hepe to 
rise through skill alone are the ones most apt 
to become discouraged and leave the profes- 

Spice in the Convention. 
At the opening of the late Penman's 
Convention each member as the roll was 
called, arose in his place, and gave by way 
of an iDtroduction a short autobiography, 
which iu several cases was quite ingeoions 
and humorous in the manner of its recital 
so much so as to be well worthy of a place 
in the column of the Journal, but want of 
space in the present number preveuts our 
giving more than tlie following specimen [ 
by James H. Lnnsley, Ph. D, Principal | 
of the Elizabeth {N. J.) Business College.] 
" More than forty years ago, I first saw 
the light of diy, in Albany, N. Y. At the 
age of 191 had not received 1 year's school- 
ing and should you converse with me ten 
minutes, you would doubtless be so im. 
pressed with this fact that you would deem 
it probable I had not attended school 
since. I am married aud have more child- 
ren than I have dollars in my pocket and 
can say that I enjoy the presence of the 
children more than the absence of the dol- 
lars. I have been teaching nineteen years 
and am not wealthy, altlioughl had always 
bread enough and some to give away. By 
the way I have given more away than was 
ever given to me and I am heartily sorry for 
having giving some of it for I received no 
thanks from the recipients. Now, while I 
am not rich, I have often been thankful 
that I was handsome which you see, com- 
pensates me for my lack of wealth. I am 
yet on the sunny side of fifty and hope 
toteacli at least twenty years more to enjoy 
the fruits of what I expect to earn. Hav- 
ing left my impromptu .speech at home I 
am compelled to decline making any fur- 
ther remarks. 

The following original poem which he 
characterised as an "interlude," was also 
read by Dr. Lansley before the convention. 

Approve your exceedingly generoua plan 

re fully prepared foi 
1 ench of Mb neigUbc 
■uBty old gate-bingo, 

Renewal of Subscriptions. \^!,o disin- 1o cor.tiuue to 
receive tin- .Toi-.:nal ^IH.r>M not fail to re- 
new tlieir subscriptions, as thi' Jonrual will 
in all cases be discontinued at the end of 
the period for which the subscription is 

Back Numbers 

of the JocTiNAL cpn be supplied, beginning 
No prior numhet 

Of blgb aaplnratloiiB, tbcir babi 

e heartleBS, though b 

imc ifl now drawing nigh 

y friends, nay we all meet again, 

lautifuUball— light. I 

Primary Instruction in Penmanship. 

Mr. O. H. Shattuck read a paper before the 
late Penman's Convention, on Primary In- 
struction in Penmanship, in which he said no 
branch was more neglected. 

That statistics proved that more than half 
the children in thi^ public schools receive all 
their school education in the primary depart- 

He read extracts from Massachusetts School 
Reports, edited by Hon. Horace Mann, and 
Reports of the New York city schools showing 
great improvtments in methods of instruction 
in penmanship, in many of the pulitic schools 
of our large cities, during the last twenty-five 
years, from which we copy only the following : 

Horace Maun says, " the defect (in teaching 
writing) may be traced to the deficiencies in 
the qualifications of teachers." Andfrom the 
New York city Report for 1877, the following 
encouraging extract is given : •' Specimens by 
some of the first grade pupils iuthe primaries 
Burpass in neatness of style those of which 
were formerly exhibited by the advanced clas- 
ses of the grammar [Trades. " 

He claimed that all pupils not physically in- 
capacitated could become good writers, that 
they did not, was a just criticism on their 
teachers. That the itinerant writing masters 
should be recognized as proper instructors for 
children after leaving the public schools, and 
should so establish themselves that youth 
could from time to time receive instructions 
under the same teacher. 

He summarized the difficulties in the way 
of better instruction in writing in the primary 
schools as follows : 

First — Normal Schools do not impart 
" methods " of teaching writing. 

Second — School Boards do not make it a 
requirement that primary teachers shall have 
the proper knowledge to impart primary in- 
struction in penmanship, 

Thibd— School Superintendants and Princi- 
pals do not examine the writing and give 
credits as in other studies. 

FocBTH —Writing is not an especial requisite 
in promotion, and the " writing hour " often 
taken to secure better results in other 

Fifth — Teachers do not bring their instruc- 
tions down to the capacity of tlie most incor- 
I rigible pupils. 

He would have teachers take this for a 
molto : Take care of the poor vrriteis, the 
good ones will take care of themselves. 

There were many other points presented 
bearing directly upon the subject, and others 
more remotely, but of sufficient interest to bo 
properly presented in the paper, but space will 



In xlntice ; for 
qturtcrlr In ><!'* 
ntM. Itudlng n 

We hope to n 
attraotlTe tint no 
withhold Mtber L 


If .lotmN&L so lotereatlog knd 

tko followfng 

in Dcndlng their 
ben, lucU)(ilng«2,' 
o ypar, and forwun 


ktloHD, eaobof which ar^nmongthi 
f jieDmaniihlp ever puWI»hed, vIe. : 
The Oenteanial Picture of Progrc«. . 

" ^lBxaa 

if BniiroailDg eachllxti 

ThP Lord's Pmyer lfl»M 

The Mftrrlngo OBrtlflonto !««» 

The Family lUcord vl?"?? 

8 8peclmonBheotaofEn(iro«alDgeachlIxt4 

Or ISO BviaUfnl 8oro)l Carde, 18 different dealgaB. 

PorlhrepnnineR and (a wc will forward the luge 
Centennial Picture, also OBxiO Inchea, 

I W ^ 

For alx 
WUIIamN ft Packard's On 

For twelve aubsrrlborii 
of Ames' Oompondium 
price $1. The aame l"i 
elghteou eiibBcribora an-l 

of WlUUmi k Pacliard'a 
All communtoattona < 

I copy of 

I, reialla t 


publlCAtJOD, ' 

idway, New York. 
y distinctly. 


The Journal for November 
Will bo one of vimisual attraction 
and interest. We liave the positive 
promiso of spocimons for publication 
from the pen of that prince amonp 
ponmen. H. W. Flickinger. Wo shall 
also publish a very able and interest- 
ing review of the life and services of 
P. R. Spencer, Sr.. written for the 
Penman's Convention, (owing to a 
mis-direction it was not received 
BO aa to be read), by Wm. P. Cooper, 
of Kingsville, Ohio, who was an in- 
timate friend ,Tnd associate of Mr. 
Spencer. This review will be accom- 
panied with a new and excellent por- 
trait cut of Mr. Spencer. 

We have several other very interest- 
ing articles promised and in hand suf- 
ficient, in all, to warrant us in saying 
that that number will be one of the 
most interesting and valuable yet is- 
sued. We expect, also, to print the 
largest edition of tliat number of any 
yet printed— probably as high as 15,- 
000. Specimen copies will be mailed 
to every educational institute in the 
United States, and to a large list of 
school offices and other persons in- 
terested in education and not subscri- 
bers, which will render it exceptional- 
y vjiluable as a medium of adver- 
tising. We shall insert not to ex- 
.;eed t*vo pages of advertisements 
atounegular rates. No discounts for 
that number can be made. Parties 
desiring space should apply early. 

Hints upon Teaching Writing. 
To be able to awaken, and maintain 
earnest thought and study, on the part 
of the pupil, and skillfully direct the 
same, is a paramount qualification for 
successful teaching. Indeed the pow- 
er to do this is the real secret of the 
wonderful success that has attended 
the labors and immortalized the names 
of our greatest teachers, not of writ- 
ing alone, but of all departments of 
education. The interested and atten- 
tive pupil is always a success, while 
the indiflferent pupil is a certain fail- 
ure; the former seems almost to drink 
in knowledge, while the latter receives 
it as by force. Many teachers of writ- 
ing rely mainly upon the imitative 
power of pupils for their success which 
is a fatal error; writing should be 
taught mechanically more than by 

An imitative pupil may manifest re- 
markable progress, and be able to imi- 
tate with the greatest fidelity the most 
perfect copy, so long as it is before 
iiim, and yet write most awkwardly 
when it is removed, from the fact that 
there remains no correct mental con- 
ception or ideal of writing to guide 
bis practice ; not so -wiih the pupil who 
has been taught mechanically, and 
has learned the correct analysis of 
each letter, studied its form and con- 
struction, at the same time that the er- 
rors in his own writing have been criti- 
cised and corrected according to es- 
tablished rules and principles— though 
he may at the outset be greatly dis- 
tanced by the imitative genius— he 
will, in the end, become much the 
more skillful. The removal of the copy 
matters little to him, its form having 
become so completely impressed upon 
his mind that it continues, as it were, 
constantly before him. a perfect ideal, 
to reproduce which, the hand will ever 
strive, and ultimately attain. Writing, 
in all its grace, ease, and perfection, 
must first clearly exist in the mind, 
before the hand can, by any amount 
of exercise, be taught to produce it. 
The hand can never transcribe a form 
more perfect or beautiful than the 
ideal of its master— the mind. Hence, 
the vital importance of preceding 
and accompanying all practice, in 
writing, with a careful study of its 
mechanical construction. The exer- 
cise or copy for each lesson sliould 
be short, embracing but a few letters ; 
and they should be systematically ar- 
ranged so as to present, forcibly and 
concisely at each lesson, some impor- 
tant feature of writing, 

Our own method of instruction has 
been to use copies, carefully written 
or printed, upon short, movable slips, 
the length of each not exceeding one- 
fourth of the width of a sheet of fools- 
cap, thus concentrating the attention 
and practice of the pupil upon a few 
principles and letters at a time. At 
the opening of each lesson, one of 
these slips would be passed to each pu- 
pil of the class, then written upon the 
black-board and carefully analyzed, 
fii-st by the teacher, then by the class. 
The pupil will thus not only gain a 
correct conception of the proper form 
and construction of letters, but be 
thereby supplied with standards and 
measures by which to gauge and test 
the quality and accuracy of his own 
writing; in short enable him to become 
his own critic. General criticisms 
would be made during each lesson, at 
the board, upon the writing of the 
class and individuals without being 
personal, in which would be presented 
by the most ingenius and striking il- 
lustrations possible, the essentials of 
good writing, and most conspicuous 
faults in bad writing. 
For instance, we would say to the 

class that one may learn to make ev- 
ery letter perfectly, and yet be a very 
bad writer, which would be most 
strikingly illustrated by writing a 
word upon the board, in iihich every 
letter, taken by itself, should be as 
nearly faultless as possible, but very 
disproportionate in size, thus: 

At the next lesson illustrate the bad 
effect of uneven spacing, thus; 

At the following lesson we would 
present the special beauty of a varie- 
ty of slant in writing, thus; 

Slant, though quite different, will 
not be specially conspicuous in the 
contracted letters, but may be made to 
appear strikingly so by drawing ex- 
tended lines through the parts of the 
letters, thus; 

At one of the early lessons should 
be illustrated, by means of a scale, 
the relative heights of letters, thus: 

This method practiced through a 
course of even twenty lessons, will 
not fail to secure to the pupil not only 
satisfactory improvement, but will es- 
tabUsh him on a basis upon which he 
can continue to practice and improve 

It will, of course, be undei'stood 
that what we have said relative to the 
use of movable slips applies only to 
professional teachers, and to special 
writing classes, not to schools, pubHc 
or private, where it is found most con- 
venient and practical to use copy 

The Unparalleled Progress of Writing 
dming the Past Twenty-five Years. 

The improvements made in the ait of 
writiug and methods of imparting iustruc- 
tiou, iu this country duiiog the past twenty- 
five yeais has probably bad uo parallel in 
any other country or age. 

This extraordinary advancement baa 
been the result of several causes. Ist. — 
The rapid growth of trade and 
demanded greater celerity aud 
writing, than waa practical with the old 
shaded round band, written with ibe finger 
movement, which was the prevaihng style 
tweuty-five years ago. 

2d. The sliarp rivalry, between the eev- 
eral authors aud pubhsbers uf the leading 
systems of writing. 

3d. The fierce eompetitio'j between the 
numerous commercial or business colleges. 

4tb. The discovery of the various pho- 
tographic methods for reproducing pen 
tlrawings ujinu, stone and motal for 
)»rintii)g, whereby the peu work is es.sen- 
tially the engraving, thus enlarging the 
penman's sphere of labor, and offering a 
larger reward for his skillful work. 

Tweuty-five years ago Spencer was just 
beginning to win fame, while unfolding his 
idmost transcendent genius, as a knight of 
tlie quill, in his log cabin (Jericho) at Gen- 
eva, O. The Duutons aud Paysous were 
winning their first laurels at Bostou ; E. 
G. Folsom at Cleveland, O. ; Dufl", at Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.: CrittendeD. at Phila., Pa., and 
George W. Eaatman, of Rochester, N. T., 
u splendid penman, and the originator of 

the system of actual bnsinesa training in 
Business Colleges, were then leading off 
in the grand commercial college move- 
ment; they were soon followed by Bell, 
Bryant, Stratton, Packard, aud others. 

The system of writing, and fore aim or 
muscular movement, taught by Prof. 
Spencer, soon gained wide spread celebri- 
ty, and pupils came to his log cubiu from 
far and near. AH of them became active 
and most of them skUlful disciples, and 
taught — or advocated " Spenceriau " with 
a degree of enthusiasm and skill, which 
did honor alike to their own faith, and the 
skillful instruction of their master, aud from 
among ihem have been many of our most 
noted and worthy teachers. 

Prof. Spencer soou published his system, 
but in so imperfect a form as to give little 
satisfaction or honor to its author. It 
was engraved on Btone and printed in 
form of copy slips, but very soon after was 
published in form of copy books. About 
the same time the Paysou, Dunton & 
Scribuer, system was published at Boston ; 
for several years these systems were local 
iu their use, the P. D. & S. being adopted 
generally and was the leading system in 
New England, whilo the Spencerian held 
sway, aud spread rapidly through the 
West, though both were imperfect, they 
each bad peculiar merits, aud theif fame 
and use rapidly eiteuded, until their 
spheres met, then began the mott ener- 
getic and often acrimouious rivalry. The 
agents and friends of one system would 
often (in their own judgmeut — at least) 
annihilate the other, by poiutiug out the 
most numerous aud fatal deficiencies, in 
this manner, while to their mutual astonish- 
ment, neither was annihilated, both rapidly 
learned wisdom from the criticisms of their 
rivals, and both systems were immediately 
revised, neither losing anything by the 
peculiar merit of the other. Each system 
counted among its fiiends and associated 
authors, many of the most skillful and in- 
dustrious, teachers, and as revision has 
fuUowed revision, each has eliminated 
faults made couspicuous by the criticisms 
of rivals, while such new merits as could 
be suggested by the most skillful and ex- 
perienced teachers, aided by equally skill- 
ful engravers have beeu added, until now 
both systems seem faultless. Nor has the 
strife of competition beeu limited to these 
two leading systems, many others have en- 
livened the fight with their presence ; 
among the more prominent of which are 
the Ellswortli, Potter k Hammoud, Wil- 
liams & Packard, Thompson's (Eclectic 
eeries) Babbitoniau, and others too numer- 
ous to mention. All have beeu io thestrife, 
aud have no doubt each contributed some- 
thing toward the astonishing progress and 
improvement which we see as the result. 

Scarcely less favorable and effective for 
substantial progress iu writing, has been 
the influence exerted by the numerous 
commercial or business colleges of the 
country; especially is this true of Orna- 
mental and Artistic Penmanship. With 
these institutions fine penmanship has 
generally been a desideratum, and iu the 
many sharp rivalries which have occurred 
among the different, representatives of 
these institutions, the relative display of 
skillful penmanship, more frequently than 
any other, has beeu the test for excellence 
and popularity of the iustitutiou. 

The most elaborate and skillful speci- 
mens have beeu executed, almost witliont 
number, not only to adoru the rooms of 
the colleges, but for public exhibition and 
competition at fairs, and other centres of 
attraction. In some instances celebrated 
pen artists have been employed for long 
periods of time almost exclusively to exe- 
cute specimens for this John D. 
Williams was so employed by the Bryant 
k Stratton chain of colleges, no link of 
which was couKidered to be properly equip- 
ed without having one or more specimens 
from his matchless peu ; these speciiuers 
became at once a high standard for emu- 
lation and imitation, but not to be ex- 


celled by the pupils and teachers of pen- 
naanehip tbrougbout the coantry, acd have 
thus exerted a wide aod powerful infla- 
ence upon the Btyle and degree of eicel- 
lecce attained in this department of pen- 

Subseqnently the pablication of the 
Williams 4 Packard gems, contributed still 
more to advance the ntnudard of Oruamen- 
tiil Peimjaiisbip, by furnishing ihe teacher 
aud pupil with a more tall, ready and 
practical guide, than any hitherto placed 
before them. Ah the outgro^vth of all this 
rivalry and competition, we have not only 
Bcveral of the most perfect, beautiful and 
practical syHtems of writing in the world, 
but a hirger number of ttkillful writers and 
teachers than has blessed any other age or 
people ; in place of a single Spencer we 
now have several, while scattered all over 
the country are scores of penman, whose 
present skill would, to say the least, have 
l)oen astouisliiiig twenty-five years ago. 

Ornamental Feomanship. 

Formerly, and until within a few 
yoars, the entire scope and purpose of 
Ornamental Peninantiliip was limited 
to striking a few off-hand flourishes, 
in form of an eagle, swan, quill, or 
other simple figure, for the solo pur- 
pose of amusing or attracting patrons. 
Tliis, with text Ietti.'riMg, was all that 
was nccfssary or desirable. 

liut mure recently, and since the ex- 
tensive introduction of the \ari<>us 
methods of reproduction of jien and 
ink work by photography, thedeniand 
for elaborate and perfect penmanship, 
OS well as the incentive for its execu- 
tion, has bfte,n largely increased. Now 
the skillful penman practically be- 
coiiii's an engi'aver, and finds a ready 
[li-inaiid for his skill in the execution 
uf rl:.l.n,:,f.. and artistir- dc^ii^ns fnr 

driM.Ui.l ..p,ns l(. tUr rr.'illy skllHul 
pcii-.-n-Usi ;i wrll-nigli nulimitcd ii.-lrl 
for prulilable labor, but while the de- 
mand is great, it is most exa<"tiug as re- 
gards merit. Work executed for tlie 
purpose of reproduction nmst have cer- 
tain qualities of line and character, or 
it liiils, it must also have high artis- 
tic riicrit tn withstand the criticism 
;iiul Irsi tn wliirliit IS Subjected, since 
it ;ii nil re i nins lu djrect competition 
Willi thr \:iiiniis kiuds of engraving, 
and nmst have nearly equal perfection 
and artistic merit, or it is at once re- 
jected, and the labor of the ai'tist is 

Under the stimulus of this new de- 
mand, wo anticipate seeing a very 
ni:.rUed and nipid .I.v.Inpineut of the 
prntiKuiN ;ni .indskill. .Ti'tainly there 

inviting ni- piniiUMu^; Inr success. 

Basiness Correspondence. 
We invite special attenti{m to the 
admirable, on our first and se- 
cond pages, upon " Business Corres- 
pondence," delivered before the late 
■•Pemuan's Convention," in New York 
by l*rof. L. L. Sprague. Principal of 
the Wyoming Commercial College, 
Kingston, Pa. This is a subject of 
great importance, aiid one in which, 
all persons are more or less interested, 
while the graceful, interesting and 
ettVotive manner in which Professor 
Sprague presents the various points 
in his subject, will serve to make his 
address very interesting reading mat- 


A large number of valuable commu- 
nications and articles have been re- 
ceived, for which it is impossible to 
find space in the present issue. We 
shall give all. having sufficient merit, 
a place as soon as possible. 


Prof. James B. CundifT, vice-princi- 
pal of Soule's Commercial College, New 
Orleans. La., died SeptemberlS. at the 
age of thirty-three years. Mr. Cim- 
diff was a native of Owensburg, Ky. 
He was a skillful writer and popular 
teacher. He was prominent as a Mas- 
ter Ma.son, and Knights Templar, both 
of which fraternities were largely rep- 
resented at his burial. He leaves a 
large circle of warm friends. 

Mr. Cundiff was a zealous friend, and 
earnest worker for the Journal. having 
forwarded the names of over one hun- 
dred .subscribers within a year past, 
and the largest number sent by any 
one person during that period. 


Can any of our readers furnish us 
with information regarding the where- 
abouts of James A. Congdon. About 
one year since we executed work 
for him. and gave credit for engi-av- 
ing and printing to a considerable 
amount, since which time we have 
failed to receive any communication 
from him. or information concerning 

If hehasdeceased, we desire to com- 
memorate him by anappropriate ob it- 
uary notice; if he is living in obscuri- 

The Writing-Class. 

Let us entef the Primary Department in one 
of the busy bee-hives of education, in this or 
some other city, and superintend, with the 
teacher's kind permission, the introduction of 
writing among pupils, whose flexible fingers, 
and soft, pliant muscles, are quite ready for 
training and practice. We shall assume this 
to be the first presentation of the subject. Let 
this opening exercise be purely conversational 
and illustrative. 

I shall firet inquire of the children. How 
many of you could tell your parents or friends 
what you have done in school to-day ? Ail say 
they could. How many of you could tell this 
to your parents or friends, if they were away 
from you ? All say they could not. Would 
you like to be able to tell about what you are 
doing, or about what is taking place, to those 
who are absent? All say they would. Well, 
I am going to teach you how to do this ; but, 
first, let us have a Ultle talk about it. What 
IB that your teacher has in her band ? They 
answer, "A book." Will you tell me some, 
thiug about the book? George says, " It has 
red covers " ; Susie says, "It isa small book.'' 
You have told me that your teacher has a 
small red book. When you said "book," 
•' red," and "small." you made sounds, which 
meant book, red aud small. I will now make 
on the blackboard some signs which you all 

I then write in llomauletters the word book. 

ing, you use the voice and mouth ; in writing, 
you use the band and arm. 

In the next lesson I will teach you howto 
Bit when writing, how to hold your pen or 
pencil, how to place your \vritiiig-tablet. or 
copy-book, and begin to teach you how to 
make letters. 

If a portion of each lesson was spent in con- 
versational exercise about, and in blackboard 
illustration of, writing, before setting out with 
pen or pencil, it wauld well repay the effort. 
The children should be given appropriate 
finger-exercises for a few moments previous 
to writing. Extending and contracting the 
fingers, separatingaud drawing them together, 
and five-finger piano exercises, practiced on 
the desk, will help develop and train the 
muscles used in writing. 

Make these little pupils, Teacher, fairly 
hungry for the task, and eager to begin it. Be 
sure they know what it is they are doing : why 
they are doing it ; and how it is to be done. — 
Pnmaivj Tmcher. 

(To be continued.) 

The Special Attention 
of teachers, card writers, authors, and pro- 
prietoi-8 of busiuess colleges is invited to 
the advantage of inserting a standing busi- 
uess card of diree lines in the first column 
of the JouiiKAL. Its circulation i^ now so 
large aud extpnuive as to reach, more or 
less, the neighborhood of all persons in 
theUnitedStatesorCauiida. The charge is 
small, aud can hardly fail of beiug many 
times repaid. 


ty we would shed the refulgence of 
our light upon the darkness that en- 
shrouds him. 

College Currency. 

We are now getting up a series of 
bank notes for use in Business College 
banks. The bills will be printed on a 
good quality of bank-note paper, and 
got up in an attractive style. Parties 
desiring to replenish their currency, 
or procure an entirely ne^v outfit, are 
requested to send for samples, and es- 
timates; also, for certificates, diplo- 
mas, display cuts, etc. 

Proceedings of the Penman's Convention. 
We have on hand several hundred 
copies of the September No. of the 
Journal, containing the report of the 
proceedings of the Convention. Single 
copies sent on receipt of 10c ; 15 copies. 
$1.()0; 50 copies, $3.00. 

Teaching versus Skill. 
All young jtenmen who aspire to 
fame and success in their profession 
should twice read, carefully, the arti- 
cle by Prof. Hinman. under the above 
caption, on page three. He happily pre- 
sents solid facts and sound advice. 

Oar Thanks 
Are due, and hereby tendered, 
to Mr. J. T. Granger, Miss Lottie Hill. 
Prof. C. E. Cady. aud Mr. Miller, for 
verbatim repoi-ts of remarks and ad- 
dresses at the Penman's Convention. 

Children, what do you see on the blackboard? 
Tht-y answer, "Book." But is lUis thing the 
same thing which you saw in your teacher' 
baud? "No." lloes this mean the sam 
thingy "Yes," Now, if I write this word 
before it (writing the word red in Roman let- 
ters), what will it mean? "Red book." I 
next write a and Hinall before it, in the eamt 
characters: what does it mean now? "A small 
red book," Now. children, the words which I 
wrote ou the blackboard mean the same things 
as the words you just spoke. There are 
ways of using words, — speaking them, and 
writing them. Will some scholar spell aloud 
the word red? Hairy spells, " li-c-d." How 
many sounds did Harry use in spelbng the 
word red f ' ' Three. " How many letters did 
I use iu writing the word rtdf "Thre' 
You see that the spoken words are made u]) of 
siugle letters. Speaking, then, is telhngwbat 
we think by the use of certain sounds : and 
writing, is telling what we think by the use ot 
lettt-rs. These letters are signs of the spoken 

Will you now give me some short words to 
write ou the blackboard? The children pelt 
me with words faster than I can write them. 
I put down, in Roman letters, rou, bee, blue, 
boyy girl. Did you think these things before 
you spoke them ? ' ' Yes. " I now add one or 
two short words to the above-writteu, and call 
upon the pupils to read the phrases aloud. 
They read, " A white rose ": "A honey-bee" ; 
"The blue sky." Did I think these words 
before I wrote them? "Yes." Then child- 
ren, you spoke what you thought, aud I wrote 
what I thought, — .so what you think can be 
either spoken or written- You have already 
learned to speak what you think ; you must 
now learn to write what you think. In speak- 

B. F. R., Cuflfey'sCove, Cal. Your writing 
is very good, but it has the set stiff, school 
boy appearance, which you can overcome only 
by careful and prolonged practice, you need to 
practice fore arm movement exercises, there 
is a manifest hesitancy in your movemeut es- 
pecially when you attempt the large capital let- 
ters, your spacing is quite unequal, with a Uttle 
careful attention to the movement, and your 
minor faults, you can render your writing 

J. A. G. Parkersburg, W. Va., aeks us to 
give what we consider the best method of 
teaching penmanship in pubhc schools in a 
city where there are eight to ten rooms in 
the several buildings. That is a question of 
great importance, and cannot be briefly an- 
swered in this column. Prof. Payson begins 
to answer that question in our present number, 
and will continue the same in each consecu- 
tive number until, we trust, it will be fuUyand 
satisfactory answered. 

J. F. P. West Charlotte, Vt. We have no 
choice between the system you mention, we 
do not know where the pens you mention can 
be had. Your writing has considerable merit. 
It lacks system, your loops .ire too thin and 
sloping. It is irregular in size and does not 
' '" IV the line, read editorial " Hints on 
teaching Writing," on the fourth page. 



F. N. H. The principal fault with year 
writinR in il« iinev'-n spacing, and* tendency 
to hring your capjtftU below the line, this re- 
(ralt« from the fact that yoa nae tbe muscular 
inoTOtn''ntonly in making your capitals and it 
is not Biifflciently practiced to be fully at voar 
conimanc). wc would advise you to practice it 
moT«i in your nninll lett^ra. rood rdilorial on 
fourth page, (mtitled " HintB on Teaching 

C. O. fi.. BamBon. Pa. How manysyrtemB 
of penmannhip are there in the U. S. at pre- 
sent ? Wo could not Bay liow many, we know 
of nineteen authora of copy books, now in 
line, and five of compendiumH, undoubtedly 
there arc more. Not more than five or «ix of 
theaecanluy well founded rIaimH toany dia- 
tinct Byitem. many are almofit without svfrtem. 
othcrw are mmply rtr-arrangcd or compiled 
from other BystemH. 

What do vou consider the best manner of 
giving inMlniotion in normiil RchoolB ? Would 
you UHo copy books ? In answer to this ques- 
tion, wo cannot do better than to refer tbe 
writer to our editorial in another column, en- 
titled " Hints upon teaching Writing." 

O. J. W.. Vnrnvill.-. Cal. You write a very 

,,,1, . , I \ ' n. rareful study and prac- 
t,, , ,,,.ii.. n writing to a creditable 

Hi„ii,i.,i.| I.. I .1 !..i.Iht. See editorial upon 
■ 11(1. u nil Ji .:. hui;,' Writing." fourth page. 
T. N. H.. Woofiter. O. We can furnish all 
back numbers of tbe -Topenai, from and iu- 
cluding acptember 1877. (No. li, Vol. 1.) tbey 
will be Bentat regular subscription rates. 

P J 8 Jewett City Conn We do not 
know the present address of M B Worthing 
fon T C Mulkins i« at rranKviIIe Ind 




M F n«nnett who is teachmg writing at 
Schenertadv N Y writes a handsome Ifltii 
in which he incloseH, with skillful flourishing 
byliimMcIf. asppcimen flourished by one of his 

.T. N. V. Harrington, llochester, N.Y., sends 
some of the boat speciraena of card writing 
received during Ihe month, bo is now per. 
manently located at Rochester, New York. 
As a card writer, ho has few equals. 

N. O. A E. L. Camvron, students at Mussel- 
mim's fQuincy. HI.) Business CoUoge. sends 
pftckftgeH of very handsomely written cards. 

F. B. Davis. Jewitt City, Conn,, writes an 
eiisy in-« and business like letter, in 
wliicli 1m' iiirlosi k s.veml well written cards, 

1). 1,. M 


if.s<lmiiii, Principal of the Goi 
■in ('all.-K.\ Quincy, 111., sends a 
if ulMiinid capitals. 

plimenlary ti 

Bertha V. 

seveml atii.i 

olaboi-atoly flourished bird spc 

, and who is i 
country, is no 
be is open for c 

', H Sju'iK-.r, at Cleveland, 
ne of the best writei-s iu tht 
■ at Sandy Hill. New York, 
1 engagement to leach writ- 

WT. P. Preuitt, proposes to spend tbe fall 
and winter ti'aohing writing in Tesas, he is a 
fine writer and successful teaobcr, wu wish 
him success in his rx6\\ tleld of bbor. 

Waiter C. Hooker, one of the most skillful 
writers and popular teachers, in New York, is 
teaching large olassrs in the western part of 
the State. 

H. W. Bearce is teaching large classes of 
%TritinB at St. Albans, Vt. Mr. Bearce is a 
fine writiT, and i« highly compUmeuted by 
St. AlbaoR Dailif Messi-ngcr. 

Mr. Harrold. the veteran penman of Cincin- 
nati. O., favored us with a call recently, he 
isstiU animbli) ^^Tit^■rand executes Que work. 

ive a omew hut 1 tifjlbj »nd highly tompb 
leutary review of the Columbus Business Col 
1 ge conducted for twelve years past by 
Prof. E, K. Bryan. It says : 

One cau scarcely enter a bank or business 
bouse' iu Columbus without finding one or 
graduates of this excellent college. The 
prospect for a good attendance at the open- 
ing of the fall term is flattering to the man- 
agement, and gratifying alike to Mr. Bryan 
and his numerous well-wishers. There are no 
false inducements held out, and it is a source 
of satisfaction for us to be able to say that 
the institution is in every way worthy of the 
confidence of the public." 

J. E. Soule, principal of the Bryant and 
Sti-atton, Philadelphia, (Pennsylvania), Busi- 
ness College, has associated with him Prof. 
H. W. Flifkiuger, and as will bo seen by 
an announcement in the advertising columns, 
has opened a special department, for instruc- 
tion in the higher grades of penmanship. 
Both Messrs. Soule and Flickinger deservedly 
rank among the very first of skillful penmen 
and teachers in this country. The facilities 
thus offered, for valuable Instruction, by their 
combined skill and experience, can hardly be 
equalled elsewhere. 

During a recent visit to Philadelphi 
visited the Union Business College conducted 
by Prof. Thus. May Peirce, whom we found, 
smiling and happy, in the enjoyment of a 
larger degree of prosperity than hiid been ex- 
perienced before in seven years. Prof. Soule 
of the B. and S. Business College also report' 
ed a largely increased patronage. 

F. A. Leddin, principal of Leddin's Business 
College, Memphis. Tenn., visited 
days since. He was obliged by the ravages of 
tlie yellow feverto close his college, which was 
previously in a prosperous condition. He 
will not return until the fever has disap- 

The twentieth annual announcement and 
catalogue of "Packard's Business College," 
has been received. It is a model of i;ood taste 
and common sense in advertising. We are 
glad to IcEim that the institution has opened 
this season with a largely increased patronage. 
The Davenporl Iowa College Circular is a 
very taslily gotten up sheet. The college is 
oondueted by D. R. Litibridge and J. II. H. 
Valentine. Mr. lilibridgo enjoys the reputa- 
tion of being one of the most accomplished 
penmen iu the west. 

J. C. McCleuohiin announces his opening of 
the Capital City Business College. Columbus. 
Ohio. Mr. McClcnahan is assisted by M. B_ 

R. A. Lambert, formerly at the LaCrosse 
CWis.) Business College, and D. Darling, have 
opened a Business College at "Winona, Minn. 
Prof. Lambert is an accomplished writer, and 
has the reputation of being a successful 

The Cash Book issued by W. L. Blackman, 
of the Allentown (Pa.) Business College, is 
ane of the most decidedly attractive and read- 
ible college papers that has come into our 

Attractive and business-like circulars with 
sjiccimens have been received from Messrs. 
Howe and Powers, the enterprising proprietors 
of tbe Metropolitan Business College, Chicago, 

The Bryant and Stratton Commercial School 
of Boston, under charge of Prof. Hibbard, 
nues to enjoy a remarkable degree of 
well-deserved prosperity. 

Lansley's (Elizabeth, N. J.) Business Col- 

ge journal, is spicy and interesting, and in- 
dicates that its puhhsher is on the sunnyside 
of prosperity. 

In the November number of the Journal 
Prof. Flickinger \vill manifest his skill through 

specimen from his pen. 

Exchange Items. 

The Hornf Oiiftt for September, is of un- 
usual interest, especially the Penman's Depart- 
ment, which is well edited and full of interest- 
ing matter, it gives conclusive evidence that its 
new editor. Professor H. B. McCreary, 
Principal of the Utica New York Business 
College by no means mistook his calling when 
he entered the editorial field, 

Tbe Penman's Help published by William 
Clark, Toledo, Iowa, dated September 25tb^ 
is received. It is improving in appearance 
and contents. But although announced as a 
semi-monthly, it comes to us about every 
other month, why are we thus slighted, 
friend Clark ? 

The Rapifl Writ^ and Takigraplier pub- 
lished bi-mouthly by D. P. Lindsley, 212 E. 
3f)tb street. New York, is a fifty-page maga- 
zine devoted to short-hand writing. 

Browne's Phnnographic Montfdy, published 

by D. L Scott-Browne. 737 Broadway, comes 

usual, well filled with matter pertaining to 

lonograpby and phonographers. 

The Tu.sniliim Tenn f ssef Ritwd.iR&n eight 
page paper well filled with interesting matter. 

60 Barclay street. New Tobk, Sept, 30, 1878. 
I hereby certify that I printed 10,000 cop- 
ies of the Penman's Abt .Ioubnal for the 
month of September. 


This is to Certify that I furnished paper for 
10,000 copies of the Penmak's Abt Jodbnal, 
for September. 


16 & 17 Beekman st. 

Experiences in Learning to Write. 

BY ■■cBrTiQrE." 

Experience is said to be a good teacher, and 
from a personal knowledge of the fact we ore 
forced to believe that it is about as expensive 
as it is good. Our experience covers a period 
of ten years, most of tbe time being spent in 
common schools, consequently we know some- 
thing concerning penmanship in our common 
schooU, and if this part of the country (Penn- 
sylvania) is a specimen of the remainder, must 
admit that penmanship is making rapid pro- 
gress—in the wrong direction. 

We have had the pleasure of being instruct- 
ed in the art by no less than fifteen of these 
teachers. Every teacher had a system (?) of 
his ottTi, and the "methods of instruction" 
were of the most varied and original kind. 
Hinraan could not begin to equal some of 
them, and as for variety we donot believe the 
"Convention" can boast of half the variety 
we had, but, " Variety is the spice of life," 
and we presume it is equally true of penman- 

Practice was the remedy applied to all tbe 
disorders of penmanship, for practice, move- 
ment, position, pen-holding, etc, were passed 
over as unworthy of the least attention, and as 
for material, every one had the grand privi- 
lege of selecting to suit their individual case. 
All of our spare money went to buy writing 
material to practice with, but the only persons 
benefited by this persistent practice was — the 
manufacturers. How long this state of affairs 
might have continued, had not kind provi- 
dence thrown a combination of self-instruction 
in our path and thus shown us the error of our 
practice, we are not prepared to say, but we 
had made an important discovery, namely, 
" Practice makes perfect," if you know how to 

Our next venture was to take a little flour- 
ishing at a normal school, in connection with 
the other studies, but we have learned since 
that we did not succeed very well, although at 
that time we intended to contribute a specia 
men of our beautiful (?) work to Prof. Ames' 
Compendium, The reason we failed was 
because our teacher did not hold us in check 
on tbe principles, and herein is just where 
many fail. Master principles first, then 
more complicated forms. Like Robinson 
Crusoe we were bent on our own desti-uction 
for next we were captured by the "Great En- 
grossing Tramp " and put through a course of 
egg-shaped forms, straight and curved lines 
according to his peculiarly original mode of 
Somehow his "torture" helped us 
along more than all of the other systems and 
methods combined. We also received some 
substantial aid in flourishing, and was carried 
through a severe attack of tbe "deer" (he 
called it "buck" ) "fever," by the "Tramp." 
Those who have flourished their first deer will 
understand what tbe "fever" is. 

In conclusion we would advise those desir- 
ing to learn to go to a good teacher or none. 

Wtomdjo Com'l College, 

Kingston. Pn.. Sept. 17, 1878. 
Pnor, D. T. Ames, New York : 

Dear Sib : — Enclosed please find check. 
$12.50, for whi(^b please enter our card in the 
Journal. Send me your Compendium (which 
we offer as a premium to the best of our wri- 
ting students), and enter live subscriptions 
for tbe journal, to begin with the September 
number. This list is only a beginning, and 
will be augmented from time to time. 

The worthy Secretary of the "Business 
College Teachers' and Penmen'sAssociation," 
Mr. Soule, bos set an excellent example in 
sustaining the interests of the Journal as seen 
in his communication in the September num- 
ber. It ought to be followed by every Busi- 
ness College principal and teacher of penman- 
ship in the country. There is no reason why 
we should not roll up the subscription list of 
the Journal sufliciently to enable the manager 
to make it one of the very first educational 
publications, and especially to enable it to 
"run and be glorified" in its own special field 
of usefulness. I cannot see how the Business 
College fraternity can afford to lei a paper, so 
largely identified with their interests, so 
efficiently edited, and so eminently superior 
in typographical dress, suffer cmbamuiBment 
from any lack of substantial support. 

Hoping at an early day to hear that thirty 
thousand names ore upou its list, I remain 
yours very fratemaUy, 

D. L. Spbaqus, 


The Science of Doable Entry. 

r'H 00 my right muat atand. 
veiling you will comprebeod. 

Bosiness Colleg^es. 

The success that has attended Business 
Colleges in this country, when well conduct- 
ed, is evidence of their necessity. Until the 
introduction of these school! 

1 thei 


3 provisioi 

any of the colleges and schools uf the c 
try to afford the youth special preparation 
in the affairs of business. So fully were the 
pHopIe alive to this fact, and so great was 
the need of such a special training, that 
the success of these institutions was al- 
most marvelous from their inception. Per- 
haps in a few instances they hav not been 
all that could be desired in an educational 
seuae, but age and experience are working 
most favorable improvements in widening 
their curriculum of studies and quaJifying 

their slaff of 



i unmistakably looking 
iuhtitutions for the solution of the question, 
"How can we teach our sons that which they 
will practice when they become men," in 
other words, how can they yive them a prac- 
tical education? 

The report of the Commissioner of Educa- 
tion for 1H7G, shows 137 of these institutions 
now in operation, with MO teachers and 
25,a3.j students. This is probably below the 
real number, as many schools are not report- 
ed. It shows, however, to what extent these 
schools meet a wont in our system of educa- 
tion. But it is not only in the preparation 
of our youth for mercantile life that these 
nstitutioDH are doing good. They meet the 
wants of a large class whose early education 
has been neglected or limited, and who have 
leiHure hours to devote to self-improvement. 
In large cities and manufacturing towns this 
class forms no small number. In these 
schools they can receive individual instruc- 
tion, and pursue such studies as their needs 
may require. If these schools received no 
other patronage they would still be a bless- 
ing and a necessity to the country. These 
young men have gone into business inade- 
quately prepared, and nnfortunalely their 

ly; they see the necessity of more education . 
in fact, their business duties demand it, and 
wore it not for the evening sessions of the 
Business College they would have to go with- 
out training and study, or incur a large ex- 
pense in employing a private preceptor. It 
is true that there are public evening schools, 
but these are totally inadequate in many 
ways, to impart the needed instruction. The 
young man is bashful, he has arrived at man- 
hood, he feels keenly his ignorance, he needs 
coaching, he needs individual instruction, 
his peculiarities and disposition require to be 
Btudiiid, and his wants and deficieucea fully 
understood. It is to this class, as well as 
the younger members of society who have 
the time and means to prepare for business 
before entering it, that business colleges are 
B special boon. 

The Hon. Henry Kiddle, Superintendent 
of the Public Schools of New York City, in 
a recent address before the students of Pack- 
ard's Business College, said: 

"I have a very high respect and a thorough 
appreciation of the objects and office of the 
business college. The fact which has already 
been refered to. that business colleges have 
increased so rapidly in this country ; that 
they have been no prosperous, as compared 
with all other institution, shows that they 
really till a want. The scope of a business 
college is vastly wider than would appear at 
first. It is not simply to train men for busi- 
ness pursuits. The instruction is, of course, 
special and technical, and has a particular 
aim ; but that aim is general it its asef ull- 
uesa, and there is ao man, whatever sphere 

bed the names of the present thirty- 
eight States of the Union. 

Around all these, in a beautiful floral and 
rustic border, are openings in which nri' 
twenty-two pictures, representing leading 
historical events, and illustrating by con 
trasts tlie creat cbauges and improvemeut,s 
that have taken place in our coimtry 
diiriug the past hundred yaris. 

The entire «urk has the appearauce ui a 
fine steel eograviug, aud eoiistitutfs oue 
ot the most iuterestiug and attractive 
hfstorical pictures ever published in this 

The folio 

,ud.— ^ew rork i 

of life h« may choose, who would not be thirty-eight times around the fasces, having 
benefited by the knowledge he may gain In 
tnese institutions; and I could wish very 
heartily indeed that higher institutions of 
learning, the colleges and the universities, 
always gave this training as one of the essen- 
tial requisites for a diploma." 

The convention of business college princi- 
pals and teachers, recently held in this city, 
shows that these men aie alive to the interests 
and advancement of their profession. The 
discussion of the various subjects pertaining 
to a bussness education, the methods and 
manner of presenting them in the school- 
room, and the interchange of thought con- 
cerning these studies by and among the 
representative teachers of these colleges, 
must lead to admirale results. The thought 
that other institutions of learning do not 
look upon business colleges in a 
light, should not deter any faithful aud 
earnest teacher in this noble work. Let 
such an idea be rather an incentive to any 
principal to so qualify himself, and to con- 
duct nis school in a manner that will com' 
mand the respect of all people of education- 
I have yet to learn that real merit in a busi- 
ness college is not duly appreciated- In my 
limited acquaintance among the business 
college principals, I know many whose per- 
sonal qualities are mucli admired, and whose 
schools occupy an enviable position among 
the educated and the educational institutions 
of this country. From the permanent organ- 
ization formed out of this convention, we 
may look for rapid aud thorough advance- 
ment in the cause of popular education. 

Bare and Special Premiums. 

fibers whcse 

Pictiireot Progress, 23.\::n ,> 

(retails for «1); for eiu-li >■ >:■ u.d ;u,.| ..,;,'■ 
additional subscriber, remitting i~^'2, \w w ill 
ujuii the same premium free. 

For one renewal aud two additional 
subscribers, with *3, we will mail the Cen- 
tennial Picture 28x40 inches (fetalis for $2). 

Our new premium, 'The Lord's Prayer,' 
will also be mailed Iree to each new sub 
sciiber. For informatiou concerning oui 
general premium list, see 1st col., 4th page. 

To enable persons who have not seen 
the premiums mentioned above, to judge 
somewhat regarding their interest aud 
value, we give below a brief description, 
with a fen- of the multitude of Battering 
notices received from the press and emi 

The original Picture of Progress, wliich 
is now in the oflBce of the Aet Journal, is 
36x52 inches, and was executed entirely 
with a pen, requiring about one year of 
close labor. Although its design and exe- 
cution were prompted by the desire to ex- 
hibit at the Centennial, its design aud char- 
acter are equally appropriate to any time. 

It is surmounted by the Unites I States 
coat of arms, aud as a title, in large, beau- 
tiful, bold letters/the word Centennial, 
having tor a groundwork the main Cen- 
tennial building in perspective. Directly 
under this are two pictorial scenes repre- 
senting the discovery of America by Col- 
umbus, in 1492, and the landing of the 
Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock in 1620. Under 
these are two large landscape pictures,oue, 
1776, presents the country as it was then 
a vast interminable wdderness, with small 
settlements here and there, representing 
the piouer colonist, clearing away the 
forests, building log houses, fighting the 
savages, &o. The other, 1876, represents 
iftme landscape changed by the lapse of 
hundred years, from a wilderness to a 
populous empire, with numerous large 
cities and towns, vast commerce, internal 
improvementa, agriculture, public institu- 
tions, manufactures, &c., &c. Surmount- 
ing these landscapes is a scroll in which are 
nscribed the almost prophetic words ut- 
:ered byBishop Berkeley in 1728, "West^ 
ward the course of empire takes its way." 

At the left of these landscapes is a 
portrait of Washington, around which in a 

_ ) oval is written the Declaration of 
Independence, which is inclosed in a 
bundle of fasces with a scroll entwining 
thirteen times arouud them, upon which 
are inscribed the names of the original 
thirteen States of the Union. Opposite, 
to the right, is the same design, having the 
portrait of Lincoln, the Emancipation 
Proclamation, while the scroll entwines 

■ Compendium a valuable contribn- 

a exhlbU 
It evinoeB 

—Elizabeth (jV. J.) Daily 

u a— /Vqft 
. Bfardsley, 

-Prof. h. Aairt,Rea mtuf, 

tl. U is tlio most complete 
VQ ever seen.— 7Yo/. W. C. 

liuu I anticipated, wliicli waa 
c Cannon, Boston, 

I deparlnient of ornaraeslal 

111 pi-ououncing It to be inad- 
'ri iho Kiilijuct ever pcodiloed, 
I an alfuni to be without it— 

of pel 

A Beautiful and Valuable Premium. 
Until further notice we will mail to each 
3w subscriber, aud others renewing their 

subscriptiou with the first colt °t the 

JoDRNAL, a copy { 

24. Til 
most uitL-itic, 


. the 

—Newark (iV. J.) JHomin 


Ames' Compendium 

of Practical and Ornamental Penman- 
ship is designed especially for the use of 
professional penmen aud artists. It gives 
an uniisual number uf iilplmia-ts, a well 
graded series of piiu-th-:il r\'.-iciN(--.s, and 
specimens for ofl'-bauil HMnrisijici;, uud a 
great number ot t-pt-niuf-ii ^llt■L■ts ul en- 
grossed title pages, refoiutiuuH, certifi- 
cates, memorials, &c. It is the most com- 
prel>eu8iTe, practical, useful, and popular 
work to all* classes of proltssioual penmen 
published. Sent, post-paid, to any 
■ptof 85 OOjorforapre- 

club of 12 subscribe 

mium for 
the JouK> 

The following are a few of the many 
flattering notices from the press and 

G. ji. Allou, li 


rwlnr,, ■ 1 

Mi, Mr. 
,ic him- 

1 In' '.;,! Uii 

eutirt; cost oi 

w.. uuw utiur lieu 
new subscriber ji 
luyh iigetius for u 
iiloue is well V 
a year's subscripti 

id reuew- 
e doUur. 
turth the 
)u to the 

Want of space forbids a i 

tended description at present. 

Mayhew Business College. 

Detroit, Mioh. Sept. 7th, 1878. 
Dfi!; Sir, U. rewlth please find one dol- 

.V'-^u 1 ,. .,; ■, . 

■■ i J! Uic issue for September. 

;inl uioi-e inti-vesttd in the 

. •.'; your journal from the 

firatniiuiL-L^r. I 

s<.t'ais to lue to be filling an 

ou. 1 trust it will hereafter 

not only aid pel 

maneliip a.s an Ai-t, but that 

ipplit'd penmanship, as a cominerciiil branch, 
shall by itB influence materially promote the 
interests of Business Education, whose great 
importance is not yet fully appreciated. 
Truly yours, 

Iba Maykcw, 

I areuts who desire to awaken an interest 
in writing ou the part of their children, and 
teachers wljo wisn to continue, to sustain 
the interest awakened by them in their 
pupils should certainly thtm them to 
subscribe for the Journal. 

The first duty on T— Don't forget t 






for tcqulHiig b pr»ctlc«I ku 

wrtmeot »t work. »nd »ro thus . 

wl«dgeof dMiBnlngand eugro»»liig w 

iliK largpil and flin'st colleotlo 

....K'::5^s:=:^2S^ M'^C'^iWf^'^^'^m:^ "^TMi^e^^-^ 

■^J^'"" ""ill en nxzx n.^"^^^^ 

''- - flfSOLUTl'"''' %WONiwi»* ^"GfiOSSBO V ; ^^ 

Every Variety of Pen Work Promptly Executed in the Most Perfect Manner. 

Also, Counsel given as Expert on Hand- Writing and Accounts, 


ieveral tppropriate ±ad altrftclire cuts de«iKDed and engraved especJaUy Tor displaylDg, 
■culare or Catalcgues imued b.v TeacLrri" of Writing, SchodlH. Collegee, &c. By UBing tliese 

line. The 

he Youth's Companion, pub- 

D Card Writing tbau any otber jroung pen- 

e United SUlee. Tb» PtnmanUOazttU also 

Dy good worda to say. See auotber 

Y. af^ Oa*keH's Compendium, from whi 
I, pMl-pald, forfl 00. Jiend to me. 


)py-baDd." but simple, free, 

Wo bollevo Prof. KIbbe to be tbe bat JUtu 
the eountrv, and bis fiiio loltorlag, drawing, i 

ninCUEART it t 

k PESMAN, an 
J\. heopluK, aud 

Uaa taught the past y 

ship, liook- 


iill. n.'y. 


iorSOc. Samploa 10c 

"By"". N° 
of CapltnlB, 
Sc — imlque 

What Everybody Wants. 

lablp ever piibllal 

AgenU wkuted. 20S Sroidn-ay, I 

—Uon^HamitUm f 

greut ablUt; anil i-wvl geuUia — Hon. i 

Court, Waahiugtoo, D. < 

• apUndld work of arL— A'fw York TnvU J 

BiiBineBi College, BdVfaLO, n' Y. 

Hi Samples with your nnmo and price 
erms to agents, sent by mail for 10c. A. 86 
7-lt Port Eennedy, Montg. 


JVl Cards in a most dathy style for ^aOc." 
Oo. SendcoiD. Memphis. N. Y. 


T^OR SALE.-ABueineeB College, well es 
r in a city of 45,000, No opposition. 
7-3t D. T. AMES, 20S Broadwa 




20 Hemble Hi., Ulira, N. Y. 

/ \RDEBS for large specimens of FLOURISHING, 
WRITING BoUcited. Charges reasonable and eatla- 
faction guaranteed. 

Stimpson's U. S. Treasury Gold Pens. 

press on receipt 

F ^ C K ^V J{ D ' S 


Accounts, with Arithmetical Problems, 


S. S. PACKARD, PnbUaher, 

806 Broftdwaj, Naw York. 


Of superior EKOLrs. 
../oc(ui-<... 1.1 IB X.,mbt, 
r,l never:, tlyle „r<f-: 


138 and 140 f 

Forged, DisguiMd & Anonymous Writing 


K of Inks (inotuding 

LarlonviUe, Onondaga C 

^<jHJJ:l:l:l.|.l!4g ). 

n Series of 

bcHnnii PEN5 

'^^opiijifisr/ruP^/^sM use ' ' I f 


:iven Send $1 for sauiple set and agent a civmlar 
Address, U. L. MtS'^EI.niAN, 

:0-iat Gom City Business College, Quiucy, til. 


I fumisb a Plate bandeomoly c 

A. written on the 'best Bristorcards'^forasc. per 
doK. A variety of styles and prices In colored cords 

■pROM GASKELL'S " Penman's 
J? Among the large number of c 

list before ordering elsewheie. 
Boohester, N. X. 


Windsor & Newtan's super sup. Ind. Ink, pt 6tk, 2 00 

Photo-Engraving Co.'s India Ink, per stick.'.' l UO 

1 doz. J4 oz- bottles fancy colored ink sent by 

Dands Japan Ink. per pint bottle, by express.. 1 ml 

Prepared India Ink, pur boltle, by expreav <-'> 

Gillott-a^oa Steel Pons, per gross.- i SO 

" " " " " in M groisit boxes I 10 
Rpencerian No. 1, extra for Uoiulsbing 1 ao 

EngroEBlug Pens for lettering, per d ox 25 

Dixou'a American Graphite Lead PeucUn, very 
superior, per doz.^ 1 aS 

MoLee'B Alphabets i!^!!!!'.!!!'."!'.!.'""' a 60 

Congdon's Normal System of Flourtshiog 60 

" " " ofL«ttvrlng so 

Key to Spencerian Peumausliip \ 50 

Paysou, Dunton and Scrlbner's Manful l 29 

Spencerian Compendium 2 00 

" or P., D. ft S. Copy-books, per doz... . 1 fiO 

Sponge Rubber, axa in,, very superior, per piece. SO 

If you want n ncrftp-book that will flU you with de- 

llgljl.v.ry lime y>-r. uhe il, Mud (or our circular 

o-n. ■■.-'.ruvinfemUbtbB 

Daniel T. Ames, 
30a Broftdiiny, Mew Xork 



VOL. II. NO. 8. 


UEOnCK 8TlillP60N. Jr., 


L Broftdw&j:, New Torli 


TH0M\3 MAY PEIRCE, M. A., Priuclpal. 
39 South ToutU Street, PhUadelpbla. 


, PniKoiPAi.. 

Mr. Speucer was a tiiflu above medium 
size, compactly built, firm aud lieuvy in the 
itlioiilders ; bis frame was close and well put 
up; his muBcleB well developed and of ex. 
culleut quality; be was uevt-r flesby, never 
lean. Possessed by organization of a fine 
development of heart, lungs, and all other 
purls that give vital ability, endurance and 
force, he was in all things well balanced, and 
thus favored with what we call a vigorous and 
soimd constitution— one that could bear eith«r 
labor or hardship for a loug period of time. 
i\\n temperameut was bilious, sanguine and 
nervous, the nervous lu the ascendant, but so 
tempered by organization that there was no 
haste, no tlosh, no inpoherency either in 
passion, thought, labor or action. Always 
self-possessed, always doHbyrate. always mas- 

r of himself, he could hence not only turn 

M-y power ' 

I the best a 

. but by his 

Will poised temperance in all things control 
others, and beget in them that inspiration 
properly modified by serenity of mind and 
manner so marked iu all of Lis bearing and 
conduct from day to day. 

Mr. Spencer's brain was very large, fore. 
hiad very high and full, the practical and 
in^ical facvilties being in about equal force; 
111.* front anterior brain was very high and 
t uU, towering and well rounded up, few beads 
being higher iu this region. Imitation and 
licMtoUnce were very Inrg«s while upon 
the anterior sides the full and fine develop- 
ment, nowhere deficient, showed tiuit^, ide- 
ality, wit. music, and most especially inveu- 
tiou, potent and ruling forces in the always 
working and buny mind. His moral facul- 
ties were also in no respect inferior to the 
inteUectuaL There might be but little flash, 
blast«r and enthusiasm in hla religion, 

but rather a composed and exalt- 
ed manliness about it which al- 
ways gave a high moral tone to 
his whole bearing with men, 
and a silent but deep impression 
of piety and devotion in his 
daily communion with his maker 
and his God. His social nature 
was iu nothing wanting. A true, 
warm and steadfast friend, a 
most excellent neighbor, a good 
citizen, a devoted and loving 
husband, and a father (we might 
say if such a thing is possible) 
without a fault. 

Mr. Spencer might have been 
a lawyer, a minister a doctor or 
a farmer but his taste his pas 
sion his aptitude w as not in this 
direction He assuredly had 
abimdant talent for autkorshtp 
He was by nature a poet, want 
ing neither feeling emotion 
imagination or invention bnf he 
was as much perhaps as any 
man ever is, born an artist to form and de- 
velop the beautiful, not in co/^/tjt, but in shape 
He had the genius for sculpture. Accident 
drew his mind in the direction of one branch 
of art which happily had to do with the every 
day necessities of the world. He reached out 
and grasped the subject of Penmanship; he 
found it wiih a certain status, and in develop 
inent stationary ; he said to himself intuitively, 
I will not only make this art more beautiful, 
but more practical, hetter ; I will re-creatf 
Enghsh chirography. It shall be more beauti. 
ful than any other, and still it shall be just ai 
practical as any other iu the world. 

Ml'. Spencer did not create letters ; he did 
not originate English Penmanship, but after 
observation, reflection, and practically tiyiug 
almost all imaginary forms, he began tc 
classify, group, harmonize and systematize. 
The result as early as 1838 was, "Spencer's 
Business and Ladies Writing," and I will say 
Spencer's "Coaree Hand." 

In 1838, I saw him write, and became 
possessed of a full illustration of bis work. 
There was not behind it any other like it in 
the world. His "Coarxe Hand" was as much 
his own as the rest. 

His mode of teaching was also, as a method, 
new- I will here say that, like his writing, 
it was not only strongly impressed with 
orifjinality, but I havtf never seen another 
man or woman who coiUd fairly reproduce 
either his teaching or writing, but thouKands 
approach him in ench. Each also loses and 
supplies somethiug himself. But who excels 
or surpasses ? It is to me immaterial who ; 
I glory in every man's success. We all know 
that iu teaching there are many methods, in- 
Btru mentalities, ic, ic. Mr. Spencer used 
some of which he was not, and did not claim 
to be, author. Others are since introduced, 
also good. Different teachers use different 
methods in part new and original. 

As a teacher, considering the mau, the 
manner, the model, the illustration, the mode 
in full, by which I mean his method individ- 
uahzed : I believed him to be one of the best, 
yes, I will say the bej>t ttacher in the temi/i, and 
more follow him to-day as a model or author, 
than all other teachers of the Art put together. 
Still I know hosts of men and women who 
excellent iu this line, of whose ability 
mui might be proud. 

. 0/ vpen, 

There were but few as steady workers as 
Mr Spencer His whole composition drew 
not only all profit from labor but his b ippi- 

Ihe creative and pohshing power could not 
be left idle he hved lu progrem hence he 
could not be expected to be satiutied to merely 
imitate reproduce This specialt) furnished 
a field for the bent of his genius. 

As a rule, Mr. Spencer improved what he 
touched. It was, therefore for him, fortunate 
that he found an Art at baud ready for a 
modeling^another just like him to-day, this 
Art couUi mit give a iiusfnaia. Still the Art 
not exhauettd. I have heard writers eay they 
had exhausted the resources of their Art ! 
You might as well attempt to exhaust the 
creative power of God. No, there are other 
and uew departures in this and every Art. 
There is iu practical writing the spiritual and 
the scientific. The spiritual is exhaustless. 

Mr. Spencer's letters are pictures ; and the 
whole grouping a succession of pictures. I 
would therefore advise all pupils of Mr, Spen- 
cer to study, most of all, the spirit of his 
work. I am not aware that Mr. Spencer ever 
claimed to have developed ornamental pen- 
manship 08 a whole. To his work, however, 
there was a style his own. This was true of 
Tracey, Williams, Cowley aud a host of 
others. Many are, however merely imitu- 

It is not my province here to discuss styles 
of ornamental Penmanship. Iwillsayof the 
styles of the artists, the style of each has its 
excellence. I would alno say this of Mr. 
Spencer's. But his passion was not iu this 
direction. He found practical writing defec- 
tive; he corrected and revohitiouized tluit. 
This work, together with his continual pro- 
fessional labor, absorbed all energies until his 

I will here speak of his liberality. I might 
almost say there was no end to his hberality 
in his art. This was true of him from fii-st to 
last. Of course to supply the demand of his 
generosity required incessant and ever in- 
creasing labor. Mr. Spencer's peculiar method 
of teaching received its direction from the 
peculiar nature of the man. His first object 
At attach his pupils to both his art and 
himself. His whoie mauuer was persuasive, 
attractive, genial fritndl^t 

There was a silent, subtle, 
flueuce surrounding him always that won the 
pupil's love, sympathy, friendship, ihuu his 
great hope and faith iu labor was infectious. 
His grand script thrown liberally about very 
soon iuspiied on all sides enthusiasm. I do 
not say that other men do not successfully 
emjiloy these agencies — no, I only say that 
Mr. Spencer used them iu a greater degree. 
There was no method of introducing, iUuBtni- 
tmg or carrying through a lesson or a com-se 
of lessons of which I ever heard, and there 
was no style of writing with which 1 ever 
became acquainted that /tcdid notundemtand. 
This is no disparagement to others. There is 
many a man mveuts what other men will im- 
prove in use. Each may claim credit tor his 
own particular excellencies. 

If we consider the temper, quality and 
beut of Mr. Spencer's mind at 20, '^'i, 23, 
24, 2.'>, and if we rightly comprehend Ihti lu- 
terpretatiou of these, we should see that first 
he could not remain a copyist. Inveutiou was 
a ruhng faculty with him. Second, The 
systems and methods of his time or those 
before published could not be acceptable 
to his genius. We are told that he wa» 
a compiler and no more. He was not a 
compiler. He critically looked through ptiu- 
mauship as he fouud it, and his mind or taste 
gave no assent to its forms. He produced 
from the beginuiug the geruisof his own sys- 
tem, This was true of every part of what be- 
came his penmanship. This through, ex- 
periment, trial and practice and iuveution 
went steadily on to about IS'.iti and the work 
was complete. He did ofteu counsel with 
otlier penmen, and study the books, but not 
to copy or boiTOW, but to fortify a choice 
from his owu work. There was in his own 
script a/mplcte, a standard iu truth, of every 
letter large or small. These, to make, to 
group, and put together, took time and study. 
When he was done, his capitals were a finished 
work and the body of the writing just us muoh 
so. Until lie produced these capitals, they did 
not exist, and no odds by how many copied, 
pubhshed, or claimed, ihey are and iniut be 
M, forever. 

It is just as true of his writing, it is a unity 
as much as the mind was his that con- 
ceived first. Now, how should it be explain- 
ed and taught. He tried a variety of meth- 
ods; some whoUy uew, some mixed. He 
settled upon a standard method. It was 
mainly new, and was /i'.t ; what was borrowed 
was but a drop in the bucket. / never doubt- 
ed that his method was just as perfect as his 
writing. But other men might diverge from 
his method wisely, and I do not doubt that 
these departures uudiir the circumstances, are 
good, and for these the couuti-y is under oh- 
UgatiouB to them, but still 1 say hia method 
for him was the for him, and as a Nation- 
al standard the best that was possible, in my 

:aunot speak for others, but for myself I 
would hold this authorship as sacred, aud 
guard it as I would bis grave. Spencer ksew 
the value of his work ; he knew that it cost 
him forty years of his hfe. of toil, study 
and persisteut sacrifice. It was bound to be 
National. Beauty like truth can never die. 
If Qod Almighty determined that Mr. Piatt 
R. Spencer should produce the ?iandwriting 
nation, / am not the man to attempt to 
Btrikw down the decree of Fate. 

No I rather to the immortality of letters 


and his art, nnd it« grand thought which can 
□0T«r die, I would add the roi/-^ and the 
immortAlit^ of marble. I would gladly add 
mj humble iiiit< on and to the Ust. to bold 
hii precious legacy to us the people up to 
thom for scceptaocc, and feel that I woo. 
wbilo helping them, only Ao\ng justice to the 
mighty dead. 

Still, I do not forget the rights of the 
vtaaocb Hupportcra of pfnitti— Lusk, Rice, 
Warren Spencer, R. C. Spencer, Folsom. G. 
9t. Efldtnian and hosts of others ; these men alt 
of whom could shine in any gahiiy without 
borrowed light, both friends of >Ir. Spencer 
and the public ; by serving him serred them ; 
tnoQ all of original merit, and extraordinary 
skill and energy. They not only did tbeir 
friend and author justice, but were each, af- 
ter his own manner, benefactors of the na- 
tion. Mr, SpoDcer felt his obligations to his 
friends, but when, after all, we consider that 
all of this was cot for him, or them, but their 
country, for learning, for art and for time, it 
was only a common service for our common 
home, to ub all forever. 

But however much I might admire the 
grand creations of Jtr. Speocorfl genius, and 
the cunning skill of bis hand it was not this 
or thoao that drew me most to hiiu. It icai, 
that manhood waa in hiirt glorified. It was 
the symmetry and fullness of all parts of his 
character: wanting nothing intellectually, 
morally, and physically. I know there wos 
no labor of his Uf e which was not done skill- 
fully I — well I 

But I loved more, that, which was Spencer 
himtelf. A noble man 1— not hymen's or- 
dination, but by God himself. It wos, there- 
fore, with the deepest sorrow that I saw the 
iocomporable partner of his being, his life 
and hie toil, tiiken away from him just as great 
labor, years, and the cares and respoDBibili- 
ties of life began to grow heavy upon him. 
I know how much ho loved, how much he 
was bound up in this woman ; what she was 
to him in all toil, sympathy, everything — 
Why aliould she bo taken away ? 

Ho finished his work alone, but under a 
oloud. The day had lost its suii, the night 
it« moon, and the year the sum of nearly all 

lie now roaU from his labor. That pecu- 
liar creative work set apart for him was fin- 
ished. While the English language ebuU be 
writttiD, while this Empire of the West shall 
furnish heads to dictate and hands to write, 
hi* formt will be Ifjarued and used ; not as 
the creations of other men, hut hia. For 
hittory will wntch over hia right in fame, as 
ODO of her favored children. 

In OS much as it was to be my fortune that 
Mr. Speuccr through twenty years shuuld be 
my fritud ; mine a kindred pursuit to his, 
and many riuulilies not essentially converta- 
blu in a common pursuit, a common posses- 
sion of both, why should I not furnish this 
tribute, partial, feeble and imperfect though 
it be, in memory of the services and excel- 
lencies of my preceptor and friend. 

Holding, therefore, what Mr. Spencer crea- 
ted as in authorship sacredly Itiit, and nut less 
aaertd his vumory and his fame. Tfirae I 
baud over to our common country, in her 
hands let thom remain forever. 

KlngBviUe, July 17, 1878. 

My First Experience. 

My first attempt to teach n writing school 
ocourrad va the fall of 1845, in a northern 
town in New Hampshire. At that time steel 
pons were not iu general nse, ami ([uills were 
furnished by the pupils for the master to cut 
aud make into pens. They ako furnished 
the paper and ink. The paper would coutiist 
of all kinds aud sizes aud the ink would be of 
BOTural shades and colors. Altogether there 
was variety at laast. Copy books with en- 
graved copies were not known, and children 
depended upon their school teachers for the 
necessary copies and ioiitructioa. 

Finding it necessary to do something for a 
liring, and being oonsidered a pretty good 
penman for a boy of eighteen. I executed a 
few **$ptsamint4" on foolscap paper, consist- 
ing of a few flourished capitals, au eagle of 
the old style, a awan aud a pen. and a few 
lines of plain wriUug as a heading for the 
•ubseriptiou hst for a school. With these I 
began to look about for vioLims, and iu the 
course of a few days I secured the names of 

nine boys on the paper. They were taken in 
with the eagle and the " goose." I got per- 
mifisioD to use Ihtj school house free of charge. 
I kept the hoys good natored and they kept 
me busy making and mending their goose 
quill pens. 

During the twelve leseons, I learned as 
much OS they did, not only in writing, but 
how to impart what I did know to them. 
This experieuce was worth a great deal to me 

Having the notion that they needed a 
writing master more in Vermont, than they 
did in New Hampshire, I prepared for a win- 
ter campaign. I laid myself out on some 
new specimens, put them in a portfoho, 
placed my extra wearing aparrel in a carpet 
bag and struck out for a large town on the 
river. I was a tramp. I bad only a few dol- 
lars in money, but plenty of confidence, in 
fact, too much. I walked eighteen miles that 
day, only to be disappointed the next, I 
lodged at the hotel that night and in the 
morning found another writing master can- 
vassing the town for a school. He was one 
day ahead of me. I then determined to strike 
into the interior, and by dark had crossed 
the Green Mountains. I stayed over night in 
a small villaye. my funds began to look rather 
small and the town I was aiming for was ten 
miles away. It had rained during the night 
and the road was muddy ; yet I knew I must 
succeed somewhere, and I traveled on, now 
and then getting a ride with a farmer for a 
mile or two. "Distmce lends enchantment 
to the view." I began to see that the larger 
the town tlic less the prospect for success, to 
one with so little experience as myself, 

I slept that night in a store, with the clerk 
whom I happened to be acquainted with. He 
kindly invited me to help myself to cmckers 
and cheese which I gratefully accepted. 
When I began to talk about a writing school, 
I found there had been a teacher ahead of 
me, and that I must travel on. With aU my 
economy, funds were getting lower. I 
began to live on crackers and cheese and eat 
them as I wenf along, as time was money in 

I arrived at another town and made the 
usual inquiries with the usual success ; some 
one had been there only a short time before. 

Now I began to grow desperate as my 
money was nearly gone. I heard of a small 
town about five miles distant and pressed on. 
Just as I walked up to the only "tavern" in 
the place, the boarders were sitting down to 
supper. I had walked over fifty miles, had 
eaten but one square meal in two days; was 
among entire strangers and had only a silver 
ninepence in my pocket. I assumed a cheer- 
ful appearance, but it took good acting, and 
iuquiied the price of board and lodging. It 
appeared reasonable as I was very hungry. I 
took my seat at the table aud did ample jus- 
tice to the wholesome fare. After supper I 
felt better and determined to succeed in get- 
ting; a class in that village as I could go no 

I made my business known, exhibited 
specimens, and received someencouragement, 
in words at least. The next morning I star- 
ted out in company with a young lad to show 
me the houses where there were young peo- 
ple living and most likely to attend a writing 
school. liy pt:n>istent aud des,perate eflorts 
I got the names of about the same uumbpr of 
boys I had in my first class, and by commenc- 
ing at once, I finished the course of lessons 
in a little over two weeks. The receipts from 
this class just covered expenses. During all 
this time I kept the ninepence, and did not 
let any one know I was so short of money. 
Not having much to do during the day except 
writing the copies and mending the pens, I 
visited and prospected the adjoining towns 
for my next venture. On one of these 
excursions, while returning on a lonely 
roiid near night. I was caught and nearly 
perished in a fearful snow-storm. Pluck 
generally wins, and by the time I had 
finished this class, I had another engaged iu 
a town about five mileti distant. It was com- 
posed of u large number of boys and girls, 
and young ladies and gentlemen. 

By this time the Vermont winter hud set iu 
with deep snows and blustering weather; but 
that did not prevent them from coming. It 
was their season for fun, and well they knew 
bow to use it. The well-to-do farmer^' sons and 
rosy cheek daughteis, within two or three miles 

of the village, would come in with their two- 
horse pungs well filled with a jolly crowd that 
would not mind the weather. 

When the term closed I had giv^n such 
good satisfaction that another class, larger 
than the first, was secured, and conducted 
with the same success. AU this time I was 
improving my own writing and gaining valua- 
ble experience in teaching. 

Having a natiu^ talent for discipline, the 
largest schools gave me no trouble, although 
sometimes containing mischievous elements, 
the girls being the worst for a young man to 
manage. I found a few more classes during 
the winter, and when the snow was gone and 
spring came. I (ook up my carpet-bag and 
portfoho, aud re-crossed the mountains on 
foot, making fifty miles in two days. During 
those winter months I spent in the State, I 
enjoyed nearly all the pleasuresthat are usual 
for that time of the year, — the hospitalities 
of the farmer, bis sons and fair daughters, 
donation parties at the minister's, apple pair- 
ings, sleigh rides and balls. 

I wish to testify, even after so many years 
have elapsed, to their generous hospitality, 
their general intelligence and proverbial in- 
tegrity. Happy may they ever be among the 
lofty hills aud beautiful valleys of Vermont. 
I doubt that any teacher of penmanship of 
the present day iu that State would find the 
opportunities to enjoy himself as I did then, 
one third of a century ago. 

The Practice of Criticism-. 

To a young man just entering upon the 
real and tangible duties of his life's work, no 
habit is more useful, when formed, than the 
practice of criticism. There are so many 
grievous imperfections, and even falsehoods, 
iu that which a too generous charity pro- 
nounces perfect; so many morally and intel- 
lectually unsymmetrical characters on the 
pages of bfe, that it seems as though all se- 
verity had melted away with the smoke of our 
Puritan fathers' rude fireplaces, aud that the 
golden age of freedom had indeed come, bear 
ing with it a mirage and a charm which causes 
all things to take upon them the beauty and 
purity of a vision in the desert. Amid all this 
allurement to carelessness, before these beau- 
tiful beckoning fingers toward lauds of joy and 
ease, is it any wonder that a young man is 
grievously tempted to forego the rigors of 
self-examination, aud leave the estimation of 
his character and work to a smiling aud leni- 
ent world y Aud yet, what vital fact is more 
evident than this. No human charity can 
atone for the lack in a man, nor insure for 
him a fame and a memory such as, iu his fond 
delusion, he imagines he shall gain without 
toil or care ? The world may tolerate shif t- 
lessness, yea, even smite upon it, but it can 

How necessary then, it becomes for each of 
ns who are striving for a noble name, a noble 
place in life, to ignore the seeming praise of 
a world which does not condemn, aud serious- 
ly set ourselves to discover wherein we lack. 
Not that I would decry true merit and its true 
recognition and praise. Let us be thaukful 
that there is yet a full and clear distinction 
between deserved and undeserved commenda- 
tion \ yet our vanity often leads us to shut our 
eyes to this which wo know so well, and to 
accept for true praise what we are very well 
aware is false and unmerited. 

Self-criticism is the first duty of a man, 
young or old. We never pass our pupilage in 
the school. That it is a hard duty, none will 
deny ; that it is a necessary duty, all will ad- 
mit. Self-criticism implies : First - A careful 
examination of our motives and purposes. 
Second — A rigid scanning of our work, as we 
do it. The examination of our motives and 
purposes is a higher science than most of us 
attempt to bring into practical use. We all 
pore over our texts and text-books on this sub- 
ject, but very few of us are ready to meet the 
question of our stem teacher, conscience. 
And yet, if we could only bear in mind that 
there ie no hope of graduation from the 
school of discipbne iuto the fair future of suc- 
cess until we have mastered this hardest of 
lessons, I think we would neglect it less. You 
never knew a great man who was not consci- 
entious, though I grant there have been some 
great rascaU who were not. Self-respect must 
go hand in hand with the respect of other 

men, otherwise notoriety will be your highest 
round in the ladder of success. 

A rigid scanning of one's work is a duty sec- 
ondary to examination of one's motives only 
in order. It follows naturally and unavoid- 
ably from the former, and is, in fact, its vis- 
ible and outward expression. A conscientious 
man is almost invariably a good artizan and a 
good artist. But the object of careful atten- 
tion to one's manner and kind of work is two- 
fold — as the hitrhest mental culture, aud as 
the best aud surest means for improving the 
quality of that work. The first consideration 
leads us back to the subject of motive and pur- 
pose : the second brings us to the real and 
practical theme of this essay. 

Self-criticism as a means of professional 
improvement is a subject on which volumes 
would be triWaL All the importance and ne- 
cessity of the duty could never be written or 
said. Every life presents a thousand instan- 
ces of it, either as the hand-maiden of 
splendid success, or, when neglected, the som- 
bre companion of eternal failure. Innumer- 
able are the phases, the lights and shadows, 
surroundings aud diKtunces, of this Uving 
picture. No camera could contain them all, 
no eye drink in the variety of their forms. A 
few suggestions, however, might serve to di- 
rect your thoughts to this unbounded theme, 
and in so doing lead you to discover many pe- 
culiar and beautiful relatious, which can 
never be less divine than personal ! 

Criticism of one's own work fits one for ap- 
plication of one's own resources. In no other 
way is it possible for the mind and heart and 
soul to see clearly each others depths. Self- 
criticism develops a logical faculty in the 
miud. One's previous impressions rise up to 
refute their accusers ; aud before the matter is 
satisfactorily settled, one will have passed 
through a regimen of intellectual trial which 
will probably have laid open facts and re- 
sources of thought and imagination hitherto 
unknown. Self-criticism is often wholesome 
Belf-punishmeut. Shame, disappointment, 
and regret are often valuable lessons in the 
great school of life. A chapter once learned 
with tears, though blurred and dim be the 
page where our sorrow fell, will never be 
washed from the mind. There are elements 
of discipline in self-criticism whose bitterness 
is only equalled by their mighty influence as 
life inspiring elixirs. 

Finally, self-criticism capacitates one for 
the criticism of others ; and upon this thought 
I would round out my subject with a few 

The criticism of others should never be at- 
tempted until one's conscience endorses the 
justice and value of our own criticisms upon 
ourselves. Au artist ought never to put a pic- 
ture upon the market which be is ashamed to 
see hanging in his own studio. For how can 
amateur, thoughtless criticism be other than 
selfish aud unjust ! 

A^ain, one ought never to criticise hia 
brother unless thry Iiave something in common, 
some bond of sympathy by which they may 
understand each other. If your methods are 
altogether different from your fellow-artists," 
you have no right to criticise their production. 
Adopt this rule ; Be as honest and fair aud 
careful with others, as you would be with 

How to Achieve Success. 

Young men should awake to the grand 
possiilities of ai;hieviug competency, wealth, 
success! The world is (/Wr» .'—as much of 
it, at least, as they can conquer ! Direct 
effort, a little time, a small outlay, and the 
greatest barrier is surmounted I Faith, effort 
and time are at command, but what is the 
outlay f It is tuition, simply with which to 
buy salable qualifications; for it is an axiom, 
that if we would buy. we must have something 
to sell. This is too often overlooked by young 
men. They forget that practical quaUfication 
is a product as merchantable as flour, cotton, 
or cloth '. An outlay, indeed, of one hundred 
dollars tuition, for a complete business edu- 
cation at Folsom's Business College, yields 
bountiful returns, in salaries from $.')00 to 
$1,.''iOO the first year, as hundreds of graduates 
will testify. Young men, the dark age of 
business paralysis is soon to pass away, to be 
succeeded by halcyon days of financial pros- 
perity, in which you may, with proper busi- 
ness qualifications, finally achieve certain 
auoceas. — E. Q. FoUom. 

PresoDtation to P. R. Speacer, on His 
Sixty second Birthday. 

Qait« a ploafiant affair camo off &t the Log 
Writinff Seminar,^ of our beloTed friend and 
fellow citizen P. R. Spencbe, in Geneva, on 
the occasion of the f^ixty-necond birthday (1 861 ) 
of it« proprietor, the author of the Speneerian 
SynUm of Writing— 9. system more current 
than aov other in our country, and ita merits 
appreciated coeval with the Anglo Saxon race 
and language. His celebrity as a preceptor, 
it neems has drawn around him a clane, fitting 
for teachers, hailing from eix different States 
and from Canada. This claeR, unknown to 
Mr. Spencer, had at a previoiis meeting pre 
pared for the presentation by appointment of 
a committee of eight, to wit. S. D Clark of 
la.; W. C. Hooker, of N. Y.: C. F. Thayer of 
Pa.; Fr. Granger, Mich.; Miss M. E Brown 
O.; Miss M. Wheeler, Ky.; and S. \nnabel 
C. E.; to arrange material, and prepare a siit 
able address, electing E. C. Adams of la 
chairman of the meeting, in abeyance 

On Friday, at 3 p. m. the chairman an 
nounced the design and desire of the clasc 
and Mr, Spencer vacated the school for their 
untrammeled action, whereupon S. D Clark 
addressed Mr. Spencer as follows : 
litvtpented andEstecmrd TfochtT : 

It has been truly said that those alone are 
really great who have labored successfully for 
the benefit of their fellow men, and have left 
the world the better for their having hved 
Foremost among tbpse stflnd the inventors of 
writing and printing, and those who have as 
sisted largely in bringing these noblest of arts 
to their present high state of perfection To 
them the poet, the philosopher, the historian, 
owe their immortality. And who can por- 
tray tlie changed condition of the human 
raee were the vast result* of these sister in- 
ventions to-day blotted out of existence. 

This was a beautiful thought of the an- 
cients, and scarcely less true than beautiful, 
, that anartso Godlike as writing, one destined 
to lead mankind from the midnight darkness 
of barbarism, into the bright noonday of 
civilization which now floods the world with 
a blaze of glory, could be the work of Deity 
alone, and instead of a discovery of man's, it 
wftB taught him from a higher sphere. 



r and belt 


Wliot n 

ext? '• 


R. Bathb 






fi apprecift 



it is re 


L. Bosgs, 



W. Va 


History gives us a few instances in which What Is said of the Journal 

those who have labored for the good of their j. c_ Brown, Randolph. N 
race have been duly appreciated in their own most excellent pwbli 

day, and have lived to reap the rewards of W. A. Chess, Brownsville, Mich.: " It gets 
their efforts in the blessings of their fellow 
men ; Socrates, for his lessons of wisdom was 
proffered the poison cup ; Columbus, for 
giving a new continent to the world, received 
the tribule of poverty and chains: and Milton, 
the illustrious author of these_ unequalled 
works, had to seek in after years the homage 
due to his almost God-hke genius. But, 
hving in a more enlightened age, you are 
happily spared to see your system, the result 
of years of careful study and experiment 
guided by a rare artistic taste, not only the 
acknowledged standard in this country, and 
bidding fair within your hfetime to become 
the only system tjiught here, but also being 
adopted in foreign countries wherever the 
English language is spoken or taught. 
Few men can look back upon a hfe's labor 

t do without 

J. H Brown, Columbia, III.: "No penman 
who knows it« value will be without it." 

Mr. E. Blackman, Worcester, Ma.'a.: "If 
it cost double the money I would subscribe." 

J. Q. Overman, Pee Pee. Ohio: "It is 
worth more to me thau any other paper I ever 

C. Bailies, principal Commercial College, 
Dubuque, Iowa; "lam delighted with your 
JouBKAL. Long may it hve and prosper," 

G. T. Opiinger, Slatington, Pa.: "The 
JouBN.U, is very interesting. Just what we 
have long needed." 

J. B. Cundiff, New Orleans. La.: " My ad- 
miration and delight augments with each suc- 
ceeding number. " 


»pr... gl 
as tbey 
.e th, wo 

ndrous migUt. 

ADd blda tbj gl 

wing llni 


Jodj-ing Blory tb 
Of iMplrations 
nd polute the bo 







rsally coni-eeded by the press profeshional penmen and artists 
uprehensive practical and artistic guide to ornamental pen- 
lanship ever published. Sent, post paid, to any address on receipt of $5.00, or as a pre- 
3 for a club of twelve subscribers to the Jouenjix. 

O'er ohBn(^^ And ctiAnge a trinmpb stll). 
Of those who have labored with marked 
saoeess in raising writing from what you 
have shown us to have been its rude begin- 
nings, to the "thing of beauty" which greet 
UB from the written page, few occupy so 
enviable a position as the author of the 
Speucerian System, and while writing in the 
wave-washed sands of Erie, in your youth, 
studying the endless forms and combinations 
of beauty displayed in wave and leaf and 
flower and running stream, culling from 
nature's rich pages forms of grace and ease 
destined in after years to mould anew the 
writing of a nation, you were laying the 
foundation for that monument to your genius, 
carved out by the labors of your riper yeans— 
a monument as enduring as the love for the 
true and the beautiful implanted by an all- 
WIS* Creator in the human breast 

so signally crowned with success, for you 
have not only wrought an entire and happy 
revolution in the writing of the country, but 
have raised your favorite art to the full 
dignity and importance of a science. 

Several of our number have already gone 
forth upon their important mission as teach- 
ers of the Art Spencerian, for which you 
have so well prepared them, and others soon 
to follow, but we are assured that we speak 
the sentiments of every heart, when we say 
that we shall ever look back upon the hours 
passed under your instruction as among, 
not only the most profitable, but most pleas- 
ant of our lives ; and whatever the varied con- 
ditions in hfe ossigned us by the fickle god- 
dess Fortune, you will ever be gratefully and 
affectionately remembered. And, asasUght 
token of our high esteem for your character, 
r appreciation of the unwearied efforts 
you have made to promote our advancement, 
and of gratitude for the great boon you have 
conferred upon us in common with all who 
write our noble language, in giving 
world your unequalled system, we in behalf of 
the class, beg you to accept this volume, 
embracing the inimitable works of Milton, 
assured that with your well known poetical 
talents few can so highly appreciate the 
beauties of the greatest of modern poets, as 
our honored preceptor. 

The volume presented was of the largest 
print, of firm, beautifully gilt binding and 
cost $8. 

Mr. Spencer responded appropriately to 
the action of his esteemed students, and thus 
much of ' "a feast of 

was crowded into an hour, constituting 
beautiful spot in the pathway of all, and 
which all will look back 
pleasure.— .4 M(a&u?a, 0., Telegraph 

San-di Hook, Ct., Oct. 18, 1878. 
D. T. Amai: 

Deab Sib — Your Compendium of Orna- 
mental Penmanship received. It is the most 
beautiful and valuable book for penmen I 
ever saw. and I have a number of others to 
judge from. Yours truly. 

L P. Blacsman, Penman. 

S, M. Corson, Carrollton, lU.; "As an in- 
structor to the profession of penmanship it 
hiiB no equal." 

A. D. Dewhurst, New Hartford, N, T.: "I 
more than get my dollar's worth out of every 

J. C. Whitlow, Jamesport, Mo.; "I am 
impatient for its arrival. Every number is 
filled with new and valuable information." 

E. M. E. Pease, Blue Earth. Minn.: "It 
helps me greatly. I would not do without it 
for twice its cost." 

J. C. McDougall, Waresboro". Ga.: "lean 
safely say that it is the best paper of its class 
ever published in the United States, " 

O. P. DeLand, Fon du Lac. Wis.: "The 
Penman's Art Journal is the best of any 
thing in its line yet published." 

J. C. Brown, Fletcher, Ohio: "It is jusi 
what penmen want. I would not do without 
" for three times its price," 

P. J. McGee, Principal. Toledo (O.) Busi- 
iSB College: " It is now acknowledged by 
■' be the best penman's paper 
It is the penman's best 

ever pubUshed, 

J. French, 
say I am dehghed 

111.: "I 

teacher of 

out is certainly of ahigher order of excellence 
than any of its predecessors," 

C. L, Eicketta, teacher of writing, Malta. 
O.: " Penmen, iif you wish to meet with suc- 
cess, subscribe for the Jodbnal," 

A, J. Taylor, Principal of Business College, 
Kochester, N. T.: " It is not only of great 
L »^ those learning to write, but real- 

ty with teachers and adepts. 

andafiowof 80ul,"i^ H. W. FUckinger, Soule's Business College, i 

._ .:....-. n Philadelphia, Pa.: "Tour paper is far in ad- " 

vance of any periodical which has yet been 
piibhshed on the subject of penmanship." 

M. E. Bennett, teacher of penmanship 

Schenectady, N. Y.: " We have seen no pub- 

hcation pertaining to pen art that has suited 

well as the Joubnax. It is admirable." 

Zerah C. Whipple, principle of Home 
Schools for Deaf Mutes, Mystic River, Conn,: 
" I am deUghted with it. Every teacher and 
all others who are interested in good penman- 
ship shoidd come forward to its support." 

C. R. Runnells. Chicago, HI,: "The Pen- 
man's Abt Joubnal issiichapublicationasthe 
art which it advocates demands. It is nbla 
and beautiful, and should be in the hands of 
every teacher as well as admirer of the art. " 

J. C. Miller. Penman at the Keystone Busi- 
ness College, Lancaster, Pa,: "Of all pubU- 
cations on the subject of penmanship. I find 
the Journal most luminous and interest- 

H. Russell. .loliet Business College: "I 
am more than pleased with its fine appearance, 
and it certainly seems that since we have at 
last got the right men at the helm, we shall 
have what has long been needed, a good pen- 
man's journal.'' 

D. J. B. Sawyer, Principal of Dominion 
Business Institute. Ottawa. Canada: "Your 
paper is doing a great work by keeping up a 
spirit of emulation among penmen. It is 
whole-souled and absolutely unselfish. Suc- 
ceeding generations will bless and cherish the 
name of Ames." 

J. W. Swank. United States Treasury De- 
partment. Washington, D. C: "Your Joub- 
nal is a 'jewel.' It is the best dressed, the 
most ably edited, and contains more real 
' hard pan ' information in its columns than 
any paper of its class that has ever been pub- 
lished in this country." 

S. S. Packard, New York; " Y'ou have 
shown the disposition as well ae the nbiHty 
and taste to give us a class paper for one dol- 
lar a year, which in point of artistic appear- 


J. C. Bryant, President of the Buffalo Busi- 
ness College; "The Journal is so beau- 
tifully gotten up. and so well filled with 
sensible and spicy matter that I feel it almost 
a duty to double my subscription, I need not 
express a hope that it will be a permanent 
success, for there can be no failure if you 
keep up the present standard." 

G. A. Gaskell: "The variety of excellent 
fac gimiUA oi yo\XT pen-work you are giving, 
as well as its choice rending matter, makes it, 
in my opinion, superior to any of its prede- 
cessors. No penman, old or young, veterans 
or beginners, in the profession, can read the 
Journal without deriving great benefit." 

W. P, Cooper. Kingsville, 0.: "I can 
imagine nothing more elegant or better. It 
abounds in choice articles that revive old 
m^ffmories and loaf friends ; and is rich in 
wholesome instruction ; while its embellish, 
ments are superb bits of art, not only redo- 
lent of progress, but warmed by the ever 
creative brain and cunning hand of genius 
and trained skill," 

Hon. Ira Mayhew. Detroit, Mich.: " Ihave 
been more and more interested in the succes- 
sive issues of your Journal from the first 
number. It seems to me to be fiUius an im- 
portant mission. I trust it will hereafter not 
only aid penmanship as an Art, but that ap- 
plied penmanship, as a commercial branch, 
shall, by its influence, materially promote thft 
interests of business education, whose great 
importance is not yet fully appreciated." 

Henry C. Spencer, Spencerian Business 
College. Washington, D. C: "The Journal is 
the medium of fresh news, useful informa- 
tion, best ideas of genial, clear-headed teach- 
ers and penmen iu regard to their profession, 
and a repository of beautiful and attractive 
illustrations of pen art from your own port- 
folio, and others. Without thought of flat- 
tery, I say sincerely. I think you have the 
talent, breadth, tact and spirit of pood will 
requisite for the management of the Joub- 

From the Press. 

Stiidjmt'» Journal : " There is probably no 
man on the continent better qualified than 
Prof. Ames to conduct such a periodical. 
The products of his skillful pen are many and 
beautiful, and show that he is truly an M. 
P.— not Member of Parliament, but Matf^ 
of Penmamhlp:' 

'It is one of 
and ever issued." 
, TT<yy (N. Y.) Daily Press: "Noprofes- 
aional penman or aspirant for pen honors can 
afford to miss a single copy. The articleeare 
from the pens of some of the best penmen in 
nerica. .\a for the engravings, it is enough 
say that Prof. Ames has charge of that de 

A. J. M. Hosom, of the Ohio Valley Busi- 

ss College, Parkersburg, W. Va.: "We 

■re so much dehghted with the Journal 

that we shut down business and read every 

A. C. Blackman, Green Bay. 0Vi8.)Buai- 

iss College: "I have learned more from 

the few numbers of the Joubnal received 

than from all the penman's papers ever pub- 


Cliirographic MfdUy. Toledo. Iowa: "The 
Penman's Abt Journal is filled with very in- 
teresting reading for all friends of the art it 

N. T. ScfioolJournal : "It is ably edited 
and skillfully illustrated. Mr. Ames is a nias- 
terin his profesfiion, and will undoubtedly 

Canadian School Journal: "It is a live 
practical Journal, devoted almost exclusively 
to penmanship. It is profusely illustrated, and 
handles this much neglected subject in a mas- 
terly manner." 


PnblUbed I 

D. T. AME8. : 

aoa Bruadmy, New Totk. 
AlDgl* roplw of JocKWAi, MDt on r*crfpl of l«; 
UDta. HrMlnieo coplu f arnliibeil to AgenU free. 


1 month 3 mon. mo*. 1 TW 
I Colnmn tlOOO $35 00 fAfi 00 «I30 



ifrtptinn or k good word ; hii 


berdore offer thn followina 

a a«eni#. 




rn. wc Hill aend » copy of thn Lord'* 



(I BM «u1iiirrlb<irii, liicloMlng t'i. wr wl)] mfl 

1 touch 



R pQbll- 


oDH, each of wblcb nre nmong tbe flnwt a 


of ponniBnaDIp cv«r publtabod. rle. : 


OanltinnlBl Holur* of ProgreM . . .20x28 In. In "lit- 

Lord'«Pnnrflr 1»«»4 " " 

MMTlftBe 0«rtlfloot« ,...lHx» ■■ 

Pamlly Rooord ,...18xM || '^ 

eo BftaliUnU Horoll Oardi, 18 different deslgnn. 


nrlbrocninin and (.1 we will forward 

he large 


IrnnUI Picture, ale« 38x(0 Inchea, relalU 
or ilx D«raw snd M wc will forward a 


of Amea' (lompnndlnm of OrnftmnnlAl Penmanship, 
price IB. The ume honnrt In gilt will be aent for 
e1|thtei>n flnbiinrlberii and |IH, prloo $7.n0. 



Flatt B. Spencer. 

Upon till' flrst page of tbo Journal will 
be found iin excellent porlrail of Piatt R. 
Spencer, luilhor of Spenceriiin Pciinianship. 
ftccompiuiicd with a ik'llnciilion of liis 
ehnmcter, Hbilitios iind liibors, by bis 
co-laborer nnd friend, Wra. P. Cooper, 
iind most admirably bns tbc writer treated 
n most worthy subject. No other penman, 
in Ihe annals of time, hii^i in nil respects 
loft ft record more to be envied, or more 
worthy of emulation Hum Plntt R. Spencer, 
and what is scarcely less remarkable, his 
own genius and skill have been to a remark- 
able deprce transmitted to a larpe family of 
6008 and dauKhtcrs, all of whom have won 
for themselves enviable reputations as 
writers, lynchers and authors, and have 
ably Rupplemented tbc skillful labor of their 
father in perfecting the system and up 
building a fame thai is now almost world- 

Robert C. Spencer, the oldest of his sons, 
ts a popular and successful manager of a 
business collepo at Milwaukee. Wis. ; Henry 
C. is conductinp. with like succewi, a business 
college at Washington, D. C. ; Piatt R. is 
at the head of the Spencerian business 
college. Cleveland. Ohio; Harvey A., a twin 
brother of Henry, conducts a commercial 
school and manages a giMieml land agi'ncv 
at Dallas. Texas. He is rvmniug on the 
Qr«eDback ticket for State ronipiroller. 
Lyman P.. the youngest of the brothers, 
devotes his entire time to the preparation of 
Spencerian publicntions. He resides in 
Washington. X). C 

Mr*. Samh Spencer Sloan, the oldesi 
daughter of Piatt R. Spencer, is ihe wife of 
Mr. .luniusR. Sloau. an artist of wide repu- 
tation. She IS probably the most accom- 
plished lady wTitcr iu the world, and a 

portion of her time givea to Chicago semi- 
iries of learning the benefit of her talents 

a teacher. 

Sirs. Ellen Spencer Mussey. the only 
other surviving daughter, is the wife of 
Gen. R. D. Mussey. a talented lawyer of 
Washington. D. C. She was a teacher of 
penmanship and commercial branches prior 
to her mitrriage and is said to be an able 
assistant to her husband in hisotUce work. 

Since Mr. Cooper in dealing directly with 
the character and labors of Mr. Spencer, has 
properly omitted all information re- 
ganling his parentage and corly histoi-)', 
perliaps a brief sketch here would be 
aeceptnbie to our readers. 

He was born at Fishkill, Dutchess Co.. 
N. Y., in the year 1800. While quite young 
he manifested a marked taste and skill for 
writing— it is claimed by his biographers 
ihfil when a mere boy practicing writing 
after Hip rude copies, in a common school, 
he ennceived the plan of a more perfect 
system, and that great precocity and skill 
was shown in his criticisms of copies. 
About the year 1807 his father moved from 
Fishkill to Windham. N. Y.. where, some 
two years after, he died, and the mollicr 
and eliildren emigrated to the then wilder- 
ness of Northern Ohio. Here as a pioneer, 
beyond the verge cf civilization, away from 
seliools. without social advantages, his 
mother being poor, he was, while amere boy, 
thrown almost entirely upon hia own re- 
sources. Through youth to manhood.hiswas 
a Hcvirre struggle with poverty. But his 
inten!$e application and zeal iu the study 
and prataice of writing enabled him, at the 
age of fifteen years, to acquire sufficient 
skill to commence instructing classes, which 
he did very successfully iu many of the then 
small villages of norlhern Ohio. He con- 
tinued thus, to teach with rapidly-growing 
fame for many years, until he built at his 
home in Geneva, Ohio, his "log cabin 
seminary," which, although a rude and un- 
inviting structure, was furnished with all 
conveniences for school Hither 
came pupils from far and near, drawn by 
tlie widely spreading fame of its master, 
and they wont forth, all true disciples of 
Spencerian; and many most skillful and 
successful teachers; until at length the old 
logseminary. or " Jericho," as it was called, 
became one of the most widely and justly 
famed institutions in the land, and is the 
cherished "Alma Mater" of scores of our 
most noted teachers and authors of writing. 
In the later years of his life he devoted 
much of his time to the preparation of his 
system for publication and to teaching 
writing in the Bryant and Stratton chain of 
business colleges. He died at his home in 
Geneva, Ohio, in 1864. His system, re- 
vised and in many respects improved by his 
sons, is most famous, and more extensively 
taught and practiced than any. perhaps all 
other. American systems. 

The Worthy Friends of the Journal. 

Throughout the country are a large num- 
ber- some thousands— of persons engaged 
professionally teaching and jiracl icing pen- 
manship, many of them with a marked de- 
gree of success, as regards both (inance and 
fame, while many others have never even 
seen the sunny side of fortune, " luck being 
perpetually against them." 

We have observed, that almost without ex- 
ception, the former are among the early sub- 
scribers, and many have been able corres- 
pondents to the JorRSiL. and alt have mani- 
fested a lively interest in its welfare, from its 
first advent. While few of the latter class are 
omong its subscribers or have manifested any 
interest in its success, beyond occasionolly 
sending a postal card for a specimen copy or 
boring its editor with chaffy, selfish letters 
covering from one to four pages of fools- 
cap, and perhaps promising to subscribe for 
the JorRXAL when they could get a dollar, 
for which we suppose they are Hiill striving. 

Success in any calling is measured by the 
means one can command to secure it. The 
teacher who is well qualified, clear, ready, 
and bright, will find thai fortune delights "to 
attend him, while one poorly qualified, dull 
and rusty she will slyly watch from tlie dis- 

Discorning. aspiring and working teachers 
know this, aud accordingly, seize with alac- 
rity, upon any worthy means to add to their 

gth and accomplishments. They saw at 
in this JouBNAi. a strong, powerful 
friend and aid to themselves and to the pro- 
fession, and hastened to welcome and en- 
courage it with their subscriptions and con- 
tributions to ita columns. Indeed, as we 
look upon our roll of subscribers as they 
have been added from month to month from 
its first issue, the names are. with few honor- 
able exceptions, graded from first to last, 
according to the recognized standing aud 
ability of the persons as skillful teachers or 
earnest pupils of writing. Those first tlpon 
Ihe roll are the acknowledged leaders and 
the representatives of the highest intelli- 
gence and greatest skill in the profession, 
ami are so because they avail themselves 
promptly and liberally of all the best means 
for obtaining new thoughts and practical in- 
formation bearing upon their chosen pro- 
fession. The largest success to them is natural 
and easy, while to others it is correspond- 
ingly limited and difficult. 

Now, there is scarcely a professional 
teacher in the United States or Canada, who 
has enterprise or skill sufficient to command 
respect or attention, who is not a subscriber 
to the JofRSAL, and is not successfully ex- 
erting his or her influence to increase its cir- 
culation among pupils and friends who are 
less directly interested in writing. 

What is true regarding the early .subscrib- 
ers to the Journal, is by no means excep- 
tionable. It will hold true regarding any new 
and worthy enteiprise or innovation. It is 
very natural that the first friendsand patrons 
should be those who are most ripe from 
study, thought and experience in that direc- 

Should a periodical devoted exclusively 
and ably to science, art, medicine, music, 
law. agriculture, mechanics, or any trade or 
profession, be started, the first to hail its 
advent, welcome and sustain it, would be the 
most able, conspicuous and aspiring repre- 
sentatives of that calling. 

To those who have so promptly and ably 
come to the support of the Journal, we re- 
turn our thanks, and assure them that we 
shall spare no labor or expense to render the 
Journal to the highest degree interesting 
aud valuable to all friends and patrons of 
skillful penniiinsliip. 

The New Bryant & Stratton Counting 
House Book-Eeepmg. 

This book is intended to supplant the old 
counting-house book-keeping which for the 
past fifteen years has been familiar to our 
best commercial teachers. It can hardly he 
said to be a revision of that book, for it is, 
in almost all respects, whollynew. It starts 
out with a clear and full enunciation of 
economic principles, which are laid so broad 
that they make a generous foundation for 
all neces-sary theories of book keeping. The 
author has evidently expended a great deal 
of time and investigation in laying this 
foundation: and although he has found it 
necessary to establish a uoinenclaturcdiffcr- 
ing somewhat from the text books on politi- 
cal economy, he has nevertheless made his 
premises very clear, and drawn his conclu- 
sions therefrom in a logical and satisfactory 
manner. Beginning with the measure of 
value, he proceeds by regular steps to the 
great moving force of business, af(piinition. 
He gives five distinct powers in acquisition, 
namely: labor, rrnt, f^change. gift, and cir- 
eum»tanff. The first three may be used, 
and are used actively; the other two are in- 
cidental, hut not the leas effective. Upon 
these divisions he founds tbe whole theory 
of business out of which grows the neces- 
sity of record, and enforces his ideas with a 
fullness of text and illustration which kjivcs 
nothing to be desired by teacher or piipil 
In fact, there is liable to e.\ist a qm-vtion iis 
towhether too much elaboration is not given 
to that part of the work which is styled 
" the statement of the subject." It must be 
conceded, however, that Mr. Packard, wlio 
bos for so many years held the position as 
teacher and author, and whose book-keeping 
theories, original and swcepinga.s they were, 
have been po generally accepted by leadiLTs, 
has a right to be heard at rea.soiiiil)k' h-ngih 
upon any part of a subject to wliicli lie has 
given s;) much of his life: and we feel free 
to say that a critical examination of his posi- 

tions, in their order and effect, has brought 
us to the conclusion that he has made no 
mistake in speaking his mind freely. It is 
true that he has devoted an unusual space 
to the philosophy of book-keeping, but every 
page and section are so fraught with practi- 
cal suggestions which can but be helpful to 
the student lus he proceeds in his work, that 
he is more likely to be commended than 
severely criticised for this departure. The 
teacher who brings himself honestly to the 
task of adopting this book to individual in- 
struction, will soon see that what appears 
to be simply a philosophical dissertation 
upon the economical aspects of book-keep- 
inc, is really a fund of knowledge from 
which practical hints can be drawn as needed 
to apply strictly upon any part of the 
student's work. In his preface, the author 
very propcily suggests where the student's 
work.-linuM ].. -ill ill <:i-<- it is not best for 

him to fnii.w 111 -' i II live method as laid 

down. Up. Ill Mil- MMihi hosnys: "Whether 
the first M-M.y p;.-!- u h. n in arc so fully dis- 
cussed the main qu^tiou relating to business 
and record are to be made a close subject of 
study by any student at the outset is a 
mutter for the teacher to decide in the case 
of each student. If he finds no trouble in 
following the course of reasoning, and be- 
comes fully interested in the gradual un- 
folding of the subject, a great vantage point 
will be gained by encouraging him to pursue 
this method; but if. on the other hand, he 
does not readily catch the thought, and is 
apt to get bewildered in trying to follow the 
sequences as laid down, he should not be 
held too rigidly to the work, but turn at 
once to the practical exercises, depending 
upon the direct instruction to which refer- 
ences arc constantly made. To a certain 
class of minds, a plain synthetical unfolding 
of a subject in logical order carries a force 
and conviction to be obtained in no othor 
way; while to others reasoning must come 
in detatchments, with constant resting places 
and ample means of attestation. To the 
former a clear statement of a principle is the 
open door to all the truths which it embodies; 
to the latter the wisdom of formulating ideas 
in words which are to serve as a key to the 
knowledge which they seek is never appar- 
ent until the knowledge has been obtained 
through other means." 

The book, as it stands, is the last and best 
work of the author, and embodies his freshest 
thoughts upon his favorite theme. It is 
adapted to private instruction as well as to 
class drill and to business college work, and 
will no doul)t be accepted as the best contri- 
bution to our list of commercial text books 
yet mode. It has fewer pages than the work 
which it supersedes, and will be sold at a 
lower price, but the author claims that it has 
in it more real instruction and much more 
work for the student. Great care has been 
taken to present all the best modem ideas 
and forms, some of which arc far in advance 
of anything yet published. Prom our point 
of view, one of the most instructive and 
beautiful sets is that of the wholesale dry 
goods business reiireseuting a Chicago house. 
It would hardly be possible to put within 
thirty pages more genuine information. We 
have looked this set rarefully through, and 
do not remember ever to have seen anything 
so full and satisfactory. Upon the whole, 
we feel that Mr. Packard has honestly met 
the high expectation which his promise has 
excited, and that the new counting house 
book-keeping, will have a career of useful- 
ness not excelled by any recent lestbooK. 

Camadian School Journal, Oct., 1878. 
Ames' Compendium of Practical and Orna- 
mental Penmanship. By Prof. D. T. 
Ames. New York. 

This work is a complete compelidiiin] of 
pen art. coutniniiig over twenty entire alpha- 
bets of different kinds, numerous designs for 
eugrossed le^olutions, testimonials, certifi- 
cates, title-pages, monograms, and a great 
variety of truly avtistic pen-flourished designs 
of every defioription. The work is the most 
elegant and elaborate publi.shed on the sub- 
ject, and should be in the hands of evtrj pen- 
man and engrobser. as ideas, designs, styles 
of borders, lettering, flourishing, ^c, may be 
found therein to suit almost any taste. It has 
to be seen to be properly appreciated. Tbe 
photo-engraving and printing of the n 
pen pictures are am&rrel of excellence. 



TJmtyand Simplicity of Forms of Let- 
tera Necewary to Good and Kapid 

Easiness Writing- 
Much practice in Icuming to «"<« ■» ' 
bj miiking UBC of a niultipUcity of coiD 
cl«,l torniR ol iBtUrn; ool onlj i» the ocqiu 
niliou of o good buudwritlng thu» mudo r— 
diffloull, but the .iib.e<|.ieiit practice is 
dered proportionaU'lj alow and tedious. 
The aimplo forran are not only more easdy 
J ,«-.. nnifllir pxecut#d, but 
acciuircd. and more repioiy oiei.uviu, 

Ibov are more easily read than the 

nato styles; in fact those forms that cost the 

most, are worth the least 

chant should constantly purchase an inferior 

chu« of merchandise, and pay the high pnco 

of the beat ; bis chances for success certainly 

would not be very promising. 

Labor, whether of the clerk or mechanic, 
is rewarded according to the resulla it can 
produce. The copyist or clerk who can write 
one hundred words, equally as well, in the 
Baoie time that another writ«s fifty, will cer- 
tainly, other things being equal, command 
muoh pay. 

The rapi.lity with which writing can be 
ejocuted, depends largely upon the simphc- 
ity of the forms of letters used, and the size 
„t the writing. A medium or small hand is 
written with much more ease and rapidit.y 
than a largo hand ; from the fact that the 
pen can bo carried over short spaces in less 
time, and with greater ease than over long 
ones, and can execute simple forms more 
easily and rapidly thim complicated ones. 
To illustrate. Suppose one writer were to 
habitually make the capital H thus: 

How to Prepare India Ink. 

nswer to numerous inquiries upon tb 
.ul.jcct we would say : Procure a stick of 
uk of line qnalitv.and a sloping tray of 
porcelain or slate, at the end of the slope 
should be a well to contain and give depth 
to the ink: put into the tray rain water suffl 
dent to make the desired quantity of ink. 
id then grind the stick of ink into the 
„atcr upon the sloping bottom of the tray 
until it becomes of the desired degree of 
blackness, when it is ready for use. It should 
be thus freshly ground each day that it 
used, by standing over night it prccipitat 

■ea, so that when dry upon the paper 
it crocks and is easily removed by the rub 
bcr. Many inexiicrienced persons seek 
prepare the ink by shaking and dissolving 
rater; it cannot in that manner be suffl 
itly pulverized to either flow rendil; 
i„ ijive a solid black line. A very deli 
and pleasing cflecl is imparled to writing and 
drawing by lirst using a light shade ot ink 
and then 'retouching the shaded porti 
with darker ink, this will not do, howeve., 
tor work designed tor reproduction by either 
the photoengraving or lithographic pro- 
cesscs,the!ie require clear, strong, black lines, 
and the pencil lines should be removed with 
soft sponge rubber. 

F. C. Hall, of Liverpool, New York, 
fine writer. 

Harp Van Riper is teaching writing at Cir- 
cleviUe, Ohio. 

T. J. liisinger is the accomplisbed super, 
.jtendent of writing in pubhc schools at New 
Castle, Pa. 

Mr. E. Bennett is highly complimented by 

the Schenectady, New York Daitp Union (or 

ccess in teaching writing in that city 

F. B. Davis, whi 

writer and teacher 

ig large classes i 

I. S. Preston, i 
Saratoira and vieii 
former pupils, H. 

is reported to be a skillful 
n New England, is instruct 
1 the "Old Nutmeg State 
i teaching large classes at 

which requires eleven motio: 
to eieout*. and that another i 
ly make it thus : 

A.J. Bicknell & Co., 27 Warren street, 
New Y'ork, have just issued two interesting 
and valuable works upon architecture, en- 

Prof. J. W. Van Sickle of the Business 
lege Springfield, Ohio, is writing a hie 
of the Van Sickle Family in the United Sti 
Professor F. K. Fritz, an accomplished 
riter and formerly editor of the - Nm 
Englmid Star," Ansonia, Conn., is spending 
a season ui Europe. 

O. W. Michael. Valparaiso, Ind,, has been 
a very popular and successful teacher of writ- 
ing. Many of our Western Knights o' tbe 
QuiU are indebted to him tor their skill. He 
mcloses some superior sUps of his writing. 

E L Burnett, LaCrossa, Wisconsin Bosi- 
„jse CoUego sends attractive specimens of 

Two most exquisitely written letteia hava 
been received diuing the month from Lyman 
P. Spencer. 

F B Davis, .Towitt City, Conn., sends Bupor- 
jr specimens of plain, flourished and fancy 
lolored card writing. 

T J Pricket, penman at Soule's Business 
College, Philadelphia, Pa., sends an eiceUeut 
specimen of business writing, 

.7 E Soule, Philadelphia, Pa., sends a pho- 
.jgraphof a beautiful specimen of engrossing 
executed at bis business college. 

C N. Hamilton, New Augusta, Ind.,wriljes 
« handsome letter, in which he encloses skiU- 
f u! flourishing and card WTitiDg. 

D R LiUibridge, Davenport, (Iowa) Busi- 
■ss Cnllege, sends a fine specimen of letter 
ritiiig and off-hand flourishing. 
\well executed specimen of flourishing and 
a set of off-hand capitals has been received 
from B. F. Cagle, Murfreesboro, Tenn. 

GuB Hulsizer, Toulon, 111. . sends a hand- 
niely flourished specimen, and a fine collec 
>n of unique designs of flourished cards. 
H \V Stooer, Soule's B. & S Business Col- 
lege' Philadelphia, Fa., sends most easy and 
gAceful specimens of business and card 

Some most elegant specimens of business 
writing have been received from S. K. Web- 
ster, who is teaching writing at Gregory s 
Business College, Newark, N. J. 

,Jos Foeller, Ashland. Pa.. sendsaphotogra- 
! pbic copy of the Lord's Prayer in the Irish 
I language, which is skillfully designed and 
well executed. 

; of Ihe hand 
•re to uniform- 

requiring only four motions of the hand. It 
is apparent that the difference of time re- 
quired to make each cannot he less than the 
proporiion of eleven to four; that is not all. 
The comphcated form, consisting of many 
lines, some of which are required to rim par- 
allel to each other, and all made with refer- 
ence to balancing or harniouiziug with some 
. other line, requires to be made with greater 
care and skill than the more simple form, so 
that the disadvautage is even greater than in- 
dicated by the simple proportion between 
eleven and four. 

This plan carried out through the alphabet, 
would be fatal to rapid and legible business 

Unity of forms in business writing is also 
very essential to rapidity aud excellence— 
The mechanic who makes one thing a special- 
i\, acquires great skill aud dispatch in his 
win-k, in fact he becomes tbe representative 
Tu.iu in his vocation so the writer who makes 
USD of the miniunim number of the most sim. 
pie forms of lettci-s iu WTitiug, will beoomt 
proportionately more skillful and rapid, than j "'j''„Y';,„|,ie 
he who adopts the uiaximiiiii number of the ' 
most complicated forms. 

These remarks are intended to apply more 

reproduced by the N. Y. Photo-Eng. Co. from flourishing '>«iJf"«"''S ''y.»;;.^„„Y:.''™\iXp^^^ 
tb? special Normal Penmanship Department of the Bryant & Stratton Business College, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Slhol who has tor some 'years been justly recognized as leading this d'P"'"'™' °'^f ™7°ctj„i^^ 
•rfirsKuVoiibined with Lyman Spencer, produced those most "■}'■■»■''-*-»;■=";-„ ^^"011! hsS houset N^w^YoT ' ' 
Ivison, Blakeinan. Taylor A Co. and which have smce attracted so muc h atten tion apdpraiBc^^xtueir puuimu k __ 

"~ " " ~~ ~r Ti^ Z ^ I „, t. Ti ~ , TV ■„!,.■.- n,.=ineoEnnllp(ro I Jacksou Cftgle, Atlanta. Ga., 

itlert '-Old Homes matie New." giving' ^ v. Ti»nn,G r.t Wncht k Ru8me8St.oueffo. i «» b . ,...., 

The specimen given above ii 
aseociated with J. E. Soule, in 
and with the Spencer Brothen 

Although this cut, 118 is nee 
work, yet it speaks well for 


. E, Dennis, at Wright's Bus 
I Brooklyn, New York, has just ( 
uquisitely fin 

(S CoUego. 

n( n\ri nnd new I ^^oo"*?"' ^^'^ ^°'''^- '^'^ ■'"'*^ uoiupleted an 

. " t\ exquisitely fine specimen of pen drawmg m 

trior aud mterior. It is ot kj^^ j^^.^^^ ^j ^ ^.^^g^^, gyj.^oyy^e(i with a finely 

. jirchitccts. as well as to all Urrought wreath of flowers. It is among the 

npliiling any extensive, altera- finest specimens wo have examined. 

Dof llicir homes, another a specimen hook Col. Geo. Soule. President of Soule Com- 

■inf one hundred most approved arfihi- mercial College and Literary Institute, New 

" , J, ■ v - 1 .- ^lo^^.inn Orleans La. recently favored us with a caU. 

. , . , ■ , I ^"'"r**! des.gis, showing plans, elevation ^"e^ . y ^^^ 

tal aud proftisfiional j ■ „„ ^f c.,i.i.rKnn ImiiRPft viUnii ,„_ on niii return irum a vihn, tu x^ ^ 

,. . ' , . I and views of suburban houses, villas, sea p^ris Exposition. He is a genial and accom- 

side and camp-ground cottages, homesteads, pUshed gentleman. His institution has long 
churches and public huildings. accompanied maintained an enviable reputation among the 
cuurcuis u I. - „„,„-„,^ j^/ The business coUeges of the South. Itshheralty. 

with specifications for materials, &c, Thel ^^ J^ ^^^^^^ appreciation of what 

work is finely engraved and printed, and U^ advantageous to its pupils and patrons is 
bound in excellent style. They have also evidenced in the fact that it has, during the 
published a very interesting book entitled j year past, fumished more subscribers to tbe 
" Echoes of Song." by Mrs, Lucy H. "Wash- 
ington. Fine English cloth, ink and gold, 
12 mo.. 20 pp. Price $1.50. 

his customary excellent styl 
promises to furnish a speci— 
work for the December i 

in which he 

of his best 

miher of the JouB 

ritmg, where show and beauty arc of great- 

coufiideration than dispatch, variety 
imploxity of forms arc quite proper, and 
?en necessary. 

Hew Drawmg Books. 
Ivison. Blakemnn, Taylor &. Co.. have re- 
rcnily published a school series of White's 
drawing books, revised by Professor II. P. 
f^mith. teacher ot drawing in the New York 
)>ul>lir scliooltt, which are peculiarly adapted 
lor use in public or private schools. They 
Bbould be examined by all teachers of draw- 
ing- Sec advertisement on last page. 


We tjike pUaMire in agsiin calling the at- 
tention of our readers to the illustrations in 
the present number of the Journal, as fine 
specimens of engniving. The cuts were all 
nuule by the New York Photo-Engraving 
t'ompany. We believe that their process 
aud facilities for furnishing cuts are un- 
equalled olsewhero in the country. 

BosineBs Colleges and the Jonmal. 

The success of the Journal should be es- 
pecially desired and aided by these institu 
tions. since it will treat, as a specialty, upon 
subjects which they make a specialty of 

We believe that instructors in those insti- 
tutions can do their pupils no greater ser 
vice than to induce them to subscribe for 
and read the JocnxAL Many appreciate 
this fact, and have forv^'arded long lists of 
subscribers from among their pupils ; we 
trust many others will do thus wisely. 

B. T. Rawson. Worcester, Mass., sends two 
specimens about 4xG inches skillfully flour- 
ished with red, green, white, and gold luks. 
these colors are blended with much taste and 

Thomas J. Bryant, Principal of the St. 
Joseph, Mo., Business College, sends a very 
fine specimen of flourishing, also a hthogra- 
phic copy of an elegant specimen 
as taught in his college. 

H W. Fhckinger with J. E. Soule, 
B. & S. BiisinesK College. Philadelphi 
sends two gems of flourishing, a reproduction 

from one of which will he found — ■ ***"- 

page. It will speak for itself. 

Messrs. MeCreary & Shields, forwarded a 
specimen of engrossing '2'2x2i^, 


le, in the\ 

>bia Pa.. I 
reduction \ 
1 another \ 

by H. W, Kibbi 
ductorof the Pen .\rt Sri,. ml, , 
their business coIl<-'^f "1 In n 
Masters Heron mul ' 'i.|i.,iil 
E. Bennett, teacher of ilr;i^\ii 
at Schenectady, N. 1-. lb« fom 
creditably executed landncapi with 

sends oredit- 


J. 51. Van Potter, Ayhuer, Ont.. 
skiUfuUy executed specimen of flourishing. , 

F- H. Waters, Garrettaville, Ohio, incloses [ 
a tastefully executed specimen of flourishing. | 

0. W. Palmer. Sullivan, Pa., sends some ' 
beautiful specimens of plain and flourished 

nplU of M. 

jir,<l writing 

tht; latter a 
what elaborate specimen of drawing. Con- 
sidering the age and period of instruction of 
I the lad-*, they are creditable lo pupils and in- 

Gems of flourishing aud exquisite cara writ- 
ing, accompanied with a most gracefully writ- 
ten letter comes from Thomas J. Stewart, 
penman at the Capital City Business College, 
Trenton. N. J- Mr. Stewart is a pupil of H. 
W. Flickinger, whose skill he pays a well de- 
MTved oomffliinent vhen he wya: " I try to 


follow the tootsUp* of mr deu- teMher, Mr. 
FlickJnger. but the aaM^r hu too much skill 
for bis pupil. I fr»qiinntly get djuconraged 
wht-n I sltidy that eTTii«te touch di'pUyed in 
h»« penmAnfihip " We npprrciat^ the popU'i 
lAslc, bat discouragement should jield to bop«. 

J. L. M., Wntnpnm, Pb.— Tour writing 
ffiperior in every rospoct. Extended and cai 
full practice wiU add to it« ease and grace of 

H. C. D,, Pot«dAra, Ohio.— Your writing is 
▼ery good. What you most need is careful 
practice upon the fore arm and combined 
movement, which is by all raeanB the best for 
practical writing. 

A. L. C. Boston, Pa. — We cannot well give 
leRKons in eiigrosHiog through the JnriiNAL. 
Your writing in tolerably correct in form. 
You do not give auffloient attention to the 
proper curvenin your connecting linen. Vou 
appear to use the Soger movementlargely. and 
fiiil in ease and grace of movement. 

0. D. B.. S|.ringville, N. Y.— Drawingscan 
be reproduced by either photo -engraving or 
poto lithgraphy without reduction, but the" 
lines are enlarged, wliich gives to the print a 
ooarse, blacli, blurred appearance, which ie 
not the case whnn reduced from a drawing 
twice the size of the desirud cut or print. 

O. B. G., Ni'wark. N. J. — Vourwriting has 
miichmtrit; it is too sloping; you have a bad 
habit in not giving to certain parts of your 
letterR, or the lost port of the m, n, p, B.'and 
h, the flame alope as the other p;irt« of the 
letter. You should study our article " Hints on 
teaching writing" in the last number of the 


In an article in the Penman's Uflp, just 
received, we notice that Mr. 0. R. liathburn 
complains that he has not received the Sep. 
tember number of the Art Jodrnai.. and 
asks whiit has become of it? We suppose he 
meana The Penman's Art .lonnNAi-, and would 
Bay that it ban each month been promptly 
mailed to all siihacribers, and that we can 
divine no cause for it« failure to reach Mr. R,, 
if it id not the fact that his subscription, which 
expired with the May number, has not been 
renewed, AVe are sorrj', for Mr. " ^ - ';— 
enterprising teacher, and ought 

The Writing Class, 


aomething written 
jkI that i 

I read the 

first a short 

of the previous lesson, condeneing it, and 

giving the pith in a few :umple senteuces — 

thus: We can speak word.-*, or we can write 

im. When we speak words, we tell what 

think by the use of certain sounds when 

write words, we tell what we think by the 

use of lettera. The letters which we write 

are signs of the spoken sounds. We speak 

with the voice, we write with the hand. 

Not^. If this review is repeated in concert 
after the teachur, it will help the pupils to 
store up with method what they learn, and *" 

liave it ready for use, A ' — •" '-"'- ^ 

is ft very poor work-shop 

oval elements with the straight line, showing 
the derivation of the turns from tho top and 
base of the oval. 

infused little brain 

A very tastefully got up catalogue for 1S78 
has been received from Baylies Dubuque, 
Iowa, Business College. 

R. J. Magee, principal of the Toledo, Ohio, 
DnsinesB College is highly conipUment^d for 
his nkill and sucoess a< a writer aud teacher, 
by the Toledo S\mday Jimnuit. 

The CoUfgf Journal, issued by McCrearv 
& Shields, of the Utica Business College, is 
in every respect a model of exoellence. and 
befipeaks the pound, able, and practical man- 
ner in which that institution is conducted. 

Miller & Sfockwell, proprietors of the New 
Jersey Businesfi College at Newark. N. .J. , have 
procured a liberal outfit of new bank note cur- 
rency with which to " teach the young idea" 
how to transact businesB practically. 

E. P, Held's San Francisco. (Cal.) Bummm 
CatUyc Journal for December. 1878, is re- 
ceived, aud as unuol. is well filled with interest- 
ing matter. We also learn that this institu- 
tion is in A highly prosperous condition, 

H. C. Sp.>ncer, Principal of the Spencerian 
Rusiu.'sK(\>llvL;o, WashiuRton. D. C, forwards 
a liirge poht.T eugrnv.d in fac-simileby A. Mc 
I.ees, from Mr. Spt<ucer"s writing, which is 
miihtorly aud ikgant. 

We are happy to learn that the Special Nor- 
mal Penmanship Department announced lost 
mouth as being established by J. E. Soule in 
connection with the Br>-aut A Stratton Busi- 
nfss College. Philadelphia. Pa., is opening as 
it deserves, very auspiciously. Catalogue and 
circular received from this institution, is a 
model of good taste aud busineiis like udvei^ 

Renftwal of Subsoriptions, 

Subscribers who desire to ootitinae lo re- 
ceive the JorRSAL bliould not fail to rt>n*iw 
their subscriptions, as the JoraxiL will 

think and talk about letters, before 
a to write them. We have three 
kinds of letters in common use. First, we 
have the printed Roman letters, which you 
see in your reading books : —these letters stand 
up straight. Secoud. we have the printed 
Italic letters, which ore much like the Roman, 
but lean over to the right. Third, we have the 
letters, which also lean over to the 
right, and are much like the Italics. All of 
lese lettera are made up of hnes, 
Notf. The transitions from the familiar 
Roman Letters to Italics, and from these to 
! the script forms, can be easily illustrated, and 
nrf full of iuterestiug analogies, which will 
lt> ip to fix the writt-en characters more close- 
^ 111 the mind. Do not k-t the child feel 
'■ lilt he has the severe task of learning wholly 
iH \v characters for the writton alphabft; but 
mther teach him to recognize the known 
Roman and Itaho forms in the written letters. 
■■How many can read Itahc letters? AH 
can. Then you can soon learn to read wTitten 
letters. I write on the blackboard, script 
small ('. '■ What letter is this ! " A few can 
tell. I erase all of the first line, and nearly 
all of the last, oud make the top just like the 
base of the letter, only reversed. "What 
does it look like now?" All say, "i." As it 
stands now, it is Italic small i. I will make 
the written letter beside it, so that you can 
look at both. Let us now elicit from the pu- 
pils, by means of apt questions, that tht-re is 
a hhorl bend, or turn, at the base of each let- 
ter, that the Itahc has a short bend or turn 
at the top, while the written one is sharp and 
pointed at the top ; that the Italic begins and 
ends with very short lines, while the written 
letter begins and ends with long lines; that 
the middle line of cither is straight, except 
where the turn in added at top or base ; aud 
and both are dotted above the top. This 
will teach the children to resolve the written 
letter into parts, and to compare it with, and 
up from, the Italic, After the written 
I fully pictured in the mind of the 
'e proceed to analysis. 

The question may arise here, can 

the primary classes in writing be taught 
analysis? The elementary analysis of the 
script alphabet is so simple that it can be 
easily understood by the -youngest pupiU 
The entire script alphabet is derived from the 
straight hue, and the oval. The parts of the 
oval used separately in writing are the sides 
^op, and base. These, together with the 
straight hne. make up the five elements from 
formed every script 1 

om,^, ..pv.uus, na lue Mv\. K.tti, wui in RLi which IS formed every script letter The fol 

. be diflcoutinued at the end of the period lowing diagram illustrates the onalvsis of the 

for which the fiubsonpLion u pud. I linH in tv.^ .^«1 ^^a ^u. l.-_.:-_ . :"^ 

El. I. isthostrniyiitliuo; El. H. , the Lower 
Turn, is the base of the oval; El. III., the 
Right Curve, is the right side of the oval ; El. 
IV., the Left Cun-e, is the left side of tho 
oval. El. v.. the Upper Turn, is the top of 
the oval The pupils will easily learn to 
know the straight line, and the right and left 
curves. The other two oval elements are 
more difficidt. But if we expect children to 
JwV^ these turns in the letters, it is logical to 
teach them U> ne^ the turns in the same. 
There is as much individuality to these lesser, 
as to the greater parts of the letters. These 
young scholars are just passing over the 
threshold of the art, but should not have a 
single step to unlearn. 

■•How many lines are there in written 
small/.'" ■'Three." I will write the lines 
separately. " What can you tell me about 
these lines?" Some say, "They are crook- 
ed; " others, "They lean over." " What is 
a crooked line ? " The answers come, "One 
that is bent;" "One that isn't straight." 
"Is this penholder (lioldiug it upright) 
straight?" "Yes." Suppose that I let it 
lean a little to the right. "Now. is the pen- 
bolder straight or crooked?" "Straight." 
I place it parallel to the middle hne of i, and 
show the pupils that this last is a straight 
Une as far as the short turn at base. "Are 
thefirst and last line? of /like the penholder?" 
"No." "Why not?" ■■Because they're 
crooked-" They are what you call crooked ; 
that is, they bond a little, so that the ends of 
the lines nm away from the penholder, when 
I placed it beside them on the right, "Do 
these lines bend evenly! " "Yes.- "A Une 
that bends evenly is a curve; what do you 
call these lines?" "A curve-" "curves" 
' 'When a line bends to the right, thus, it is a 
ight curve : when it bends to the left, thus, 
■ is a left curve. Are the curves in i right or 
^ft curves? " " Rightcurves." "You have 
)ld me that the lines of ( lean over. \Vhen 
line leans to one side, it is slanted. The 
straight line and curves of / are oU slanted. 
Do they slant alike ? that is, do they aU lean 
over equally ? " "No." "Which slants the 
least?" 'The middle one." "The curves 
in / slant more than the middle or straight 
line, as you can see that the penholder leans 
over farther when I place it opposite these 
hnes. Written letters aud IfaUcs are made 
up mostly of slanted lim^^s. The upper part 
of a line, or of a letter, is tlie top; the lower 
part is the base. I wish you all to look care- 
fully at the middle line of t', and see whether 
it is the same at top and base. Is the line 
straight oU the way down, like the penholder, 
or does it bend a Uttle. either at the top or 
at the base?" " It bends a Uttle." "MTiere?" 
•'At the base." -'How many <■«.. «« ti,,., 
short bend?" AT 

an upper, or a lower 
turn ? " "A lower t 
■'How many parts have 
yon found in if" 
"Four." "Name them 
in order, as I point to 
them." "The right 

; the straight Une; 

lower turn ; the 

"Can you 

leeany other part to the 

The dot." "Now 
how many parts are 
there in (",'" "Five." 
" The dot is the smaUest 
mark thatcan be made." 
(.To he contimud.) 


Mr. Ames: 

Deak Sir— We received a few days ago 
from you five papers, also the beautiful pen 
dcsigu aud sheet entitled "The Lord's Piay- 
er." by Prof. Ames. Not to say that your 
liberality is beyond praise is to say very little. 
To say that your skiU is less as an artist than 
your liberality as a man, would be to bo 
grossly unjust; however, I must say. that 
while heartily pleased with your liberaUty, I 
am, after all. more than delighted with your 
art as by you rendered. I thank you for aU 
^^oiice. w. P. Cooper. 

In the above graceful compliment Mr. 
Cooper does us too great honor, especiaUy so 
much as relates to our liberaUty, He is in- 
debted to another for the receipt of the papers 

Back Numbers 

of the JouiWAl, cpn he supplied, beginning 
with No. fi. of Vol. 1. No prior number 

Splendid Penmanship! 

Photo-Mthoitrnn], t,r „ ..;«. „ri> ,.... ... 

of Rcsnlutlona by 
I'ror. KIBBE. 

FOR as Cents: 



Scrlpi Equal i„ ,|,e Fine.t Engraving! 

—-a —-,... U1..0 mc luicu^itiib oi me ■—.— - w^usi . „i, v^aii. A short bend in e 

lie o™l, Mid the combiMtion of the letter is a tmn ; if a doTOsard bend, thus 

What Everybody Wants. 

. .JMlpt of pri 

o Lord's Prayer 

o Marriage Certldcato'! 


Every Variety of Pen Work Promptly Execated in the Most Perfect Manner. 

AIbp, Counsel given as Expert on Hand- Writing and Accounts. 





Ofmtpfrior ENGLISH man- 

Iviaon, Btakrmnn, Tnytar <t I 
138 and 140 Orand st„N.Y 






L. SMITH UOBiRT, President. JOHN C. M 

For Naiwpttper, Book and Catalogue IllnetrallonB. Eccrnveel In Tytie-meiiil by a oew 


Wo hiTO Just Introduced (hl» Imporlaul facility, which enablea us to prosecute our work In ctoady 
woalbcr. and to push tLrou^h hurried orders in ihe nisht* 

Our platts are now used by the principal publishers and manufacturers in every 
State in the Union 




n Series of 


o'^:^^ ~ 


Forged DisguiF^d & AnuiiyiiRius Writing 

••nl f°r 2Ac. Stauipa ukcn. WELLS Vi. SWLTli 
kuclonnlliv Oaoadji«kOi>., H.X, t-Ut 

KfLI^V, 3M BnMdwaf . H. X. 

, SI. Suupla, 35 coata. 






CSS WritiDg, 

rius a practical kuowlcdge 

ship and photographs of sample-work that cai 
found any nbere In the country. 

Wo refer, by permission, to 8. 9. Packard, 1 

M18S BERTHA VEENON, will write you one doz 
Cards lu a most dathy ttyU fur 20c, Samplei 
10c. baud coin.' Memphis, N. Y. 73t 


named in ttau foUowtSR list. 

By ordermg from us, patrons can rely uot only 
upon receiving a superior article, but upou doing so 

Ames' Compendium of OrnamenrftI Penmanship, 

Ames' Copy-Slips for instruction and practice in 
practical writing, per sheet, containing 40 ex- 

Boauofct^c B6f^^■|yeta■if*copieB)^'.".■.■.":;■.:^■.';; 3 00 

Bristol Board, 3 sheet thick, 3ax2BVnV,per8heeV,'$ 60 
miats dmw a er hot rese lfSx2U in^ """'' "^^ ^' 

Fane «rd8 birds and'scrolli 'i*r^i'''e'"^""* ^ "' 

Windsor* NewtVn'a 8up'erBup/ind.'i'ii'li,'pr etk, 2 00 
" '■ ■' >i " 1 ou 

Pho o-Enm-avlnR Co.'s India Ink, per sUck l OO 

1 doz. }4 OB' bottles fancy colored Ink sent by 

White ink,'peV't«;tyie;bf6xpr6M;::.'::.^ so 

David B Japan Ink, per pint bottle, by express . . i uo 
Prepared ludia Ink, per boitle, by express 60 

pencerian No. 1, extra for flourishing ..,., 1 26 

Engrossing Pons for lettering, per dox '. 25 

Cro V QulH Pen, very line. lor drawing, per dot., 76 
D xou's American Qraphlte Lead Pencils, very 

Congdon's Normal System of Flourishing! ..V..'. 50 

Key loSpencerianPenmaiisblp .* I sO 

Spenceriau Compendium ..!....,. 2 00 

Sponge Rubber, 2x2 iu., very HUportnr, per piiice. 60 
11 you want a aerap-book that will nil you with de- 
light every time yon use it, send (or our circular 
giving fuU doscripti.m with i^ricea for Mark Twain's 

D&VIKL T, Amxi, 




Accounts, with Aritt^imetical Problems. 


and unsurpassed as a text-tM>ok. Specimen copip* 

S- S. PACKARD. PnbUsher, 


desiring to mu 

ke Ne 

w VeM 

Card, tbat 

at sight, fbu 

'"*'"■ "" 


b.B. C,r. 

..lil«. O. 






for 2 

SO pimin 


samples 20c 

U. 8i 

llivan. i 

a Sit 









«» .tj: 


JOO. Hampl 

^4o.. >eDl roc 1 


.. B.V 

iN BJPtE. 



8s Me 



J '*w 'van* 

SUlKLEa x^t 

" M* 

tire,, t 

^\ *""*,«'- 





uiBite written 




Family Reco 

BLimplu lot 

cwda and ci 




A. Showl 



he Oayest, 


erdoMn. ■■! 


•" "" 

H6, JeweU 

X tL-n for 15c. per dozen ougoodl-ply 



Sn2.*°' "'''' 



B. DAVJ3, 

\J Viilly written plain 




3111 H, teuuian 

Held, M 

SI. 8-lt 




1,1 01 ase 

ds "constat* 

.1 »(/ 


Brooklyn, N 





By S. S. Pacxabi> and H. B. Bu»ant. Revised Edi- 
tion. Price, by mail, $1. 
New platea have been made of this standard work. 




Ivison, Blakemau, Taylor & Co., 


138 and 140 Urnnd St., New VorL. 


20 Kemblc Hi., Vtlca. N. Y. 

lO, LETTLRINO or who wish to see work before ordering Urge 

CARDS iTnTu^for 2° 

work from $2.50 upwarda, 
. per doat-n. I can furnish 
rds, good size, for 15 cenU 

Your floun^htUK Is su 

". Kklatitx to Pcn-Wobx 

M. Wo'thingti/n. 

nt me last April, while in 
ever saw,— fi. s. Chandlar, 

r surpasses au> thing o 


- U. M,Ms^ Ohert^ 






With extra heavy Covers, the paper being made especially for these hooks. 

•^« Xb£ Bpencebiax Copy-Books Bbould be retailed at prices not bighur than those herewith appended : when they cannot be thus ob- 
tained, the pubUshers will send them by mail, postage paid, on receipt of the same. 






'I HE SHORTER COURSE is an entirely NE W SERIES, and consists of SEVEN small books, Nos. 
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6^, and 7. BT MAIL, 9 CENTS EACB. 

No. 1 contains 13 short letters, first introduced separately, then combined in simple words. 

IVo. AS contains all the small letters, first introduced separately, then combined in simple words, five c 

L each page and a column of 



the figureB, all the small and capital letters, introduced in the order of their classification, 
i^emeut and ruling, foIlowB the plan of Wo. 3 of the Common School Series as deaoribed below. 
12 pages of capitals and words beginniug with capitals, alternate columns, and twelve pages of capitals and ehort 

Dgfment, follows the plan of No. 4^ of the Common School Series as described below. 
I\o. O), same as No. ", with the addition of double rules. 
T^O ^ contains Benti^uces embracing all the capitals anJ small letters. 
The above Series in so arranged that, where it is desirable to have a course comprising a less number of books, the alternate numbers 
may bL> used without detriment to the grading, viz. : Nos. 1, " ' 

of Ed 1 1 

:. books. The grading of the full c 

3 will be found to correspond with the 

f York City Board 

THE TRACING BOOKS, No8. 1, 2, 3 and 4, are also a new featiu-e in the system. They are duplicates of Nos. 1, 
2, 3. and 4 SHORTER COURSE, and intended to aecompany them, or to be used as a distinct course, followed 
by the hiffher numbers of the SHORTER COURSE. By mail, 9 cents each. 

The copies to be traced with pen aiid ink, or peuoil are printed in a color, and so arranged th»t the pupil is required both to trace and 
writi- upon each page, except No. 1, which is all tracing, and designed to teach position, pen-holding and movement only. Upon the 
covers of these books are found complete inslructions adapted to each. 

//. THE COMMON SCHOOL SERIES. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, ^ and 5. This Series has u?idergone a 
thoro-ugh revision in every particular. JST MAIL, 12 CENTS EACH. 

IV o. I contains the first three principles, and their application, in the formation of thirteen short letters, and these letters combined 
iu eiisy words. The size of the writing is large, in order to more clearly exhibit the forms. 

^4j. S3 contains all the smalt letters, figures and capitals. The letters are first introduced separately, and then combined in words. 
The writing is large, but not so large as in No. 1. Each page contains five columns of words, two of figures, and one of cap- 

^o. 3 reviews the small letters and capitals, introduced separately first, and then in words, sis upon a page. The last three page 
are devoted' to short sentences. This is the moot practical and useful book fur those who can devote but a short time to the 
study of peumauship, as it is complete in itself. 

;N<>. 4 is a wordbook so aiTauged as to present four words upon a page, beginning with capitals, and an extra column of capitals, 

words and short sentences alphabetically arranged. The sentences are placed in 
oh end. 
embracing all the capitals and small letters, with columns of two figures at each end. 

INTERMEDIATE BOOK. This book contains all the small and capital letters, together with twelve short t 
tences. By mail, 12 cents. 

Analysis. ilUistrations and complete iustructioi 
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oiuposed of 

1 No. 3. 

in. EXERCISE SERIES. A and B is an entirely new set of books. By mail, 12 cents each. 

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IV. BUSINESS SERIES. Nos. 6 and 7. By mail, 12 cents each. 

V. LADIES" SERIES. Nos. 8 and 9. The copies in this series are presented in a smaller hand. By mail, 12 
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THEORY OF SPENCERIAN PENMANSHIP. For eehools and private learners. Developed by questions and 
answers, with practical illustrations. Designed to be studied by pupils in connection with the use of Spence- 
RiAN Copy Boobs. Boards, by mail. 35 cents ; paper, 22 cents. 

SPENCERIAN KEY A Standard test-book on Penmanship, for the use of teachers, pupils and professional pen- 
men. Cloth. Illustrated, 176 pages. By mail, $1.30. 

SPENCEIUAN CHARTS OF WRITING. 47 Charts; sold separately or bound together. Size, 19x24 inches. 
By express, $4.25. 
They are so printed an to present the oppearance of Superior BlaoUboard Wrltixig;-. 

EACH CAPITAL LET I'ER APPEARS BY ITSELF, with analysis and printed description. The letters are of very large size, the 
capitals and loop letters being b fi.ot ir hight, and the small letters in proportion, bo that^they may be distinctly seen across the largest 

They I 

nted upon a roller ii 

i page is exhibited b 

Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 

138 .St 140 CrItAJXX> ST., NE'W YOStK. 


The Model Copy-Books. 

KtrogrceitoD by tbe pupil at an; stage ofhte practice., 
mpliOod and abbi 

No. 2. CaplUl lelte 
gr«uped a 


No. 3. abort eeuten 

es and review of goid 

No. 4. SeatenceBaQ 

proper DBnieH. 

No. 5. Long senlonc 

ea iDtroduciDg vurlou 
oapltala for busiaesB 

No.6«. Sameua No 

0, eicept iu B smatle 

No.e. BuaineiiB for 

ma. ledger-beadlDgs 


tlou and trial eseroiBe. Valuable for supple- 

Specimen W o r k. 


Specimen Copfev ol ibc Six Nuiuberu ( 
warded postuaid to Teachers ar Coinuiittt 
on receipt of Fifty Cents. 

D. APPLETON, & Co. Puhlishers, 
New Tork. Boutoii, and Obicag< 



Do You Wish to Learn 


'Ellsworth's Essential L'eynnanshij),' 

new and complete Bulde for teachers and adyancet 
'UpilB. Half price (75 cents) to teachere. post-paid 

Addrees, witb references, 

H. W. ELLSWORTn, PnbUsher, 



^Common Scho 
Elementary l^diti 

1 Single El 

Not a Revision, but an Entirely 

if 'ff*" ^^* Butbor BDd pubhab- 
d Brf aai's PriutliiK and PabliBb- 

. r ^'^*>*^^!^^_/ '''/'^ 




'* *" bruoklVs, E. I 



It Place, Now Xork. 



"We have in thie country a very tolerable 
collection of tastefully designed pen pictures, 
and works published on the Art, both in prac- 
tical and artistic pen work, which might be- 
come a powerful means for popular education, 
if properly exhibited and introduced through 
such ft widely circulated medium as Tbe Pen. 
man's Art Journal. Its already numerous 
engravings in facsimile of specimens from 
the best penmen in tbe United States, has ren- 
dered it a rare work of art, and should be lib- 
erally patronized by iiU the professional pen- 
men as well as other teachers and artists. The 
introduction of The Penman's Art Joubsal in 
all our public schools, not ouly fo'" teachers 
but the pupils would be a powerful aid and 
incentive to improvements in this much ne- 
glected and instructive branch of education. 

As a mental cultivation, the study of good 
specimens of writing is valuable, and the in- 
structions for the student that is given with 
the specimens presented with your Journal 
is much more so, then the specimen alone. 

Of one thing I feel certain, that the Journal 
should be in the hands of every young lady 
and gentleman who aspires to any distinction 
as professioual writers. 

Form an Indication of Meaning. 


Pen Art- 

The most obvious advantages which the 
art of pen work possesses over literature is, 
that it appeals directly to the eye, and requires 
no deliberative study for the appreciation of 
its merita or delicacy of touch and beauty. 

The man whose laziness, indifference, or 
oecupatiou prevents him from studying a cer- 
tain book which he is counselled to read, has 
ouly to keep his eyes open for a brief space of 
time, to gain as much influence from a skillful 
pen specimen, as his nature is capable of re- 
ceiving. This is an advantage which not only 
belongs to the pen artist as pitted against the 
author when both are seeking public atten- 
tion and patronago, but it is also an 
which pen pictures markedly possess 
means of public instruction. The influence 
of a pen picture is immediate. The most talk- 
ative person, unless he be tipsy, almost invar- 
iably becomes silent on entering a room where 
pim work adorns the walls, such as in busi- 
ness colleges or iu rooms where artistic pen 
work is exhibited. 

The most emiueut animal painter of tbe 
].i.,,,it r.utury was Sir Edwin Landseer of 
l.nLliiui! Aa we refer to a recent his- 
I..I \ ,,f his work in sketches and paintings 
.>f iiiiiiimls which were superior to anything 
fvtr before seen, we observe that in his 
sketches I^Audseor frequently employed pen 
and ink in his most mature time, with all the 
appliances of color. Landseer never exhibited 
before the public, deer aud dogs more hvely 
than those which, with a few touches of the 
pen are represented on white paper. As we 
refer to tliis we are tempted to believe that of 
uU the iu-.trumeuts that can be used by the 
likillful artist, tUre is none quite 60 ready and 
magical as the i en. 

There are three things that attend the ex- 
istence of an idea— conception, formation 
and expression. Thoughts are like the cour- 
ses of deep springs. First they must have 
their birth in subtenanean strata ; then they 
must be restrained and collected in some im- 
pervious cup near the surface; and finally 
they must well up into the upper world, bring- 
ing with them gracious beauty and refresh- 
ment. And all things have their foundation 
iu thought. No matter how mechanical or 
manual an occupation may bo, it has its es- 
stmce and source in some underlyiug idea, 
without which it could never have existed. 
Three steps, then, there are to be considered 
in the acquirement of any art or science ; 
three stages of development corresponding to 
the three epochs in the development of an 

I wish to call attention to the methods of 
study employed by great men and gi-eat ar- 
tists, as laid down in their biogiaphies. You 
will notice, first, a strong, restless crudity iu 
the annals— a sort of blind but mighty grop- 
ing after that which is practically unknown 
vhile yet intuitively famiUar. Birth into this 
world among worlds is not altogether a help- 
less nakedness. God sends, as it were, father- 
land memories with us— divine recollections 
of life iu other spheres, where the soul ex- 
isted ere it was transported to this distant 
Eldorado. These memories act as the inspi- 
ration of hfe. It is the recognition of them 
which forms the first element of every life, 
great or small. The first stage, then, which 
we detect in the biographies of great men, is 
their un-usuHili/ strong pereeptimi of ktent in- 
stincts. This epoch we can call the coucept- 
ive. Gradually extending athwart and across 
this mistiness, we then perceive a sunbeam, 
as it were, of intelligence, lighting up the 
shadowy hollows of memory, and bringing 
into sharp distinctness the great outlook of 
hfe. Suddenly the oppressive uncertainty 
aud groping is removed from the story, and 
with the spirit of our great ideal we burst 
forth into the sunliyht and the meadowlandii 
of an upper world. The third period of life 

is its period of expression- After the instinct 
has been re-organized and the path which it 
indicates followed to its end. the work done 
and the course almost finished, what more 
natural impia->*e could there be than that of 
final and earneist review ? Here, indued, 
hangs tbe sweetest fruit for us. All that pre- 
cedes this period is, in a certam sense, exper- 
imental aud interrogative. Now all the ques- 
tions of life are answered, and answered truly. 
After the bud and the blossom has come the 
pefect fruit. 

Now, what does this hasty glance at the 
lives of great men teach us, one and all ? In 
the first place, our hearts tell us that we too, 
are thus inspired, governed, developed. Sec- 
ondly, we learn the proper sequence of ac- 
quirement and growth ; and thirdly, we see 
how essential it is that we thus train ourselves 
systematicallv and in order — fii-st re-organ- 
izing, then formulating, and finally express- 
ing what we beUeve to be the actuating im- 
pulse in our individual life. 

The various forms of expression by which 
we actuaUze and make practical latent ideas 
are always indicative of the hidden meaning 
which they contain. This, we see, is neces- 
sai-y from the natural sequence in which they 
occur. Expression must follow conception 
and formation in both the ideal and real life. 
Especially is this truth prominent in all the 
arts. Direct, forcible, elaborate expressions 
then follows ideas so immediately and closely 
that the connection is at once beautiful and 
strong. It is to this closeness of symimthy 
we owe the chief esthetic charm of art. Mere 
form, incapable of translation into idea aud 
emotion, would be meaningless and vam. 

Exceptions to this rule must be anomalies 
untrue as arts, and as ideas unsatisfying. 
Personal peculiarities are to be traced to the 
underlying principles of a man's life. They 
are as necessary to the expression of a new 
and true character as is the difference in men's 
faces. Standing forth prominent in an artis- 
tic work, they are to be hailed as new revel- 
ations, not despised as erratic vagaries. 
Many a work of art which the world now 
adores aud venerates was once the sport of 
shallow critics, who saw in its bold peculiari- 
ties only a wild presumption and conceit. 
I could wish there were more room and char- 
ity for personal i-.tpression in the art which 
this JoDBNAt represents. Following of course, 
some recognized method, might not a young 
penman give more scope to his own ckill of 
fancy,— be not so monotonously hteral? He 
certainly is not a machine. A meaning lies 
behind the pen. a soul and an imagination. 
Why then, not exercise these, and produce 
that varicti/ iu which penmanship is so sadly 

Classes in Reading Writing 

It is a matter of observation that very few 
persons, and even apt scholars, can read 
various kinds of hand-writing with ease and 
grace. Blunders and mortifications when at- 
tempting to do so before an audience are fre- 
quent. I speak from experience whm I say 
that nothing is more humihating than to face 
an audience under such circumstances, Well 
do I remember, when in the full conceit of 
my teens, of making a most disastrous failure 
iu trying to read a long-winded temperance 
oration, written by a certain divine, to a large 
and critical audience. That failure, however, 

resulted in a great benefit to me, for it set me 
to thinking, and to work, reading various 
kinds of handwriting, and, after much 
practice, I was able to read readily almost 
anything. I distinctly recollect of one of our 
most prominent State officials, I will call no 
niime, making a sad failure not long since in 
trying to read the credentials of delegatea, 
which had much to do iu losing him the nom- 
ination for a very lucrative and important of- 
fice. The important inquiry here suggested 
is how are we to secure improvement in thia 
respect? In reply we would say that we be- 
Ueve a vast amount of benefit could be de- 
rived by having regular classes for practice in 
reading various kinds of writing ; in a sur- 
prisingly short time one can read almost any 
kind of writing easy and well. I have de- 
voted at least a half hour each day in my school 
during the last year to reading writing, and 
have been extremely gratified at the manner 
in which students leora by this practice to 
read variouskiudsof writing. This is a work 
for our Commercial Colleges which should not 
be overlooked. 

Next in importance to a good handwriting, in 
my opinion, is the ability to read writing 
readily. In many of our large businesB 
houses, with a large correspondence, a large 
proportion o? which is badly written, this 
ability is of great account, and often calls for 
the highest skill aud greatest experience, to 
accomplish it. 

It is manifestly the duty, then, of all col- 
leges that pretend to give their students a 
thorough, practical education- one which 
will meet the requirements of business in all 
is various points-to give this important ac- 
complishment proper attention. 

Upon this subject I have as yet seen noth- 
ing iu any of the various penmen's papers 
but it is of sufficient importance to interest 
all who desire the odvaucement of 
practical education. 

Writing Materials- 

The materials used for writing on, says the 
Edinlrurffh lie-view, have varied in different 
ages and nations. Among the Egyptians, 
slices of hmestone, leather, linen and papy- 
rus, especially the last, were universally em- 
ployed. The Greeks used bronze and stone 
for public monuments, wax for memoran- 
dums, aud papyrus for the ordiuaiy transac- 
tions of life. The kings of Pergamua 
adopted parchment, and the other nations of 
the ancient world chiefly depended on a sup- 
ply of the paper of Egypt. But the Assyrians 
and Babylonians employed for their pubUc 
archives, their astronomical computations, 
their religious dedications, their historical an 
nals. and even for title-deeds and bills of ex- 
change, tablets, cylinders and hexagonal 
prisms of terra-cotta. Two of these cylin- 
ders, still extant, contain the history of Senna- 
cherib against the Kingdom of Judah ; and 
two others, exhumed from the Birs Nimroud, 
give a detailed account of the dedication of 
the great temple by Nebuchadnezzar to the 
seven planets. To this indestructible materi- 
al, and to the happy idea of employing it in 
this manner, the present age is indebted for 
a detailed history of the Assyrian monarchy ; 
whihit the decades of Livy, the plays of Men- 
auder and the lays of Anacreon. confided to a 
more perishable material, have either wholly 
or partly disappeared amidst the wreck of 



self if jou wou]d be honored and never depre- busiuess letter ? How 
date whatever of greatness Ood ha« given ^ bill, draw a draft, make a 
you. Eemember the injuDction concerning r voice, render an account, 
pearls before Bwiue. up iinderstandingly and c( 

How nionv t 

Ui<l thU li but A •] 
I lee tliy iitudcDt* 

Condemn yourself to some j>eo2>le and it ib 
the same as giving them an uiilimited license 
to heajt coudeiuQutioD ujjou you. Blaiuti your- 
self for this little thing or that— somethiug in 
fact that is nothing at all — and you will very 
HOOQ find others reminding you o/ these same 
failings as if they were enormous, aud of 
others which really arc enormous, but of which 
you are not guilty, and of still others by insin- 
uation of which you uevor dreamed. Express 
the slightest regret for anything said or done, 
of which in fact, these same pemons woidd 
have buildud unmeaeured glory to themselves, 
aud what a terrible sinuer you are. The er- 
rors of greatness to itself errors are the very 
loftiuosB of honor to the coutomptibility of 
Kiuall minds. An error through an en-or 
which had its orighi in great design is really 
uot ou eiTor, though grcatucss may see where- 
in it might have won greater success and add- 
ed fluer touches to what must 8i>em to gi'cat- 
iicsB au unfinished effort. Humiliation of 
one's efforts in the presence of littleuess, or 
even coufension of what to one's self is one's 
fiiilure, is folly unnamed— unnameable. Cru- 
cifying une's spirit to people who liavo no 
spirits or if auy, the most iufiuitessimal is 
dharijouing a goad with which they will but 
pierce you, aud heap upon you uumerited 
shame and blaming. Small miuds euu only 
nee through their own naiTow scope of vision, 
and they cannot com]»rehcud that the siulesB 
can be sinless, or that ockuowledgemeut of , 
error mtuuie anything hut acknowledgemeut 
of untold errors never even dreamed of. 
They confess no failures ever themselves, uu. 
loss tracked out iu them and thoroughly cor- 
nered. They confess the very least possible 
then, and excuse themselves by falsifying 
others. Apologies to such people are a crime 
against one's self. Self assertion and bravery 
of assumption ie the only right way. Be all 
that you are aud more than you are on every 
possible occasion. Awo such persons into 
propriety from the pinuaolo of dignity. Do 
uot stoop, mix or mingle with them as little 
as possible aud suffer nothing like equohty. 
tie ahoee thrm. They will honor you then. 
Otherwise they will be above ymi. Kqualitj- 
is out of the (luestiou with impudence. It 
will either he ohove or below, and it is best to 
keep it far below, and look aloft to somethiug 
higher. One can't be kind to thieves, neither 
can one be kind to itreteodors who are more 
dishouMt than thieves. Be true to yourself. 
This is the way to moke even viUains respect 
you. Assert your title to what is best iu you. 
aud claim the proper recognition of it. Do 
uot pander to fools for kindness' wike — it is 
suicide to great purposes. Don't hear them. 
lie beyond them This is the wav to be trur 
to trulh. this is the way to bf true to right 
tt>ifc is th* way to serve with uobihty every 
purpose aud call of nobleness. Honor your. 

* papers.' 

Good Writing not Properly Appro- discounts, average 

In this advanced age of education a legible 
and elegant baudwritlug is not considered of 
very great advantage, aud the 
few in which a graduate of any college 
versity is denied his diploi 
his handwriting; any scrawl, however illegi- 
ble or inelegant, being accepted as an evidence 
of his ability. 

As a general rule, good penmanship has not 
been a distinguished feature of college gradu- 
ates, but rather the reverse. When the rules 
of this accomplishment, or rather this neces- 
sity, in every sphere of life is considered, it 
will be obvious that the policy of thus dis- 
paraging penmanship as au accomplishment 
of a student, is au entirely mistaken one. 
No young gentleman or lady's education 

should be considered complete without au 

elegant handwriting aud a thorough knowl- 
edge of the art. It should be considered one 

of the most important oud highest branches 

taught in every institution of learning in the 

land; and should be a requisite qualification 

of every teacher in any school or college to be 

able to teach it to their pupils upon scientific 

principles ; aud the teacher who is not thus 

qualified, is no more competent to teach even 

a common school than were he deficient in 

arithmetic, English grammar, geography or 

composition; and until these qualifications ' ger? 'What business i, 

are strictly required of every teacher, whether i f oirs to the bauds of n 

or, in fact, draw 
■ectly any business 
I correctly figure 
int. settle a part- 
nership, calculate investments, commissions 
or exchange ? How many understand their 
rights and their liabilities when making sales, 
purchases, contracts, or investments ? How 
many of them know what it is to endorse an- 
other's paper? 

But why enumerate ! We all know the 
value, the absolute necessity, of a practical 
understanding of these and many other mat- 
ters which so thoroughly appertain to success 
and standing in the business world, aud we 
must admit the value aud importance of a 
course of study and practical training in 
them. An accomplished business man can 
avail himself of the best and easiest methods, 
act understandingly, and with a certainty 
which makes success more than a mere pos- 
sibility. He will enjoy the respect and con- 
fidence of business men, and many places of 
honor, trust aud profit will opeu to him. 
Why is it there are always — not in dull times 
only, but at all times— so many idle young 
men and women ? Is it not because they are 
not qualified forbusiness'r Hundreds of young 
men and women are always complete failures, 
simply because they are not competent to 
perform the ordinary requirements of busi- 
ness life. ^Vho would trust his Ufe in the 
hands of au ignorant quack? ^Vho would 
gnorant pettifog- 

lu would trust his af- 
iguorant and bung- 

understandingly manage their own affairs and 
not be swindled by dishonest guardians, trus- 
tees, or agents persuading them to sign bus- 
iness papere, of the force of which they are 
entirely ignorant. Instances frequently occur, 
where, out of four or five hundred applicants 
for one position, a graduate of this college has 
been selected, because of his superior qualifica- 
tions. The mechanic is selected for his skill, the 
artist for his finished aud beautiful work ; and 
BO the young man or young womau is select- 
ed by the merchant because of his or her 
skill in penmanship, figures, accounts, and 
other requirements of business affairs. — Utiea 
(iV. F.,) Business College JouriuU. 

A Public Servant to be Kept. 

The people of Vermont have elected, as 
usual. Republican State officers, aud, except 
iu one district, where a second vote is neces- 
sary, IlepubUcau Cougressraeu ; but the main 
question of the canvass is yet to be decided. 
It is not yet determined who shall represent 
this staunch old Bepublicau State in a Demo- 
cratic Senate— who shall stand, with Senator 
Edmonds, to speak the voice of Vermont 
against rebel claims aud Democratic jobs. 
There are many Republicans iu the State well 
worthy of the place which Senator MoitiU 
now holds, but the party will make a serious 
mistake, as it seems to us, if it does not re- 
turn Mr. Morrill himself. 

Senator Morrill belougs to a class of public 
servants who can exist only in iutelligeut 
communities like that for which he stands. 
A New England State will re-elect and re- 
elect u representative who shows himself 

pubUc or pr 

ostouishing t 
penmanship i 

i, the rising geueration may 
a nation of scribblers. It is 
} how httle attention is given 
■ public and pri- 

vate schools. In all schools pupils are often 
under the necessity of writing for other pur- 
pose.s than that of improving their handwrit^ 
iug, aud when the writing hour comes they 
are furnished with a copy-book iu which are 
perfect engraved copies for them to imitate by 
a laborious process, in which the finger 
movement only is used, the hand turned over 
ou the right side, or the wrist flat on the 
paper, with the fingers and thumb all doubled 
up around the pen. without any attention 
from the teacher being given them in regard 
to movement, position or peu-holding. Aud 
so the hour is speutiu contracting such habits 
of had writing as generally remain with them 
through life. Jackson Caole. 

Atlanta, Qa. 

What Is a Business Edueation? Who 
Needs It ? 

A verj' erroneuns idea prevails that 
uess education consists simply 
of book-keeping. Such is not the fact. Im- 
portant as a practical understanding of ac- 
counts is to e^erj' business man and woman, 
yet it forms but a small part of a business 
education. The studies pureued at this in- 
stitution are uot those of our public scliools, 

tre such as no young man or womau 
hoping for business success, can afford to ne- 

. It is well known that a public school 
education is of necessitj' only general in its 
nature, and simply lays the foundation fOj. 
iome special course, to be pursued after leav- 
ugschooh— Take, for example, the common 
studies of writing and arithmetic. How 
many of our sods or daughters acquire either 
of them practiMlly, that is, as req-iired in 
business? How many can write a correct 

ling accountant ? \Miat merchant 

pect to succeed if he is ignorant of 

and keeps no record of his trausactious ? Do 

uot such men always fitil? A business edu- 

mau as a mcih' I i . , tn the physi- 

ter what their uaUm-, lur tin^ix; it, no man or 
woman but has some occasion to understand 
business transactions aud papers. 

A business education is too ofteu sought 
simj'ly with a view of obtaining some posi- 
tion as book-keeper, as though book-keeping 
was the only requisite. Aside from the ab- 
solute necessity of a knowledge of accoimts 
to every businessman, the study of Commer- 
cial Arithmetic aud Book-keeping furnishes a 
most valuable discipline, teaches the most 
rapid and best methods of calculating, and 
provides a sure aud reliable guide in thorough- 
ly understanding one's affairs. Every bus- 
iness man should be able to "look his books 
in the face " and always know the true state 
of affairs. The courae of study should be 
so aiTauged as to meet the individual 
wants of each student, embracing all 
those brauchcs which are of everyday use 
in business affairs : Penmanship, Business 
Arithmetic, Grammar, its Practical applica- 
tion. Correspondence, Business Papers, Book- 
keeping, Actual 'IVansactiouB, Commercial 
Law. and Lectures. These should be taught 
not as mere theories, but by actual practice, 
free from all the mere clap-trap de- 
vices to take up and waste the student's 
time, which exist iu many schools. Such a 
course affordsan education of inestimable value 
to young men aud women— better, in many re- 
spects, than a money capital. It will yield a 
surer and better return than the thousands of 
dollars and years of study so often lavished upon 
merely oruamental acquirements. Give your 
daughters this knowledge, and then they can 

honest, capable and dignified, while in a new- 
er region the same upright and worthy man 
might be fiercely elbowed out of the way 
after a term or two. in the struggle of men 
bent on sudden success aud determined to go 
to Congress as well as the next man. Where 
a State finds a Sumner or a Wilson, an Ed- 
munds or a Morrill or a Blaiue, it honoi-s it- 
self, as well as him, by repeated recognitions 
of his high qualities; and Vermont will lose 
au opportunity to add to its own reputation 
if it does uot return Mr. Morrill. His service 
of twelve years in the House and twelve years 
in the Senate has been as exceptional in its 
character as in its length. He has always 
been oue of the viry best men iu the house 
to which he belougt-d. He has tdways been 
master of all the detaih, of hKislation, es- 
pecially of appropriations aud tiuancial mat- 
ters, for to these he has chiefly devoted him- 
self, and upon these he has been, successive- 
ly in both houses, the leading authority. As 
each year goes by he is better equipped than 
ever before. Add to this that he is u man of 
the most refined honesty — that his record is 
as pure as marble, aud there would seem to 
be reason enough why the people of Ver- 
mont should re-elect Justin S Morrill a 
second time.— iV. Y. Tribune. 

We have personally known Senator Morrill 
from our earliest remembrance, to the pres- 
ent—embracing a period of over thirty-five 
years, our boyhood and youth having been 
passed in his immediate neighborhood, and 
It was with no small degree of satisfaction 
that we read the above appropriate and truth- 
ful comments upon his character and public 
services. The Trifnuie, always true to merit, 
never uttered a sentiment more truthful and 
better deserved, or offered advice more em- 
inently worthy of heed than in the above 
article. We most heartily agree with it that 
Vermout can do herself no greater honor 
than to continue to honor, so able, true, and 
long tried, a public servant, as Mr. Morrill. 



The Writing Class. 

pupil a resting -point for each letter, in order 
to coucentroU) ntt«DtioD upon form. As the 
writing advances, the hacd, propelled by the 
fore-arm movement, slides across the page on 
the finger -rests. 

i-r?- ^/^^nv^-'-y^ 


r.^ y- 


"We come now to a very interesting group 
of letters, the small ovals, o, fl, c, r, and s. 
Small (I is the queen of this little family. It 
is a very important letter, since the main 
part or oval combines all the elements except 
the straight line, which you may call the 
queen's sceptre. I will now draw on the 
board two horizontal lines. The lower one 
is called the base-line, because all the letteis 
rest upon it ; the upper one, the head-line, be- 
cause it shows the height of the letters, The 
distance between these lines is a space in 
height Let us make the small oval within 
the ruling. Observe that it rises to the height 
of oueepace: that it rests on the base-line at 
one point only, and touches the hendhne at 
one point only. We begin the oval at the top 
with the left-curve, which we carry on main 
slant nearly to base, making the lower turn 
on the downward movement, to base : here 
we begin with the right-curve, and carry it on 
main slant nearly to top, completing the oviil 

"It is pointed." "There are no tuni=." "It 

"Well. well, children. I will try again to 
please you." I now carry the left-curve to 
base, making the lower-turn below b:ise-line, 
and then continue the right-curve to top. 
making the upper-turn above the head-line, 
and meeting first curve. The result is a wide, 
misplaced, ungainly oval, which the children 
all laugh at. "Is this a correct oval?" A 
quick chorus of ''No." " %Vhat is the 
trouble?" "You've made the lower-tum 
below base." "It is too wide." "You've 
made the upper-turn above the line." "It is 
too high." " Where should the lower-tum be 
mode?" "'Just above the base-line." "And 
where the upper-turn ? " " Just below the 
head.hne." "Kight. The turns are smaU. 
but if not made correctly, they spoil the let- 
ter." I have purposely taken up the small 
oval first and explained it, independent of any 
connecting lines, to the pupils. 

' ' Now, to make written small o, we must be- 
gin the letter from the base-line, with a left- 
curve on connecting slant ; and wc must ^nish 
the letter from top by retracing the tm-u, and 
adding a short horizontal curve, as in u and 
I". If the sides of the oval are curved too 
much, it spoils the letter by rounding it; if 
they are hardly curved at oU, it takes away 
the beauty of the letter ; if the sides are not 
similar curves — that is, if one curves more or 


You need not bo ad accomplished penman. 
to be s successful teacher of writing- A 
thorough knowledge of the matter to be exe- 
cuted, ft power of close criticism, and a great 
amount of enthusiasm, with a faculty of in- 
fusing the same into a class, will make all — 
both teacher and pupils— enthusiasts and 
critics during a writing lesson, and produce 
the most satisfactorj- results. 

Freedom and ease in writing are only ac- 
quired by having the muscles educated to their 
work, BO OS to move with rhythmical grace at 
the will of the writer. No amount of prac- 
tice, without an accurate conception of the 
forms to be executed, will make good writers. 
The mental picture of the letter must be clear, 
before the muscles can be properly trained to 
execute the same. Bight forms, rightly un- 
derstood and practiced, will alone secure the 
desired end. 

lu teaching movement, like musical execu- 
tion, the simplest proctice should be strictly 
adhered to for beginners. We need five- 
fiugor exercises in writing — that is, easy 
practice within easy scope of the untrained 
hand. Every exercise of this kind should 
have some specific object, and should serve 
to train the muscles used in making the letters 

of thealphabet. 

Most of the popular 

movement exercises 

are absolutely use- 
less, if not entirely 

prejudicial. At best, 

they simply ofTord a 

facility iu strikiug 
largo llouriBhes, from 

which it is exceed- 
ingly difficultto come 

down to a practical, 

business style of writ- 
ing'. Such practice 

liol. only leads to no 

practical results, but 

is itbsolutely ruinous 

for beginners. 

I develop 

a busiuess -hand, 

should have a larger 

scope than a medium 

size of capital, and 

should be regular and 

complete in itself, 

introducing no mo- 
tion that is foreign, 

or which tends to in- 
terrupt the regular i^ tiig above cut we represent a secimen beading and flourish from 

action of the muscles by Eleasar Wigan, Writing Master, Tower Hill, London. pThe work itself is i 

since every such di- printed from sixty-three copper plates, each having a profusion of floiu'ished letters, birds, dragons, fishes and other 

Bryant't Business College. 

SAI^-T JoSETH, Mo.. Oct. 17, 1878. 

Deab Sin :— The Art Jouiinax has been 
good from its first number to the present, but it 
is now much superior to my expectations, and 
if possible I woidd place it in the handnof 
every person who is thinking of studying 
any of the business branches. 

Wlion such Uve and experienced teachers as 
llinman and Spragne either write or Kpeak. 
they are certain to say something good. 

An experience of thirty years teaches me 
that one who is greatly deficient in either 
taste or movements, may continually practice 
after the best copies without ever attaining 
the first essentials of good business penman- 
ship ; and should such an one employ a 
teacher who does not understand or will not 
give strict attention to position, move- 
ments, and elements, but depends upon his 
own ability to execute, he may acquire ability 
to form letters with labor and care, but will 
probably remain xmable to execute with either 
ease or rapidity. 

Very respectfully, yours, 

Thos. J. Bryant. 


™„oo:«., I _„..> nondescript flourishes too uuuil-i-uu» i,u moum 

gressiou breaks up tional Book Department of D. Appleton & Co. 
the unity of the 

The book i 

I owned by Mr. Hayes, Superintendent of the Educa- 

it, and spoils its effect us a gymnas- 
tic. A good way to test a drill, is to finish it 
with some letter requiring similar movement ; 
and if this can be done readily and natu- 
rally without stopping the pen, it will almost 
invariably be found that the exercise has led 
t<i the formation of the letter, and is, there- 
fore, an excellent preparative. 

A movement-drill should be free, natui-al, 
and easy, so as not to make it necessary to 
constrain the muscles. For this reason, much 
practice on straight lines is not beneficial. 
Curves are easier to execute, anil more natural. 
It would hardly he too much to say that there 
is not a natural motion of the body but what 
is in n curve. The horizontal- stniight line, 
throe or four inches iu length, which is often 
given OS a first exercise, cannot be executed 
oven by an adult without steady restraint of 
the muscles. The limit of an inch iu the di- 
r< .-tion of a straight line, is' about the scope of 
Htili- bauds iu primary classes. 

II is not of absolute importance, in move- 
II t-drill, tliat the pupil should follow the 
. ■• of the copy with studied exactness. The 
1 1 tiiiouut object is to acquire a free and nat- 
1.1 il motion of the pen. Norshould the pupil 
be allowed to write the exercise in a loose, ir- 
regular, and careless manner. The move- 
mout should bo made with moderate rapidity, 
and with the least possible exertion. 

l*iiint.* of lifift.- Wliile forming a letter, 
the hand-rest should be comparatively station- 
ary, only participating slightly iu the finger 
and fore-arm movement. This allows the 

with the upper 
meeting first cm 

i-n on upward movement, 
I at top. This closes the 

the n-ijiiiiuuiK )■ I ■■■-.■■ i'luiilk-l hues 

so that Ihc .~.uU- lui.. Uc,-. il.;. ii>p, and the 
right side the base-liuo. Tbcu, by adding the 
short sections at top and base, complete the 

l.<is nf 1 

to the right. 

cUne the ovul u iJttlv i. 
end of the axis luu i < ^ < 
while the lower <.iiil nf 
to the left, I, LI 
whoUy to right of p.iul of contai t aVtop, and 
the lower turn wholly to left of point of con- 
tact at base. This simple theorem is the 
foundation of Enghsh script, and a clear com- 
prehension of it is the key to the construction 
of the written alphabet. Entire systems of 

"What element did I first make iu the 
ovol?" "The left curve." "Where did I 
begin it?" "At top." "Did 1 carry the 
curve to base?" "Yes." "Let us see." I 
now make the small oval on the board, and 
carry the left-curve clear to base. Here I 
start with the right-curve, and carry it clear to 
top. joining first curx'e, the result being a pod- 
shaped oval. "Is this right?" '•Oh. no!" 

less than the other — it destroys the symmetry 
of the letter. Both sides should curve slight- 
ly and equally, and the oval should close at 
top. We begin small c the same as w, with 
the left-curve on connecting slant ; hut then 
we make the upper-turn below the top-line, 
and finish it with a dot, as in the Roman small 
c. Next we retrace the turn, and form the 
left side aud base of the oval as iu o, and finish 
with the right-curve on connecting slant. It 
is a very easy letter to make, when you 
acquire the right movemeul. You begin it 
like the firet part of h, with the turn added, 
pressing the pen Ughtly for the dot. Retrac- 
ing the turn gives it a simple and elegant fora 
similar to the Roman letter. You see that 
is an incomplete oval. So is small e. 1 
make this letter, you have to let the first cur 
drop a little, and then carry it upward ou tl 
main slant, making ft very short turn; yc 
then form the left side of the oval, crossing 
the first curve one-third space above base, 
aud finish as in c, with lower turn and right, 
curve," By adding lines, I show the pupils 
that c and e belong to the group of ovals. — 
Primary Teacher. 

Parents who desire to awaken an interest 
in writing ou the part of their children, and 
teachers wlio wish to continue, to sustain 
the interest awakened by them iu their 
pupils should certainly them them to 
subscribe for the JdURNAL. 

ditor Journal. 

Dear Sib :— My method in regord to the 
correcting of improper slant, although most 
likely very familiar to mauy of your readers, 
"; is this: I out a 

piece of pasteboard in this form : / 

about 1^x2 inches, and give it to the student, 
requiring him to correct his own slant. There 
is something so definite and tangible about 
putting this httle critic down on ay* or a d 
that it carries conviction with it, and soon 
corrects the en-or. J. M. Mehan. 

The attention of penmen and artists is ii 
vited to our supply list on the eighth page. 

Professor Edison, while in Virginia City. 
Nev., stepped into a telegraph office; and a 
local paper describes him as "the worst dress- 
ed man in the room by all odds. An old black 
hat, a cheap shirt with the stud-holes in the 
bosom unoccupied, a two-bit uecktie several 
months old, coarse pants and vest, and a 
mouse-colored hnen duster completed bis 
attire. One of the office-boys asked him to 
put his name in an autograph album. He 
wrote a line that looked like print and fixed 
his name at the bottom. Everybody admired 
the marvellous penmanship, which was em- 
phatically a new style. The letters were 
awkwardly made, taken singly, but when 
grouped in a line all looked exactly alike, as if 
engraved ou copperplate. 'You couldn't take 
thirty words a minute and print like that." 
said one. 'I can take forty,' was the reply. 
The fastest operator present took one end of 
the wire, and Edison, sitting at the receiver, 
picked up a sheet of paper and said. * Let the 
message come." He sat there three minutes 
aud took 130 words with apparent ease, doing 
better than he had promised. The dispatch 
was written in the faultless hand that graced 
the autogi-aph album." 

From Colonel IngersoU's motto as a text, 
' ' An honest God is the noblest work of man,'^ 
Professor Kichard A. Proctor preaches a short 
sermon of fifty Hues in The Echo anent Prov- 
idence and disasters. He asks if there can be 
anything more ghastly or more grotesque 
than the thought that the Almighty destroyed 
the women and children who were on board 
the Princess Ahce, because certain politicians 
in England have regarded too lightly the suf- 
ferings of women and children in Bulgaria. 
He remarks that the Oriental mind could 
form no better conception of God than as a 
despot, cruel, treacherous and merciless, slay- 
ing not only those who had offended Him, 
even unwittingly, but their women and chil- 
dren, and all belonging to their household; 
but it has been left to EngUsh theologians to 
invent a false God even more horrible"— a 
God who being offended with one set of 
persons, would wreak vengeance on an entire- 
ly different set, avenging the wrongs of women 
and children, not by punishing the persons 
who hod offended Him, but by destroying 
hundreds of women and children, and bring- 
ing sorrow on thousands more. 

"Practice makes perfect" if 
perfection when you practice. 


Pnbll.bMt Wonlhly >l »I.OOpw Year. 

D. T. AME8. Em-roB *fd I-b 


3tM Brokdny, New To 


n ncMptot t- 

mdU. BpediDim coplea fnroiahed b 

AgfoU Iree. 



IlnchOJnnViY.i! 1 80 3 25 
Stioea, 34 wordi. 4S I 25 

va 00 »iao 

a" " 

Ad«rtl«em^lifor^DeM^ ^^^ ^ 

QP rear,p»T»h 

qiurt^rly In ■dynnco. No dev)»llon 
nte*. K«ttdlnR in»tl«r, 30 cent* per 

fMin the Bbo 



To CTery new dubucrlbi-r, or reno? 

al, until further 

tiollo*. «r wUl «e»d a copy of tbo 

Lord'K Prayer. 


To inr psraon arndlng tbclr n 

m and another 

MmeaiRubiarlbera, IncloflliiglS w 

will maUtoCBCli 


following publh 

Mtloni, Mobol wliloli ftrr> among the 

floest spocimens 

of ppnmonahlp over publlBhed, viz. : 

The ContennlBl Plcturi- of Progress, . 

Tho Mftfrtnttc Cfriitiwle'. '.'.'. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

The Fomlly Rooord 

8 Bprolmen Bb«6t» of EnKroiMng each 
Or 180 Bcmtthil Scroll Cnrda, IB diff 

S ■■° °"" 

ForlbroDtikinM and t8 we will 

orward the large 

Cenlonntal Picture, slsc 2«t40 inchw 


For BIX names &nd |6 we will fo 

rward a copy of 

WUlIami k Packard's Onlde, retails 

or «a.M. 

for IB, 

i fia, w 

Broadway, Now 
b month. MittI 

)uld be by i-o. 
regUlored lottor. Money Inoloi 
•rat at our riak. Addrt-M 



The Last Number of Volame II. 
In view of the fact that it will greatly add 
to lliG convenience of llie publislicr as well 
OS pntrouH of the .Journal to have its vol- 
umes begin with the year instead of March, 
when the second year of its publiaition 
ends, we hnvc decided to commence our 
new luid third volume with the new year. 
This will, of course, have no effect with 
present aubscriberfl, as, in all cases, their 
Bubscription will end with the twelfth num- 
ber after tho date of their subscription. 

We invito the earnest efforts of all friends 
of Ui« .louKNAi, to largly increase its circu- 
lotion at tho beginning of its new volume. 
Wo trust that the Journal during the past 
two years boa given sufficient evidence of 
its firm basis, and loyalty to the interests of 
the profession of pcuinansbip and practical 
education, to remove any doubts that may 
have existed, nl the outset, regarding its per- 
manence and value to all teachers, pupils 
and friends of the specialties it advocates, 

Tho experience of two years in the new 
field of editorial labor will, we trust, enable 
lis editors, in future, to perform more ably 
thoir duties than in the past; while the great 
and growing interest manifealed in tho Jour- 
HAL throughout tho United States and Can 
ada will add alike to the number of iu read 
OTS and contributors of valuable and inter- 
esting articles to iit* columns. The liberal 
and earnest support thus given to the Jour- 
nal during the pa."*! two years, crowning its 
publication with a substantial success, en- 
ables us to enter upon the publication of 
our fAtrrf volume under the inspiration and 
Rlrongth of new hope^ and. warrants us in 
pledging, not alone the continuance of the 
Journal, but that its third volume shall far 
exceed in interest and attractions either of 
Iti prodi 

The aggregate value of sntb a periodical 
i^ tlic Journal lo the professions of penman- 
hip and practical education can hardly be 
iplirecialed or lo highly estimated. In ad- 
tiiion to a dissemination of practical and 
instructive thought upon this subject, it bn.s 
already awakened, in a large degree, a gen- 
eral interest in the methods of teaching and 
practicing writing in public schools and 
elsewhere. Several of our leading Educa- 
tional Journals, hitherto almost silent upop 
the subject of writing, observing the rapid 
,nd almost unprecideulcd growth of the 
Journal in popularity and circulation, are 
now earnestly soliciting, from prominent 
penmen, articles for publication in their col- 
umns upon that eubject. During the past 
year the Journal has been largely instru- 
mental in bringing together, in a convention, 
the largest body of representative teachers 
and authors of writing and the practical 
branches of a business education, ever assem- 
bled in this and probably, any other country. 
Out of that convention was organized a pcr- 
inent association which, if we mistake not, 
destined to do more, many fold more, 
than has hitherto been done, to place the 
professional teacher of writing and other 
mercial branches, upon the dignified 
and honorable basis to which the great and 
growing iniporlance of these brHnches so 
juslly cnlith- him. This association will 
further grciilly promote the interests of 
these professions by annually calling to- 
gether their ablest representatives for con- 
ice and council regarding principles, 
:m. and methods therein involved, and 
also be extending personal acquaintance, 
establishing a strong bond of mutual and 
brotherly sympathy and co-operation, in 
all of which the JounsAL, as the oflBcial or- 
gan of the association, will take an earnest 
and conspiuous part. 

BusineBS Colleges and Business Edncation. 

The day when the propriety or utility of 
Business Colleges, and their special course 
of business training, could be questioned, is 
now past. Precisely what shall be their 
status in the future educational system of 
the country may be an open question, but 
the growing demand for a more practical 
education,' its acknowledged importance, 
and its general utility will in the future cer- 
tainly command for these institutions an 
honorable and conspicuous place. 

Unlike all other institutions designed to 
impart a special or class education, which 
is of comparatively small, or no account, 
for any other than its special purpose; the 
well ordered and conducted business col- 
lege imparts an education which, while es- 
pecially important, yea, a necessity, to all 
aspirants in purely business or mercantile 
pursuits, is scarcely less important and use- 
ful in every other human avocation. Grad- 
uates from our literary colleges, seminaries 
and academies, law, medical, scientific, and 
other class institutions, find nothing in their 
course of training, that in the least degree 
tits them for performing, or properly re- 
cording, the ordinary business transactions 
necessarily incident to their calling, indeed 
as a rule, they find themselves in this re- 
spect inferior to all young men without 
special education, for in their long years of 
secluded study, they have failed to acquire 
by observation what they would have done 
if engaged forthe same period in any active 
pursuit of life, 

A good hand-writing, a knowledge of ac- 
counts, and the forms and customs of bus- 
iness, is essential to every trade, profession 
or occupation; the business college course, 
therefore very properly supplements that of 
every other educational institution in the 
land, from the highest to the lowest, and is 
no less needed by the graduate of Columbia 
and Yale Colleges, than from the public 
schools; indeed the knowledge and experi- 
ence to be derived from a business college 
course of tnuning, is so universal in its use 
and application to the affairs of all classes 
of society, that it can hardly be regarded 
class education, more than the fundamental 
branches of the common school. 

With so broad a sri>]»e of usefulness, and 
reachingasthey do to every class and 
dition of society for their patrons, then 
be but a brilliant future to all really n 

nous business colleges, and they have 
ly to be true to themselves and patrons to 
in an honorable fame among the educa- 
tional institutions of our land. 

One>Sided Correspondence. 

It is quite natural that persons having 
much leisure and few correspondents, should 
ittingly multiply and elaborate their 
communications, to an extent that would 
annoy and embarrass one having a larger 
number of correspondents. This annoyance 
undoubtedly experienced by all publish- 
s of widely circulated periodicals. Per- 
ns unfamiliar with such matters would 
be utterly astonished to observe the amount 
and kind of communications that literally 
pour into the editorial rooms of the Jour- 
nal, and to note the amount of thoughtless- 
ness or discourtesy displayed therein. Let- 
ters covering whole pages of foolscap or 
written upon a postal card, asking all sorts 
of questions and favors, to answer or bestow 
hich, would cost much time and consider- 
able money, the writer not even furnishing 
the postage for the return of the expected 

conducting the Journal one of our 
chief labors and greatest annoyances, has 
been from this class of communications, 
0;t anxiety to appear courteous to all cor- 
respondents has lead us to answer many 
communications, that should never have 
been written, or if so, from their want of 
concern to us, should have contained a re- 
mittance to pay postage and trouble. 

As we said before, persons, especially the 
young and miexperienced, with plenty of 
leisure, with a correspondence requiring 
them to write not more than one letter a 
day. or perhaps once a week, think little of 
the time required to write a long letter, or 
the occasional payment of gratuitous post- 
age; but were they to receive, as we do, 
hundreds of such communications daily, 
sutficicnt to require all their time to answer, 
and dollars for postage, we are certain that 
they would soon pray earnestly for deliver- 
ance from so unprofitable a task. 

During the past few months this class of 
corrcspondontshasso increased as to become 
not only a great annoyance, but a severe 
tax upon our time, energy and purse. Each 
mail brings, to say nothing of long, chaffy 
letters, from ten to twenty postal cards, ask- 
ing every conceivable question and favor, 
to answer which, according to the cxpecta 
tions of the writers, would consume our 
entire time and a large sum of money for 
postage. Should we leave such communi- 
cations unanswered, we would be charged 
with discourtesy; should we answer them, 
as requested, no time and little money would 
remain for other imperative demands. 
Being thus forced to choose between evils, 
we shall, in future, leave all ojic-sided postal 
cards and letters unanswered. 

As a Special Indncement 

For present suh.scribers to renew their sub- 
scriptions and to induce others to subscribe, 
to begin with the volume of 1879 (January 
number), we make the following liberal 
offer of premiums worth $2: For each re- 
newal or new subscriber enclosing $1, and 
20c. extra in stamps for postage on pre- 
miums, before February l, we will send 
with the first nunber of the Journal a 
copy of the Centennial Picture of American 
Progress, 20x28. and a copy of the Lord's 
Prayer, 22x28 inches ; each of which is 
alone worth the price of the subscription. 
Remember this offer extends only to Fcbru- 
ary 1, 1879. 

The regiUar premiums offered for clubs 
will be given additional to the premiums 
offered above. 

Now is the Time 

to subscribe for the Journal and begin with 
the new year and a new volume. Back 
numbers may ho had at the regular sub- 
scription rates, from and including Septem- 
ber, 1877, in all sixteen numbers, back from 
January 1, 1879. The whole sixteen num- 
bers will be sent, post-paid, on receipt of %\. 

Teachers and others desiring special in- 
struction in the higher departments of Pen 
Art. are requested to read our advertisement 
iu the advertising cohimns. 

Let Your Light Continae to Shine. 

To the many camcsl and skillful teachers, 
authors and workers in our profession, who 
have so liberally favored the Journal with 
valuable articles and illustrations from their 
. we return our most earnest thanks, 
and trust that in future their light will con- 
tinue to shine with increasing lustre through 
its columns, while we hope to add many 
brilliant contributors to our list before the 
close of the approaching year. 

Owing to the very large number of new 
subscribers, the first large edition of the 
"Lord's Prayer." given as a premium to 
each, soon became exhausted, hence a slight, 
delay in sending it to a few of the subscrib- 
ers during the past mouth ; but we now have 
an ample supply, and in future it will be 
mailed promptly with the first copy of the 
Journal. It meets with most flattering 
praise from all who receive it. 

Canadian School Journal, 

Published by Adam Miller & Co,. Toronto. 
Ont.. is one of the most interesting educa- 
tional journals published in America. It 
contains twenty-three solid quarto pages of 
choice reading matter, devoted to all the 
various departments of education. It is 
edited with great ability and printed in first 
class style. Money paid for subscription to 
such a journal is a good investment for any 

Attention is invited to an advertisement 
in another column, of White's Industrial 
Drawing. A new series, prepared by Prof. 
H. P. Smith, formerly President of the 
Drawing Teacbei's Association of New 
York City. This new series possesses many 
new features of striking novelty and utility, 
and is thoroughly progressive and well 
graded. We are glad to hear of the great 
favor with which this new course is meeting. 
They have already been adopted for use in 
the public schools of New Y'ork City, Jer- 
sey City, Hartford and Bridgeport, Conn. 

The October number of The Penman's 
Art Journal is indeed excellent. It is 
literally lillnl \\ii]i i riding matter and illiis- 

who luvt -, j„ iiiii:ui-lii|. We cannot see how 
any oum whu Lhiims to be a penman can 
think more of a dollar than of twelve num 
hers of such a journal. — Home Oueai. 

Good Teachers in Demand. 

My Dear Ames:- Would it not be well 
for you to opt-u a bureau of supply for col- 
leges and sclionl- in ivii-'t ^'f •.'■■■■i} (■■■v.'AVT- 

cial teachers ? I^'iliu ii,\ ..■.\ , . , ,. i 

am sure that i^^r. . ■ ' ■ 

There is scare iy a I, : I ^,■ 

letters of inquir\ a- :■. n i. Iim - <.i .i;ii, i, nt 
qualifications, and I am never, or scjuccly 
ever, able to put my fingers upon " the right 
man'' for the place. I have recently been 
requested to "fiud" an incumbent for a 

most excellent pr> in; -i .^,,lI,■Mt 

school, and wiili i ! ■ . ■ "■ 1 1,. 

keeping well, iiun i,, _, , ,|,. 

partment. The ;al;u,v uHVuJ is ...Itquaii'. 
Do you know of such a man whu it> not 
mortgaged. Yours, 

S. S. Packard. 

We have long thought that such an agency 
as Prof. Packard suggests ought to be es- 
tablished alike for the benefit of teachers 
seeking positions and persons wishing to 
employ the same. To a certain extent the 
Journal has already become such an agency. 
In order to more effectually aid all parties, we 
will, for a fee of $2.00, enter the. names 
of any persons wishing a situation, to- 
together with specimens of their writing 
and such other evidence of experience and 
qualifications in any branch of education, 
as may be furnished, and also for a similar 
fee enter upon another register the names 
of any persons desiring to employ a teach- 
er of writing or any of the commercial 
branchci^, and we pledge ourselves to fur- 
nish, at any time, all the aid and information 
possible to any party who shall avail them- 
selves of this agency. This act to take ef- 
fect immediately. 

Again Cluba are trumps. We hope c 
friends will promptly show good hands 


"Hii.i/s Mascal of Social and Business 
Forms."— Shows how to write any social 
epistle or business (locumcDt correctly; in- 
cluding penmanship, plain and ornamentnl, 
with explicit direclioDS for self -instruction 
and the art of teaching. 

We especially refer our friends and read 
t-rs to the card on Ist page, beaded "Hill's 
Manual of Social and Business Forms," and 
recommend to them said work as being re- 
liable and praclieal. and adapted to the 
waotR of everybody. H is a perfect cyclo- 
pedia of the social and buBine.fs forms used 
in the every day affairs of life, and is alike 
useful to the old and young, male and fe- 
male, in ever)' condition of society. 

McH.'irs. Keuffcl iV Esser, dealers in artists* 
iiiiilerials. 127 Fulton street, New York, 
have recently imported a series of Jlccl pens, 
graded from fine to very broad nibs, for use 
in text and round hand writing; we find 
them very practical and economizers of 


System and Methods of Teaching Writ- 

The following address upon "System and 
Methods of Teaching Writing." was deliver- 
ed Nov. 7tli, 187H. in Assembly Hall at Plain- 
field, N. J., by D. T. Ames, before a large 
concourse of teachers, pupils aud 
Lndiexand frrntlrmm: 

It is not my purpose upon this 
maki! any (itt»!»ipt at a display of rhetoric or 
oratory, but to present a few plain, practical 
thoughts upon what is deemed to be the best 
system, and methods of teaching writing. 

Of the great iraportauce to all classes of a 
rapid, grai^eful, aud legible handwriting I 
Bcaroely need speak. To the young man it 
opens more avenues to desirable and lucrative 
employmeut thau auy other one qualification. 
To a young lady it is not only a rare accom- 
plishment, but to such as are required to earn 
their own livehood, it is the one most rt-ady and 

The observatiou and experience of more 
thau twenty-five years as student, teacher and 
author of writing, has lead me to believe that 
every person possessed of ordiuary facultii 
can and should learn to write with facibty, i 
least, a legible hand. That they do not. 
due alike to the faults in our methods of 
teaching and practice. The first great fault 
has beeu with the teacher aud authors of 
systems of writing, that they have giveu Xx\ 
the pupil to many, and to complicjlted formt. 
for letters, apparently, in the behef that tht 
more numerous aud fanciful were their forms, 
the greater the cvideuce of their own skill, 
aud deserved popularity. Not unfrequeutly 
in a siugto copy-book or a short 
twelve or twenty iessous has the pupil beeu 
required to practice upon from two to four 
distinct and radically different types or formt 
for all the capitals aud many of the small let 
tiTs of the alphabet, uud all or most of thest 
forms miieh too complicited to be practical 
for rapiil business writing. Wo will here ': 
histratt in the ciine of one letter, and this 
no fauiiy sketeh, but from a case of actual ob- 
-irvntion.* We have found all the following 
tvpt's of the letter K in a single copy-book, 
and have seen them all. aud others, taught or 
attempted, by a teacher of writing iu a short 
course of ten IcRsous: 

I'his method carried through the alphabet 
«i>ukl rccpiire the pupil to practice upon on* 
h'lndrai and eighty AiScrvui forms for the 
- apitals aloue. aud a corresi ending, though 
n-'essarily less, number for the small letters, 
'H given and practiced often without auy 
MMt of system or science. Is it any wonder 
that the pupil in a discouraged failure at the 
end of a course of such diversified practici 
upon complex aud multitudinous forms? 

The labor and practice, necessary to be. 
come skillfid in making such a multitude of 
diffiotdt forms, is too great t< 
cept by rare genius, or th. 

id prolonged practice. The multitude must 
fail ; while if required to make but twenty- 
of the most simple forms, and those re- 
duced by system to seven elementary princi- 
ples, the multitude can and will succeed. 

Another fnutful cause of failure is found 
in the effort of many, perhaps most, teach- 
ers to teach writing almost or quite wholly by 
imitation, by which method pupils acquire 
little or no absolute or permanent idea of the 
true form or construction of letters or the 
general style and excellence of writing. They 
may succeed well at imitating their copy so 
long as it is before them, but fail utterly to 
write well when it is removed. This will not 
be the case when it is systematically aud an- 
alytically taught ; each letter being a-Jcurately 
analyzed, its correct form and manner of con- 
struction explaiued by the teacher, aud un- 
derstood by the pupil, at the same time that 
his writiug is thorouyhly criticised and its 
faults pointed out and corrected according to 
well estabhshed principles. Where this ip 
done the eye and understanding is disciplined 
and taught as well as the hand, and there re- 
mains impressed vividly upon the mind of 
the pupil a el»-ar and well defined conception 
of the form aud construction of his copy, so 
that, though Uterally absent, to the mind's eye. 
it is ever present, and is a pei-petual copy for 
mastery of which Ihe hand will ever 
strive and ultimately accomplish. Unlike the 
pupil who practices without system or prin- 
ciple by imitation, and who not only ceases 
aiprove, but actually goes backward, 
when the instruction ends, aud the copy is 
removed, the analytic pupil will 

advance, aud is certain, ultimately, 

cated a position of presenting the left side to 
the desk, in favor of wLich we have nothing 
to offer, for we beheve either of those above 
described entirely preferable ; yet the posi- 
tion at the desk is of much less importance 
than that the proper relative positions of the 
pen, hand aud paper should be sustained and 

The first care is to secure and maintain the 
correct positions of body, arm, hand and pen. 
The position at the desk or table will be gov- 
erened somewhat by circumstances. In the 
school-room where desks are small and nar- 

w, we think a position with the right side 

the desk, thus, 

Take the pen between the first and second 
fingers and thumb, letting it cross the fore- 
finger just forward of the knuckle (a) and 
the second finger at the root of the nail (b) 
\ of an inch from the pen's point. Bring the 
point (cj squarly to the paper aud let the tip of 
the bolder (d) point toward the right shoulder. 

The thumb should be bent outward at the 
first joint, and (e) touch the holder opposite 
the first joint of the forefinger. 
Ihe first and second finga-sshonlAioMch each 
other as far as the first joint of the first finger ; 
the third and fourth must be slightly ciu-ved 
and separate from the others at the middle 
joint, aud rest upon the paper at the tips of 
the nails. The wn\st must always be elevated 
a Uttle above the desk. 

These positions should be rigidly main- 
tiaued, thuskeeping the nibs of the pen flat up- 
on the paper, aud both always under the same 
degree of pressure, when the pen will give a 
smooth, clear line, and move smoothly and 
easily upon the paper. 

Biylea used f 

will be the best. 

In business colleges aud writing academies, 
bere the table or desk is more spacious, and 
especially in the study and practice of book- 
keeping where the books are often large and 
Dumorous, also by artists and penmen work- 
ing upon large pieces of work, the front po- 
sition will be found the best, thus: 


of hand, pen, aud papix should be 
ed as described iu the former one. 
Some authors and teachers have alio Rd\o 

ment with skill requires much and continued 
practice. Its proper aud skillful use is, how- 
ever, an important accomphsbment to the 
professional penman. 

It is obtained by raising the entire arm free 
from Ihe table, resting the hand lightly upon 
the nails of the tbird and fourth fingers, and 
then striking the letters with a full sweep of 
the whole arm. This movement is also used 
in all off-hand flourishing. 

t to the 
Second, a 

should be frequently and extensively prac 
ticed, and a short exercise should preceed 
the regular practice of every lesson. Their 
object is threefold- First, 
graceful and rapid general 
fingers, muscles and fore-arn 
special upward and downward motion; and 
thirdly, a latteral movement of the hand. To 
secure the first two, exercises like the fol- 
lowing should be practiced : 

To secure the lateral movement the follow 
ihg or similar exercises should be practiced : 

The positions secured, attention should be 
directed to movements, all of which should 
be explained and illustrated, the peculiar ad. 
vantages and disadvantages of each set forth. 

There are four different movements, more 
or less employed in writing. 

The First or Finger Movement is most 
generally used and taught by improfessional 
teachers, and practiced by most unskill f ul 
writers, and is so called because the fingers 
alone are employed in giving motion to the 
[len. Writing by this movement is less rapid 
and graceful than that by either of the 
other movements. It is more of a draw- 
ing process, it seems to be the most easy 
and natural to acquire, and being the on- 
ly movement known or taught in a large 
majority of our public schools, it is practiced 
by a very large proportion of people outside 
of the mercantile and professional pursuits. 
Most of the latter have found it necessary to 
gain some further knowledge of writing than 
that acquired in our public schools, when they 
have either attended a commercial school or 
received instructions from some professional 
teacher of writing, aud have been instructed 
in other movements. 

The second is the Fore-arm or Muscular 
Movement. By some teachers it is called the 
Spencerian, aud by others the Carstairian, 
being so called after the names of two of its 
most noted and skillful teachers aud advo- 
cates-, this movement is obtained by resting 
the fleshy or muscular part of the fore-arm 
upon the desk, aud then by simply contract- 
ing or relaxing the ^ ^ 

muscles of the fore- ^ — 'y/ , /''^'//^ ,^ 
arm a very rapid, ( ^f^ ( ^/ C 
graceful and tireless 
motiou is imparted 
to the hand and 
pen ; but it is only 

The major part of the time for the first, 
considerable of the second and third, and a 
part of the time for every lesson of a course, 
should be devoted to careful ] 

These exercises as well as all the copies of 
the course should be either engraved or writ- 
ten upon short movable slips and passed to 
each pupil of the class with the opening of 
each lesson. 

We are now prepared to present the prin- 
ciples, and begin the analysis and practice of 
writing, which we do by placing upon the 
black-board the principles. 

At the same time we briefly illustrate to the 
class their use and importance in learning to 
write, by rapidlymakingafew monograms em- 
bracing the entire alphabet, capitals and small 
letters; showing the close resemblance be- 
tween the form and construction of many of 
the letters of the alphabet, and how very 
simple and easy is their construction from 
these principles. 

This can be very clearly and strikingly il- 
lustrated in the case of the small tetters by a 
monogram representing them all as follows : 

We then combine the capitals in three mono- 
grams, those having the fifth priuciple for 
their base thus : 


Making the letters and subsequently ar- 
ranging them in groups, each embracing 
those letters that most «semble each other in 
their form and manner of confltniclion. th"=: 





when combined with the finger, producing 
what is known as the Third or Combina- 
tion Mocnn^-nt that it is employed to the 
greatest advantage. In this movement the 
muscles impart rapidity aud endurance, the 
fingers accuracy of form, and ease in making 
tlie extended letters, thus rendering it, as a 
whole, by far the beet aud most desirable 
movement for practical writing. 

The Fourth, or Whole Arm Movement, is 
the moKt graceful and rapid of all the move- 
ments : it is also, when employed on a small 
seale, much less accurate, and hence less de- 
sirable for practical writing. It is used to ad- 
vantage only where considerable license is 
allowable, as for instance, in writing dates, 
signatiu'es, superscriptions, black-board writ- 
ing, Ac. To be able to emplov this move- 


Monogram embracing the letters having 
the sixth principle as hof" is made as follows: 

and the letters separately, th 


MoDOgmn of eevcnth principle letters 
would be made, thus; 

and the letters, tbtiB : 

IJy thiM uK-thod the gT..rit hiniplicity and 
practicability of thin plan of teaching and 
practicing writing is fully brought home to 
the mind and undcnilAnding of the pupil, and 
also the great importance of maatt-riog 
thoroughly at the out>ttt, these elementurj- 
fomiH or principles of printing. I will brief- 
ly define these principles. 

No. 1 ifl simply a straight line, shaded or 
unshaded. No. 2 is a right curve. No. 3 a 
loft curve. No. 4 combines n right and lelft 
curve to form the loop. Principle No. 5 ia a 
direct oval, whose length is twice its width. 
No. (i is an inverted egg shaped oval. No. 7 
ooDsistH of an unsbaded left and shaded right 
curve of equal length and degree of curvature, 
Forming a compound curve variously called, 
capital stem, maatcr stroke, chiographic 
curve, line of beauty, Ac., to which is added 
a left curve whiuh intersects the other two 
curves at the point of their union, forming an 
oval. The stem shmting on an angle of fifty-two 
degrees, and the oval on an angle of fifteen 
degrees. The oval should be twice as long 
AS it is broad, so if divided into sections it 
would have four spaces in length and two in 

The correct angle of slope will he beet iU 
lustrftted, thus: 

make this principle af- 
;'s practice. Itoliert and 
found to be mailing them 

While James and olhei 

Other membei-ti of thu elass are also making 
equally couBpiouous faults. We now make 
upou the black-board strokes representing 
tbo most prominent fanlta of the claKs and 
illustrate.* Robert has made the left curve to 
long and the right curve to short and not on 
same degree of eurvnture, whila the second 
left curve defines more nearly a circle than an 
oval, and intersects the downward stroke be- 
low the center, and would be corrected, as in- 
dicAted by the dotted Hues. 

After sufficient attention has been given to 
the analysis and practice of the capital Ktem. 
wo add to it a line to make the 

which wo practice briefly, and then add the 
small letters forming a short word for a copy, 
all of which ia written upon the black-board 
and aualyzed before being practiced by the 
class. Follow thia 


and 80 on through the alphiibi-t — presenting 
tlw capitals in groups most similar in their 

By thus using a short copy we are belt<r 
enabled to concentrate the entire thoughts 
and practice of the pupil upon a few points in 
writing at a time, which will be more clearly 
understood and thoroughly mastered than if 
he were to practice upon a copy embracing 
most of the alphabet and all tlie principles 
>nd chnra oter s of writing . If such a copy 

r poculikr ftiu)t«, ftnd ) 


No. 1.1. 

were fully analyzed so much would be said 
and so many points presented as to cause ut- 
ter confusion, and its entire effect would be 
lost, and the corrections of faults too numer- 
ous to be either remembered or guarded 
against in subsequent practice. 

^Vhere copy-books are used having long 
copies, they should, in the early stages of 
practice, be written down the page, by sections 
of not more than one.fourth it length, thus 
concentrating tht practice and criticism upon 
a few letters at a time. The leading faults of 
the class while practicing the copy should be 
pointed out and corrected at the black-board. 
General faults iu writing would be corrected 
by writing the copy upon the black-board in 
such a manner as to magnify the fault, and 
then show how it can be best corrected. For 
instance, the bad effect of disproportion in 
size of letters can be strikingly illustrated by 
writing the copy, thus : 

Having cure to make each letter, by Itself, 
as ncfti-ly perfect as possible, showing there- 
by that perfect letters alone cannot make 
good writing. The con'ection of this fault 
can be greatly aided by ruling a guide line 
for the top of the letters. 

At the next lesson illustrate the bad effect 
of uneven spacing, thus : 

At the foUowiuj; lesson we would present 
the special beauty of a varioty in slant iu 
writing, thus: 


Slant though quite different, wilt not be 
specially conspicuous in the contracted let- 
ters, but may be made to appear strikingly so 
by drawing extended lines through tlve parts 
of the letters, thus : 

We then illustrate all the essential q»iali- 
ties of correct writing, by writing the copy 
correctly upon a scale, thus : 

This method pursued tamestly through a 
course of even twenty lessons will not fail to 
Sfcurp to the attentive pupil, not only marked 
improvement, but will so discipline his eye, 
and idea of the correct forms and chHraeteris- 
tic8 of good writing, that he can sca«3ely fail 

of ultimately writing, with facility, 
and gi'aceful hand. 

Several of the cuts used in illustrating this 
lecture were generously fiTmisbed by Messrs. 
Ivison. Blakcman, Taylor <fe Co., Publishers 
of the Spenceriau Copy-books. 

About these Times 

we are on the qui nive for clubs, although it 
may be generally against human nature to 
submit to such missels, tvp are disposed to 
receive them, without a feeling akin to 
malice, or a tbousht of resentment. 

Geo. G. Steams is teacl ng Ir v ng an 1 
writing in the public schools at Ne\spo t Ky 
He is a skillful writei and pop lor teacher 

fritiug at Mt. Vernon, N. Y., 

J. N. Wliittlfsey. A. M., Professor of Peu- 
nmnship. Hook-keeping and Telegi-apbing at 
McKindi-ee College. Lebanon. III., is an ae 
complisbed penman and teacher. 

Capt. Tyler, the veteran teacher of writing 
in the public schools. Fort Wayne. Ind. , also 
conducts a popular writing academy in that 
city. He is one of the appreciative friends of 

A. C. Smith, Burg Hill, O., sends a verj' 
graceful specimen of flourishing and \vriting. 

W. E. Dennis, Wright's Business College, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., sends most exquisite card 

S. C Malone, Bridgeport. W. Va.. sends a 
very skillful specimen of flourishing and 
some good specimens of card writing. 

S. R. Webster. Gregorj-'s Business College, 
Newark. N. J., sends a gem of flourishinK and 
a superbly written letter. He is among the 

The New England Card Company. Woon- 
socket, K. I., sends a specimen sheet of very 
handsome designs for New Year cards. 

P. B. Hardin. Corjdon, Ind., encloses in 
an excellently written letter, some superior 
specimens of off-haud and muscular writing. 

A. N. Palmer is teaching writing at Pinker- 
ton Academy. Deny, N. H. Several fine 
specimens from his pen have been recently 

Charles E. Williams, a pupil in Peirce's 
Normal Writing Institute, Keokuk, Iowa. 
sends a letter and card specimens which are 
very creditable. 

F. M. Hioson, Hapjiy Home, N. C, is an 
enthusiastic and proniie>nig young penman; he 
sends specimens of flourishing and Vi-riting 
which are very creditable. 

J. W. Pierson, teacher of writing in the 
public schools at Mecca, O.. sends an elegant 
specimen of flourishing and some very fine 
specimens of copy writing. 

J. C. Miller of leksburg, Pa,, sends a 
imiquo and skillfidly executed specimen of 
flourishing. He promises to send something 
elegant for the Journai. soon. 

E- L. Burnett, La Crosse, Wis., sends a 
fine collection of writing and off-hand flourish- 
ing, also specimens of writing from several of 
bis pupils which are very creditable. 

Louis N. King, aged twelve, and Henty 
Kei-ste. aged thirteen years, pupils of M. E. 
Bennett, Schenectedy, N. Y., send specimens 
of flourishing very creditable for lads of their 

R. J. Magee, Toledo (O.) Business College, 
sends an elaborate and skillfully executed 
specimen of floiuishing. Like most others, 
it was not properly executed for reproduction, 
hence we cannot present it to the readers of 


Several fine specimens of flourishing and 
card wilting have been received from L. Mad- 
arasz, Rochester, N. Y.. acknowledgement 
of wliiob should have appeared in the last 
isMii' i.f lid' -InrTHNAL, but owing to being 
iiiiviil^H-, ,], iiiil- il lo do BO. Mr. M. certainly 
iL -. ivi-~ ii-mli |iraifie for his very fine, grace- 
ful iiiirl r(i|'kll,\ t'xecuted penmanship. 

Jftckfiou Cagle. of Moore's Business College, 
Atlanta, Ga.. forwards a very beautiful speci- 
men of flourishing and writing, designed for 
publication in the Jorrnal, as announced in 
the last issue, but owing to the extreme deli- 
cacy of his work it could not be reproduced, 
so he is to try it over again, so as to bare it 
ready for the January number. We trust 

i will be 1 

1 faibi 


E. A. a., Elgin, 111. The salary paid to 
teacher« of penmanship varies greatly, from 
.'j;.''.liO to $2,000 per annum. 

P. M. H . Iluppy Ib.tM. . N. C. We cannot 
send tlrr \Vi!tM!.i -. ■|M,iri,,ii as apremmm; 
we hav. ; .( ■ . ■ ii|i]ily, and do not 

A. 0. T I M, '. mil ( . , you write a very 
easy and t^nir.'fiii Imint, tlioughyour writing 
lacks uniformity in size and spacing, while 
your capitals and loops are too long for the 
balance of your writing. 

O. C. W., San Francisco, Cal. Back num- 
bers of the JouRNAi, can be sent, from and 
including September, 1877, at regidar sub- 
Hcription rates. Sixteen consecutive back 
numbers will be sent for $1. 

G. C. S., St. Louis. Mo. Why have I not 
received the Joubnai, for the last two months? 
Has it suspended ? Your subscription ex- 
pired with the September number. In ac. 
coidance with our uniform, and frequently 
finuounced. rule, the Jofrnai. was discon- 
tinued at the expiration of your subscription. 
The JocBSAi* has been mailed promptly to all 
subscribers. Subscribers who have not re- 
ceived it, are requested to give prompt notice 

W. W., San Queutin. Cal., your writing is 
good in almost every respect, less shade would 
enable you to execute it with greater ease and 
rapidity. The *' school-boy apptarance" of 
which you complain, will be remed:ed only by 
long practice. The combined movement is 
the best for practical writing. Becker's Or- 
namental Penmanship consist* almost wholly 
of alphabets and lettering, and would be of 
little value to you as compared with the W. & 
P, Guide. If your abihty to teach equals the 
excellence of your writing, you should have 
no fears regarding your success as a teacher. 


JamfrM N. MitcliL-ll has reci'iitlv oi>eiic(I a 
BuBioess CoUc-gc at Kpriugfiild, 111". 

77.« Bvtinttt World, immcd by Plott K. 
8pencor, Principal of the Cleveland (O.) 
BiiHiDeiu^ College, is all aitmctive and sensible 

The Burlington (lowaj Hawkfye, of Nov. 
-' ;, contains a verj- couiplimentjirj- notice of 
tti. Iturlington Business College, of which W. 
!■- Allen has recently become proprietor. 

The Catalogue for 1H7H-;), of Eaton & Bur- 
nctt'g Business College, IStiltiuiorc. Md.. has 
been received; it is got ujj in souj taalo. Tho 
college is enjoying a good degree of pros- 
Mr. FoLjoin. of the Albany BusineaaColletv, 
has recently taken as partner in his college' 
.Mr. V. E. (;urhart, formerly for two years ii 
'I "I III- institution, and since a practical 
"I ni which capacity he achieved 
H. Still later he established a 
(■ ptrtujent in a literary school, 

' 'I"'- s.rullvfc.rlwoycars. 

^'' '''■"■ ' ' ^ .■ Mr 111 ..f iiliility and 

■ ' ' i ■ H., ., iln uill be the 

Ihiit of .Mr, Folsours nlwiiys hai been and 
stdl will be the scieutiBc side, which, as is 
well known, he has carried to a high degree 
of perfection Tin Atliuny Cnjli-fie is meet- 
ing with well iii. i, il, ,i |i:,', |. HIV. Mr. Pol. 

som has long III i.i ,.i. i n'sl worker 

in the cause of |.i , ■ ,i , i , „„(] ,„, 

cerlamly wish lnm ,iii,i,, .iiei-essing 

Writing in the Public Schools of 
Newark, N. J. ' 

liditiw I'tnmiuCt Art ,l,mriud : 

DiiAB Sin -I nm often appealed to. to 
know how better results in penmanship can 
be attained in public schools. 

In the October number of the Jotinsii you 
gave nn abstract of a paper read by me before 
the Penman's Convention, in which I enum- 
erated the obstacles in the way of gi-enter 
Buooesa in teaching primary school children 

I am and have been on the olen for any 
suggestions looking to better results in teach- 
ing this branch. 

Within the circle of my acquaintance with 
methods pursued in the graded schools of our 
cities and viUages, none have so fully met my 
views and pointed so directly to satisfactory 
results m that iu operation in the schools of 
Newark, N. J., a slsetcb of which I enclose, 
prepaid, at my request, by Prof. Torry, one 
of Newark's most prompt, energetic and suc- 
cessful prineipols, and through the J"iinN.ii, 
I present it to those whom it should most 

1 !' plan under the watchful eye and zeal- 
" '• u'luyot Superintendent Barriuger, is a 

'' K'"''fyiug success, and bound to be 

iiii'l'i' il in other cities when its merits become 
l.iii «". end I think that the time will soon 
.1.1111 » l,„n we shall have no more indifferent 
metl.ods taught by indifferent teachers in an 
.ndiirerent way. 'n'ben such slovenly teach, 
ingwill be looked ujion as a relic of the past 
loo deeply buried to be resuiTected by any 
teacher, who, in the words of liip Van 
Winkle, eipocts to "live long and prosper." 
The plan as set forth by Prof. Torry is o 
imiei,' counterpart to the very valuable article 
"I 'Il il'lober number of the JocBjiji. headed 
Hint, on Teaching Writing." 

• .1/r. ilM 

Ueau Sih According to promise, 1 give 
brieHy below our plan of examining writing 
I" lie public schools of Newark, N. .1. Our 
iir and Primary Departments are each 
"lo four grades in all their studies. 
' Urammar grades and one Primary 
1,1 ...I. » 1 lie in copy books with pen and ink. 
We ainingo at the beginniug of each year, 
the work for each grade for each of the three 
erms in the year. Near the end of each 
Urm, he chisses are all examined, writing 
upon blank paper prepared for tlii« purpose 
by a committee of «ve (one for each grade) 
who also pr,-pare the copies which are not 
seen by the pupils until the hour designated 
for the eiomination to lake pfce. u the 
copy com.i»b of one line the pnpUs „rit« it 

from five to seven times as directed and then 
upon the bnck, write their nftme, date and 
name of their school. (The copy written des- 
ignateH the grade). Each pupil has but one 
paper and about thirty niiuotes to write the 
specinn?u. The copy ia written ou the board 
or dictated to the pupil according to his age 
or ability. The first grade, at least, should 
write from dictatiou or print. 

Every pupil present on the day of examina- 
tion is rec[uired to write a paper, and as soon 
as possible thereafter, the principal of each 
school Heuds or takes to the said committee 
of five, all such specimens, asserting over his 
own signature that all directions have been 
closely followed (also, whole number on reg- 
ister, number present, and that all wrote). 
Each one of the committee then takes all the 
Hpecimeus of a grade, and associating five 
other teachers with him commences the ex- 
amination of the papers. The papers from 
the different schools are first all mixed tho- 
Mughly and then taken by the first of this 
team of six and examined in reference to one 
point only, and then passed to the second, 
who examines it iu reference to another point, 
and so ou to the fifth, each marking according 
his judgment, twenty credits for each of 
the five points being the maximum. The 
sixth sums up the per cent of each paper, and 
then gets the average per cent of each school 
by itself. 

The five point** which we have had refer- 
ence to are. Alignment, (proportion) Slope, 
Form, Spacing and Finish. (The five S's 
form a very good substitute for the above ; 
Size, Slopf, Shape, Spacing and Shading.) 
The papers are then returned to the priuci- 
lials of the schools, together with a copy of 
the percentage of all the grades in the city, 
thus permitting them to compare their own 
with all other schools, and give honor where 
it belongs. (A like copy is also deposited 
with the Superintendent, and on a blank pre- 
pared for the purpose so that the percentage 
of every grade in every school can be seen at 
ft glanco. We examined 4.r>00 papers each 
term. Some may object to this plan oi 
count of the labor attending it, but if any 
can tell me how I can have success iu teaching 
anything that is iippor'ant to know without 
hard hibor, he will confer a favor upon one 
who has been teaching more than twenty-five 
years and has not yet discovered such a way. 
We have pursued this plan for two or three 
years and the writing has steadily and rapidly 

can appreciate the force of Prof. Tor- 

remarks in regard to hard labor, had 

I presented this plan as a theory, tlie appar- 

Ittbor would have prevented a trial. I am 

happy to present a successful success. 

The committee of five. I understand to be 
usually five principals, and as each examines 
only one grade, no chance foi- favoritism 
result. I presume the five associated with 
these five principals may be five teachers 
lected from their own schools. 

Any city, not employing special teachers 
of ™ting, or union school having a better 
plan than the one mentioned above I should 
be most happy to hear from, and at a future 
date present the same to the readers of the 
G. H. S. 

features and sometimes with blunt features, 
but always with genuine benevolence. 

If you are full of affectation and pretence, 
your voice proclaims it. 

If you are full of honest strength and pur- 
pose, your voice proclaims it. 

If you are cold and ctdm and firm and per- 
sistent, or fickle and foohsh and deceptive, 
your voice will be efjually truth-telling. 

You cannot change your voice from a nat- 
ural to an unnatural tone without its being 
known thai you are so Aomg.— Boston Tran- 

Plt-asant Paragraphs Pertaining to 

A feline and disagreeable letter— Cat R. 
How to acquire shorthand— Fool around a 

Lost at sea -The boy that didn t know bis 
alphabet past B. 

Bejamiu Franklin said that he owed his 
:st success in life to his good handwritiug. 
Napoleon Bonaparte rewarded his writing 
teacher bj giving him a pension for life. 
Queen Elizabeth wrote a goud, plain hand, 
id was an admirer of good penmanship. 
What kind of tracing-paper does a man use 
when retracing his steps? 

"That boy will make his mark in the world 
some day,*'said a parent of his dullest child. 
So he did — he never learned to write. 

Why is the letter q (he handiest in the al- 
phabet ? Because when it is in use you al- 
ways find it before u. 
Bryant wrote in his old age a hand as neat 
i that of a writing master. It was small but 
was clear, and the flourish was that of a 
an who was alive. 

The good people of WiUiamstowu, Vt., 
ere appalled, the other day, by the follow- 
ing dreadful writiug on the wall: "I am 
■eDYTo ceATEyouIUHairSE. 

"What do I think," replied the young 
hopeful, eyeing the chirography in a critical 
manner, "Why, I think the president writ'^'; 
a good hand for so old a man." 

txTBAVAOANOE PuNisHED. -A lawyer wisl 
mg to rid himself of an obnoxiouiT clerk, di 
charged him on account of his waste of tin 
and ink, occasioned by crossin" his t's an 
dotting his i's. 

TiB Btriiuge that 
_ Who Buide the 

,pnt*l peiunaiiship. We hrartUy c 

aleai.— National Joumal"or'£ia^\ 

'"*?* ^y*"" *!**'«'■ .P"*l 

y.~Prof. i 

tbrough which j-ou esliibit 
igh kuunledge of 

coD8ia«r your Coupkn'didm a vaiuable coDtrqi 
u to the l|.t of peumanHhip piibllc.tion. ; Aq 
' the Jiv *|*'"'"^ °'" ""^ *■?« «uthor-8 talPDt. 

6 old ( 

raphio effecta a 

aiuch KB he i» Uke\j v 

■to any work of the kind yet 

1^ afford to be without lU—Prq/. 




H. ff(»™,.-,.° 

I eius 





est publications 

e,— n< 





It greatly 


I am 



it. It la the 



Sandy. T 

^•oy. N^r. 

«ve .v.r .een.- 






■t elaborate and 





or^the uae 


at practical lae 

6 fully tbaa any 
Pri-f. Tkos. B. 




ality— P 

Uiuly the 

of C. r-" 






Who Buide the plough elioald f 

But a Star poet sings ; 

The pencil made by Dixon 

What Voices Indicate. 

There are Ught, iiuiek surface voices that 
.voluntarily seem to utter the saying, "I 
on't do to tie to." The man's words may 
isure you of his strength of purpose and re- 
liability, yet his tone contradicts his speech 
Then there are low. deep, stiong voices, 
where the words seem ground out as if the 
man owed humanity a grudge and meant to 
jiay it some day. That man's opponent may 
tr..mble and his friends may trust his strength 
ot purpose and ability to act. 

There is the coarse, boisterous, dictatorial 
tone mvnnably adopted by vijgar persons, 
who have not sufflcient cuWvntion founder 
stand their own insiguiScanee. 

There is the incredulous tone, that is full 
o a covert sneer, or a secret "you cnn't dupe 
uie, su-, uituuation. 

Then there, is a whining, beseeching voice 
that says ■• sycophant" as plainly aTif i, „. 
tered the word. It cajoles and flntUrs vo„ ' 
■i words say. "I love you; I julmir, ', 
'U ate everything that you shoul.l 1„ 
Then there is the tender, musical coie i I 
.nate voice that sometimes goes mth Zi^ 

" What do you think of that," cried an ex- 
cited parent to his son as he held before his 
eyes a letter from the president of a college 
that his son was attending, announcing his 
suspension for wild behavior. 

A LouisvUle journalist suggests that as the 
ost of the writing in newspaper offices is 
done with a lead-pencil, that the remark made 
many years ago, and so ofteu <,uoted, that 
■The pen is mightier than the sword," 
should be altered so as to read : 

Ames' Compendium 

of Practical and Ornameiiliil Peuman 
ship is de.M,ned e.,peoially !ni tile use ol 
piofessional penmen and artisls. II gives 
an uiinsual number nf nipbai.ets, a well 
graded series of practical exercises and 
specimens for off-hand flourishing and a 
great of specimen sheetL ot e„- 
groiscd htle pages, resolutions, certili- 
cules, mennirial., ie. It is lb,. „,'„,,. „„„. 

^u-k'!n'i;i\i!::''' ':;:'':'; '";l p^''^ 

ever publish, , I ^ ,1 ,, .,,,,.1. 'to my 

for a pre 

^euteen .tiedals and Djpio 

f^iule uad Inlermuienai Exbtbiiions. ' 


Ornamental and Artistic 

m Practical, Anlatic and Oroaiii 
manship. Every department of Peuma 
moat thoronghly taught. 

ahlp V 

subscribers to 

miuni for a .iui 
the Journal. 
The followiug are a few of the many 

havu certainly taken ft lou- step in advance r,f 

.llOHtmctiou iB De«igm„« aad ExecuUng ConT- 
ea aud ArtiBUc Peu-work, we ahaU offer BUperior 
itugea. and csp^tially bo to thoae who wiah to 
re tho power to «ucce«fuJly execute work for 
a by the I'ho to- Engraving or Photo-Litho- 

XITANTED.-Sitaatiou Id » BubIocss 

Addreatj for rt-tf^run^^ .^.i „ 'V"'"^'' 
PsnmanV Abt JodbnI, 8PCc-1meUB, "x 


F L S O 31 ■ S 

Business College. 

E«c»llei>t fKlliUe* tm mf^iilrlnB a Prncllcal « 
KeleDtlflo BmIdw* Edocatloo 


FOLSOM & CARHART, Proprietors. 



IJ V H . 1' . S 31 I T H » 

In«truclor of DrnwiDR la the New York City Public 

ThD PRIMARY 8E1UE8 codbIsU of 
CABD8, contalntng twdDty-four platen, on 
■nd forly-oiie oxaioplti, progreBdlvely grat 
uie of Primary Classes, oud designed for; 
ft slntc papoolnlly prepnrod for ihc piirpoet 

The OIliMMAR 8ERIE8 conMsIs of S 
cu-ofnily graded for Commtui SchooU. 

watcbi'd Iho use and renulla of ttie Htudy i 
By«tatnR of Indnstrlal Drawing, have endeavored to 
avoid the faults that the 




Accounts, with Arittmetical Problems. 


U.od Id j»U Oxe Bti.ine*. CoUeg« in lb. country, 
anil unaurpsesed u • text-book. Spectmeii copies 
..ol OD of M ccul.. 

S. S. PACKARD. Publisher, 



■■'■s-"> >/4;if fnni tilt .—:r ■'','" 

Every Variety of Pen Work Promptly Executed in the Most Perfect Manne 
Also, Connsel given as Expert on Hand-Writing and Accounts. 


Handbills, Ciroulurs or Cataloguce ipsued by 

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